Feudal Warfare 21 Feb 06

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Information about Feudal Warfare 21 Feb 06

Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Biaggia

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Feudal Warfare and the Renaissance and the Military Art LtCol Mitchell Spring 2006 LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  LEARNING OBJECTIVES Trace the development of the Franks and the Battle of Tours Know Charlemagne and the beginning of Feudalism Comprehend the Battle of Hastings Know the influence of religious and technological factors on the Crusades Trace the decline of mounted knights, calvary and crossbow and the emergence of the longbow, pike and gunpowder Byzantium:  Byzantium The Decline of the Empire 7th Century:  The Decline of the Empire 7th Century In the East were the Persians, eager to gain control of the trade routes Byzantines responded with limited counterforce On the Northern Frontier were the Slavs Byzatines responded with a strategy of annihilation. The Slavs were temporarily halted A long war with Persia Depopulated their most dependable recruiting grounds Islamic Invaders 7th and 8th Centuries:  Islamic Invaders 7th and 8th Centuries 11 Moslem invasions in 65 years Aftica, Syria and 1/2 of Turkey lost by 800 A.D. 717 and 718 Defense of Constantinople against a Moslem siege save Christian Europe from Moslem invasion Arab Conquests:  Arab Conquests FRANKS:  FRANKS GERMAINIC BARBARIAN TRIBES THAT MIGRATED INTO GAUL IN THE 5TH – 6TH CENTURIES INFANTRY AMONG MOST FORMIDABLE ADVESARIES OF ROMANS RELIED MORE ON HARD FIGHTING THAN TACTICS Franks :  Franks Arms Wore no body armor Used javelins, swords, daggers and the francisca (battle axe that was thrown just before contact with the enemy) Successes on the battlefield were due in large part to their size and vitality Also the degeneration of the military art among their enemies The Battle of Tours:  The Battle of Tours overview General details:  General details Considered part of the Islamic conquests Fought Oct. 10, 732 near tours, France Combatants: Frankish army under Charles martel Umayyad caliphate under abd er rahman Relative strengths: Franks: 15,000 – 75,000 Arabs: 60,000 – 400,000 Result: decisive victory for franks. Prevents Muslim conquest of western Europe beyond Iberian peninsula. Battle Details:  Battle Details Charles led a phalanx of mostly unarmored infantry Chose location and conditions and waited six days Did not want to move out into the open Counted on Arabs’ impatience to fight Charles’ infantry withstood a superior cavalry Frankish scouts sent to loot Arab camp from behind and draw away a portion of the force. Arabs retreated during the night Slide12:  Related maps Aftermath:  Aftermath The historical significance of halting Muslim expansion into western Europe cannot be overstated Tours was the first in a string of campaigns that won Iberia back for Christianity (to be formally completed by Charles’ grandson, Charlemagne) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_tours BATTLE OF TOURS:  BATTLE OF TOURS CAVALRY: MOSLEM VS FRANK USE OF INFANTRY MOSLEM/FRANK TACTICS Moslems were more offensive minded –attack! Charles formed a Phalanx Rahman charged with cavalry several times Phalanx held Eudo Flanked and hit the camp Rahman was killed and the Moslems fled Charles did not pursue RESULT: MOSLEM EXPANSION THWARTED AND EVENTUAL DYNASTY UNDER CHARLEMAGNE CHARLES THE GREAT CHARLEMAGNE:  CHARLES THE GREAT CHARLEMAGNE Grandson of Charles Martel Carolingian dynasty KING OF THE FRANKS (768-814 A.D.) CHARLEMAGNE’S CONQUESTS Ebro to the Danube Ended three centuries of chaos and built up the first adequate system of defense in the West since the fall of the Rome HE ESTABLISHED A LOGISITICAL ORGANIZATON Based on supply trains vice foraging and plunder Stopped the local unrest of people being plundered Kept his forces together not dispersed, foraging Precluded supply shortages in the army in the field CHARLES THE GREAT: CHARLEMAGNE:  CHARLES THE GREAT: CHARLEMAGNE Church trying to limit warfare Peace of God “Pax Dei” Protect buildings, clerics, pilgrams, women and peasants from the ravages of war Religious sanctions, excommunication and interdict They branded the aggressor the culprit Men of wealth could afford armor War was placed on an aristocratic footing Missile warfare was restricted Casualties were reduced Battles were sharp weapons tournaments were ransom was the prize