Information about Fibre spectrum sharing_for_rd_networks

prezentatCEF Networks Workshop

2 Outline 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Why share capacity/spectrum –Single fibre bidirectional lines –Photonic Services – T&F Infrastructure •Capacity of fibres –Free spectrum (L band, S band) •Deployed links •Single path amplified lines –Discrete amplification –Lines without inline equipment •Conclusions, Q&A

3 Spectrum sharing - Single fibre lines 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Since 2001, in CESNET network •Single fibre lines 1 360 km of 6100 km - 22% View slide

4 Spectrum sharing - Single fibre lines 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks + Fibre rental savings average 40% from 0.5 EUR/meter/year *, 1360 km ~ 272 kEUR/year - Half capacity (4.4 Tbps @ 100G) *Sima S. et al., Deliverable D3.2v3-Economic analysis, dark fibre usage cost model and model of operations, Porta Optica project, Online: http://www.porta-optica.org/publications/POS- D3.2_Economical_analysis.pdf View slide

5 Spectrum sharing - Single fibre lines 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks + Provide the same services (e.g. SDN) as fibre pairs •ROADMs since 2011 •Transmission of 100G •Flex-grid ROADMs can be deployed when useful

6 Spectrum sharing – Photonic services 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Support real time applications •Applications requiring low and stable latency •Other timing sensitive applications (e.g. time, frequency transmissions)

7 T&F Infrastructure under development 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Improve stability of UTC(TP) – add Cs clocks and H masers •Compare UTC approximation with neighbouring countries •Distribute precise time and frequency •Share fibre with data, length approx. 1400 km

8 Capacity of Fibers 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Legacy 10G – 88 ch – 0.88 Tbps •Present 100G – 88 ch – 8.8 Tbps •Emerging – 58 ch á 400Gbit/s – 23.2 Tbps * •L band – additional 60nm –100G 15 Tbps –400G 40 Tbps •Low loss window in SMF – 400nm 0.27 Pbps •* 400Gbit/s, 75GHz, DP-16QAM

9 Capacity of Fibers 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •For long haul we are mainly missing high gain, low noise and reliable amplifiers •L band – EDFA - OK •S band – ?

10 L band 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •L band - 60 nm vs C band - 35 nm •294 km in operation, 235 km under upgrade

11 S band 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Suitable rare earth Thulium, but poor efficiency in silica, due to high non-radiative decays •TDFAs based on fluoride fibres commercially available –1460-1500 nm 19dB gain and 19dBm output –Can’t be spliced with silica fibres, hydroscopic •Double pumped TDFA in silica with dopants – not commercially available Er+ Tm+

12 S band cont. 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Raman amplification – pump at 1390 nm suffers from higher attenuation than for C band •Modified EDFA –Can handle region about 1510-1530nm, 20dB gain, commercially available, NF higher that TDFA •SOA – work well, at least for two T&F channels

13 UFE Prague – BEV Vienna 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Comparison of UTCs, 550 km (342 mi) 137 dB •Pair of unidirectional lambdas in DWDM systems •Dark fiber in urban last miles •In operation since 2011

14 CESNET Prague – VUGKT Pecny 8th CEF networks workshop Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Passive channel within bidirectional DWDM system •In operation since 2013 •78km (48 mi) 22dB Praha, September 16, 2014

15 Time transfer stability 8th CEF networks workshop Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •UFE Prague – BEV Vienna, pair of unidirectional lambdas •CESNET Prague – VUGKT Pecny, bidirectional dark channel •Roughly 3 x smaller white phase noise UFE Prague – BEV Vienna CESNET Prague – VUGKT Pecny Praha, September 16, 2014

16 Extension to UFE Prague – VUGKT Pecny 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Extension via dark channel created within rented passive CWDM lambda •Total attenuation of 43 dB, ideally divided into 22 + 21 dB •Bidirectional single path discrete amplifier can provide gain up to approximately 20 - 22 dB

17 Bidirectional single path amplification 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •EDFA, SOA, Raman works bidirectional naturally •Why we don’t operate them bi-directionally? •Different designs to limit influence of back-reflections •Multi-path amplification acceptable for time but not for frequency transfer – decision to avoid it Figures: Sliwczynski et al, Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers

18 Discrete bidirectional single path amplification 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Single path EDFA on 2 x 100km (62 mi) 19 + 19 dB line

19 Discrete bidirectional single path amplification 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •C band SOA on 2 x 100km (62 mi) 19 + 19 dB line

20 Discrete bidirectional single path amplification 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •S band SOA on 2 x 100km (62 mi) 19 + 19 dB line