Forbade the use of the crossbow CHARLES THE GREAT: CHARLEMAGNE:  CHARLES THE GREAT: CHARLEMAGNE A new epoch in the art of war; Romantic Age of Chivalry Christian Knight of chivalry For his spread of the Christian faith, two forces were needed: Spiritual – already existed Secular – came about by accident Pope Leo III proclaimed him “The Consecrated Lord of Christendom Central event of the Middle Ages CHARLES THE GREAT:  CHARLES THE GREAT Army Well equipped with sword, spear and bow Each Count was compelled to provide his horsemen with shield, lance, sword, dagger and bow THE ORIGINS AND RISE OF FEUDALISM:  THE ORIGINS AND RISE OF FEUDALISM CHARLEMAGNE REFORMED THE INFANTRY LEVY CHARLEMAGNE’S DEATH Empire disintegrated FEUDALISM:  FEUDALISM Vassalage- a system where land is offered in return for protection or service. Charlemagne required newly conquered lands to provide soldiers to his army dependent on the size of the area of the townships. Similar to electoral votes, soldiers instead of senators. VIKING RAIDS:  VIKING RAIDS 799 A.D. Vikings From the sea Looting not occupation Hard to catch Forced the use of cavalry (Knights) in Europe England built a fleet and defeated them at sea Infantry was still main arm of the army Used terrain very well Vikings usually prevailed Finally given Normandy and stopped raids FORTIFICATION, MAILED CAVALRY BETTER SOLDIERS Magyar Raids:  Magyar Raids Light Cavalry from the steppes Plunder, not conquer Speed to avoid battle Small bands Defense in depth was adapted Reduced the yield Major defeat by Otto I in 955 ended the raids and indirectly. Otto was crowned by Pope John XII, beginning the Holy Roman Empire Defeating the Raiders:  Defeating the Raiders Much like Fabius in Italy against Hannibal Be patient Make it less worth for them Pick your battles Defense and fortifications Feudalism 800-1200:  Feudalism 800-1200 Political system of the middle ages In England William couldn’t keep people from rebelling, couldn’t defend all of the land Fifes given out for “services and loyalty” to nobles, nobles give out to lesser nobles, lesser nobles give right to work land to serfs Brought control and stability in an age when central government was weak. Feudalism 800-1200 (1500):  Feudalism 800-1200 (1500) Castling arose Defeated by cannon Went Knighthood:  Knighthood Mercy towards the poor and oppressed. Humility Honor Sacrifice Fear of God Faithfulness Courage Utmost graciousness and courtesy to ladies A War of Religions:  A War of Religions General Information:  General Information Crusades - were a series of several military campaigns usually sanctioned by the papacy that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries. Originally, they were Roman Catholic Holy Wars to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy land from the Muslims Some were directed against other Europeans, such as the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France and the Northern Crusades. Time Period:  Time Period 1st Crusade - 1096 2nd Crusade – 1146 to 1149 3rd Crusade – 1189 to 1192 4th Crusade - 1202 Albigensian Crusade - 1209 Childrens Crusade - 1212 5th Crusade - 1215 6th Crusade - 1228 7th Crusade - 1243 8th Crusade - 1270 9th Crusade - 1271 Background:  Background Pope Gregory VII propagated these ideas Restoration of the Eastern Church to Roman obedience Acknowledgement of the kings of Christendom as liege servants to the church Crusade against Islam Supply by sea, defense by castles Two religions stood face to face Background:  Background Rise of Christianity Church becomes most powerful Feudalism - refers to a general set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility of Europe during the Middle Ages, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs. - Brought a semblance of stability and avoided anarchy - 1st time since the decay of Rome that Europe is powerful enough to take the offensive against the Muslim east Fall of Byzantine Empire - Battle of Manzikert, 1071 Background:  Background Rise of Christianity Church becomes most powerful Feudalism - refers to a general set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility of Europe during the Middle Ages, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs. - Brought a semblance of stability and avoided anarchy - knights Fall of Byzantine Empire - Battle of Manzikert, 1071 Background:  Background The Reconquista in Spain, which occupied Spanish knights and some mercenaries from elsewhere in Europe in the fight against the Islamic Moors. The Normans were fighting for control of Sicily. Pisa, Genoa and Aragon fighting Islamic strongholds in Mallorca and Sardinia Muslims regain holy land of Palestine in the 7th century Fatimid caliph of Cairo, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem destroyed in 1009. - many stories began circulating in the West about the cruelty of Muslims toward Christian pilgrims, which helped rally the crusaders later in the century The 1st Crusade:  The 1st Crusade Byzantine emperor Alexius I called for help with defending his empire against the Seljuk Turks, in 1095 Pope Urban II called upon all Christians to join a war against the Turks - a war which would count as full penance. Crusader armies marched to Jerusalem, sacking several cities on their way. Nicaea in May 1097 In 1099, they took Jerusalem and massacred the population. As a result of the First Crusade, several small Crusader states were created, notably the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The 1st Crusade:  The 1st Crusade The 2nd Crusade:  The 2nd Crusade Second Crusade – St Bernard of Clairvaux preached it and Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France executed it. - fall of the County of Edessa - first of the crusades to be led by European kings United with Baldwin III and lay siege to Damascus (failed in 1148) – leads to third crusade Second Crusade was a failure Ignorance of strategy and siegecraft Jealousies and quarellings Four topographic regions in Syria and Palestine Three lines of communications Franks failed to control the most important The Crusades:  The Crusades 1100’s great infighting in the Moslem world Saladin wanted to reunited Islam First step 1171 he abolished the Fatimid caliphate and brought Egypt under the caliph of Baghdad Franks were concerned that they would lose everything and rightfully so Sept 17 1176 beginning of the end to the Franks in Islam. Byzantines were defeated by the Syrians near Myriocephalum 1183 Saladin was at the height of his power The Crusades:  The Crusades Reynald of Chatillon raided Mecca and Medina Muslem world was consolidated against the Franks 1186 Saladin proclaimed a Fihad Culiminated in the Battle of Hattin in 1187 “ON the Horn of Hattin the greatest army that the kingdom had ever assembled was annihilated. The Holy Cross was lost. And the victor was the lord of the whole Moslem world” Crusades never recovered The 3rd Crusade:  The 3rd Crusade Jerusalem recaptured by Saladin (Sultan of Egypt) in 1187. Third Crusade - was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. Called by Pope Gregory VIII and led by Europe's most important leaders: - Philip II of France (left after capturing Acre) - Richard I of England - Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (Drowned,creating instability between English and French) Inability of the Crusaders to thrive in the locale due to inadequate food and water resulted in an empty victory Richard left the following year after establishing a truce with Saladin (captured and held for kings ransom by Austrians The 3rd Crusade:  The 3rd Crusade Crusaders never conquered the land Only occupied parts of it Crusaders armor was superior The rise of Saladin Great Character of the middle ages Fanatically anti-Christian Cautious Strategest rather than a tactician Careful of his men, generous and kindly Incredible administrator Possessed great chivalry The Crusades:  The Crusades The third Crusade was a disaster 1189-1192 Richard the Lionhearted 4th Crusade turned on itself and conquered Constantinople Crusaders for the next century united Europe France and England became powers Spain and Portugal rose 7 Crusades in all Military Advantages:  Military Advantages IN EUROPE THE ARMORED RIDER WAS SUPREME THE BAPTISM OF THE SLAVS AND MAGYARS HAD OPENED UP A LAND ROUTE TO JERUSALEM SEA POWER FAVORED THE CRUSADERS A POTENTIAL ALLY IN EAST ROMAN EMPIRE CONSTANTINOPLE PROVIDED A BASE BOTH FOR LAND AND WATER OPS Historical Costs:  Historical Costs By the 14th century the old concept of Christendom was fragmented Development of centralized bureaucracies (the foundation of the modern nation-state) -Decline of Feudalism European castles became massive stone structures, as they were in the east, rather than smaller wooden buildings as they had typically been in the past. Lessons Learned:  Lessons Learned Chief lesson was the advantage of a combined arms Realized need for infantry support - Bowmen used to counter Saracen missiles - Offer shelter for cavalry to after a charge Building of new castles similar to ones built in the east Battle of Crecy, 26 August 1346:  Battle of Crecy, 26 August 1346 French forces numbered approximately 36,000. English forces numbered approximately 12,000 of which 7,000 were archers. The battle line was approximately 2,000 yards wide The English army, occupying the top of a gentle ridge near the town, consisted of three groups of men-at-arms and spearmen, with archers placed on their sides. The archers formed ranks resembling an outward V. Charles VIII and the end feudal war:  Charles VIII and the end feudal war King of France (1483–98 ) Decided to conquer Naples (1495) More of parade Cautious tactics commical Italian states and HRE leagued against him Battle of Fornovo After the battle Italian Marquis came to ransom friends and relatives shocked they were all dead Modern artillery vs. Infantry Nation state vs. limited interest city states SWISS INFANTRY:  SWISS INFANTRY THE PHALANX THEY USED LONG PIKES (18-21 FT) USED THE HALBERD HIGHLY TRAINED AND DISCIPLINED SOUGHT AFTER AS MERCENARIES 16th Century Weapons:  16th Century Weapons Naval Weapons Ship of the line under Henry VIII Increased length to beam to improve maneuverability and handling Portholes allowed heavy guns to be maintained below the center of gravity of the ship Ships built for combat Harness gun recoil to permit quick reloading Broadside technique Permanent Fighting Instructions Formalized tactics 16th Century Weapons:  16th Century Weapons Naval Weapons Ship smashing Guns Breach loaded Muzzle loaded Cannon – heavy iron (50 lbs) at medium range Culverin – light iron (17 lbs) at long range Demi-cannon –32 lb shot Demi-culverin 9lb shot Saker – 5 lb shot Minion – 4 lb shot The impact of Gunpowder and Firearms:  The impact of Gunpowder and Firearms THE DISCOVERER OF GUNPOWDER IS UNKNOWN 14TH CENTURY THE EARLIEST FIREARMS WERE INNACURATE, SHORT OF RANGE, SLOW TO FIRE, HEAVY, AWKWARD, AND DANGEROUS THE COST Gun Powder and Firearms:  Gun Powder and Firearms Gunpowder first appeared written about before 1249 First written documentation was in 1304 “pot-de-fer” dart-throwing vase Siege of Metz in 1324 Edward III in Scotland in 1327 1339 firearm called the “ribauldequin”: Primitive iron tubes fired simultaneously (12) Edward III against France Firearms developed rapidly in the 14th century Cannons were used at Calais by Edward III Gun Powder and Firearms:  Gun Powder and Firearms 1391 iron shot introduced 25 inch bombards were used Hand-guns in 1364 Small cannon on small stock fired by a single man 10 lbs and was fired by applying a match to a touch-hole Lead bullets Gun Powder and Firearms:  Gun Powder and Firearms Match-lock Cock that held the match and a trigger that would bring it down to a pan with a primer German invention – hakenbusche Spanish – arquebus England – cavilar First infantry firearm Gun Powder and Firearms:  Gun Powder and Firearms Valor gave way to mechanical art Social class did not matter if you had the superior weapon All men are now alike on the battle field Gave life to the Renaissance Shattered medieval order physically and morally War was a means to a political end Power was the deciding factor Foot soldier was the strong arm of the military again War can be won by industry than actual clash of arms 16th Century Weapons:  16th Century Weapons Spanish introduced the musket with a range of 300 yards Heavier Complex operation 2-3 shots per minute Accepted because it was More accurate Great range Knock down power Arquebus was still used by skirmishers 16th Century Weapons:  16th Century Weapons To date firearms required two hands Match plus weapon Cavalry at a disadvantage Wheellock 1515 allowed the cavalry to use one hand Cavalry carried three weapons Two in holsters and one in the right boot Fire all three, drop the last and draw sword or retire to reload (needed both hands) 16th Century Weapons:  16th Century Weapons Wheellock for muskets and arquebuses was having mechanical problems Spring weakened after time Rough handling ruined the wheel Matchlock remained the prevailing weapon for another century THE CAVALRYMAN’S EFFORT TO DEFEND:  THE CAVALRYMAN’S EFFORT TO DEFEND CHAIN MAIL WAS REPLACED BY PLATE ARMOR THE WEIGHT OF A KNIGHT’S ARMOR INCREASED THE ARMOR PROTECTION OF HORSES INCREASED BY THE END OF THE 14TH CENTURY MOBILITY

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