21 Distributed bidirectional single path amplification 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Perfect when middle of line inaccessible •Based on stimulated Raman scattering •Lab results on 200 km 38 dB line

22 Distributed bidirectional single path amplification cont. 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Can we use it over dark channel? •Yes, when dark fibre last miles available

23 Ongoing work 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Brno – České Budějovice •Praha – Brno bidi amplified channel

24 Conclusions 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •There is available spectrum in fibres still •Special services need special treatment •Discrete single path optical amplification challenging - (reflection, equal powers), usable for spans < 20 dB •Distributed Raman amplification can help •Interesting choice are SOAs, offering all semiconductor solution able of operation also outside C and L bands. •Single path amplified passive channel in DWDM on distances of about 325km (202 mi) and 385 km (240 mi) needs to be established

25 Acknowledgement 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks Lada Altmannová, Michal Altmann, Jan Gruntorád, Ondřej Havliš, Miloslav Hůla, Martin Míchal, Jan Radil, Vladimír Smotlacha, Stanislav Šíma, Pavel Škoda Work was supported by Czech Institutional funding of research by project Large Infrastructure CESNET LM2010005 (www.ces.net)

26 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 All optical two-way time transfer in strongly heterogeneous networks Thank you for kind attention! Questions? josef.vojtech(salamander)cesnet.cz

27 2um (2000nm) band 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre Capacity Increase for New Services •Experimental TDFA operation •Bandwidth 1910-2020nm •Small signal gain 35dB •NF 5-7dB •Silica glass Li Y. et al,”Thulium-doped Fiber Amplifier for Optical Communications at 2μm”, OFC2013

28 2um (2000nm) band cont. 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Hollow core photonic bandgap fibers •Minimal latency, neff close to 1, propagation speed almost c, not 2/3c •Nonlinear coefficient 0.07% of SSMF •Losses still in order of 4.5dB/km in 2um •Theoretically losses can go down to 0.15 dB/km •1966 Charles K. Kao fiber 1000dB/km Source: NKT Photonic

29 HC PBGF losses prediction 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks Source: Richardson D.” Fiber Amplifiers for SDM Systems”, OTu3.G1, OFC2013

Praha, September 16, 2014 8th CEF networks workshop 30 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Shannon’s law C = B . log2 (1+SNR) •C/B (capacity per unit bandwidth) is limited by noise •And non-linearities too

31 Time Transfer Adapter 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks

32 OSNR 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks 200 km Raman left, 100 km + 100 km EDFA right

33 Motivation 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks Source: Schnatz H., Comparison of clocks using optical fiber links: recent results and future projects

34 Motivation 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •More interconnected clocks (Cs primary standards and H masers) improve accuracy and stability of the time scale •“Interconnection” means time transfer Chip size atomic clock Cesium fountain clock at NPL UK, height of 2.5 m Acetylene stabilized laser Optical frequency comb

35 Motivation 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Traditional satellite based methods (GPS, TWSTFT) are reaching their limits •Increased interest in optical fiber based transfer: theoretical studies, laboratory and also field implementations Source: S.Droste et al, “Optical Frequency Transfer over a single span 1840 km Fiber Link”

36 Economical aspects of T&F infrastructure 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Total fibre line length 1 400 km (870 mi) •Single fibre transfer is advantage for Time and must for Frequency transfers •Fibres rental annual cost (based on average price*) EUR 420 000 ( $560 000 ) •Share infrastructure with data *Sima S. et al., Deliverable D3.2v3-Economic analysis, dark fibre usage cost model and model of operations, Porta Optica project, Online: http://www.porta-optica.org/publications/POS- D3.2_Economical_analysis.pdf

37 Heterogeneity 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •T&F infrastructure –Pair of unidirectional channels in DWDM (same λs) –Passive channel in single fibre DWDM (different λs) –Dark fibres –Single path amplified passive channels in DWDM system (different λs)

38 Interaction of time transfer with coherent 100 Gbps transmission 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks •Field verification 2011 (vendor 1) •Neighbouring 100 GHz channels, 300 km (186 mi) of G.655 fibre •Routine operation since Feb 2013 (vendor 2) •Same line as above + spectral displacement No observable influence

39 UFE Prague – BEV Vienna 8th CEF networks workshop Praha, September 16, 2014 Fibre spectrum sharing for R&D Networks Propagation time changes Left: Seasonal October 7 2011 - March 14 2012 appr. 350ns, 1.3 ∙ 10−4 of avg. delay 2788 μs Right: Daily changes 4-7ns

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