Published on October 29, 2007
A TIGRE on the Moon Timing Italian Gamma Ray Experiment: A TIGRE on the Moon Timing Italian Gamma Ray Experiment E. Costa, Y. Evangelista, M. Feroci, M. Rapisarda(*), P. Soffitta INAF – IASF Rome (*) ENEA Frascati P. Battaglia, L. Pagan ALCATEL ALENIA SPACE - ITALIA, Vimodrone The Lunar Scenario: The Lunar Scenario The Moon offers a wide and stable surface Large Area & Long Duration Experiments The Moon rotates Wide Field and Transit Experiments Transportation to the Moon will limit size and weight Modular approach for multiple deliveries The Science Scenario: Mid- and Near-future observational advancements in X-ray Astronomy are expected in the field of: High resolution spectroscopy (e.g., Con-X, XEUS) Hard X-rays (e.g., Simbol-X, NEXT) Not much is expected for Timing, where significant improvements require passing from the current (RXTE PCA) 0.5 m2 to collecting areas in the range of 50-100 m2. The Science Scenario Why a 100 m2-class Experiment?: To observe individual cycles of QPO emission and directly study the accretion of matter onto the blak hole from the innermorst stable orbit of the accretion disk, where the strong field gravity operates and the motion of matter is directly related to fundamental parameters of the system. (see also ASI-INAF 2004 study on perspectives for High Energy Astrophysics) Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Galactic X-ray Binaries Why a 100 m2-class Experiment? GRBs: in both the Hypernova and Merging stars models, in the very early phases (i.e., first milliseconds) the orbiting matter is expected to cause fast pulsations of the emission, possibly the only chance to directly observe the properties of the GRB inner engine and of the parent objects. Magnetars: transient ~30-100 Hz QPOs have been detected for the brightest flares, most likely originated by the seismic motions of the compact star. 2. High Resolution Timing of Bursts and Flares from Gamma Ray Bursters and Magnetars 3. Survey of X-ray Pulsars The class of radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (e.g., Geminga-like) is far less populated than radio-loud pulsars (~10 vs ~1500). This difference is not yet understood, whether it is due to real quenching of the radio emission or it is due to a transient nature. An unprecedently deep X-ray pulsar survey will likely compensate observational selection effects bring to the discovery of several Geminga-like pulsars and assess this issue, constraining pulsar models 4. and then Flares from Black-hole candidates, type-I bursters, INSs, bursting pulsar, rapid burster, supergiant fast X-ray transients, RRATs, …. TIGRE in words: the Assembly: TIGRE in words: the Assembly Three interchangeable operative modes: Open field of view for unpredictable events (e.g., GRBs, SGRs, ..) and Survey of Pulsars Slit collimated for gross localization Coded Mask (collimated) for Source Localization and Monitoring Alto-azimuthal orientation capability. Modularity and independence of modules (or sets of modules), for operative mode, orientation and power supply. TIGRE in words: the Experiment: TIGRE in words: the Experiment Modular Favourable (Area) / (Read-out electronics) ratio Energy Range: 1-10/20 keV, Good Position Resolution (0.1-3 mm), Good Energy Resolution (<1 keV) Current detector choice: Silicon Drift Detectors, possibly in their Controlled Drift Detector configuration TIGRE in numbers (1): TIGRE in numbers (1) TIGRE in numbers (2): TIGRE in numbers (2) TIGRE in images: our view: TIGRE in images: our view TIGRE Operating Modes: TIGRE Operating Modes Silicon detector Slit Collimator Orthogonal Transit for gross localization of sources Parallel Transit to reduce background Mask: for fine localization of sources Open Sky for Unknown Pulsars or Bursting events The Silicon Drift Detector (SDD): The Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) The collecting anode capacitance is very small (~ 0.1 pF) and independent from the device area very low noise readout Energy Range: 1-30 keV Active area 10 mm2 Si thickness 300 mm JFET embedded E threshold 0.6 keV E resolution @ 20°C 5% FWHM @5.9 keV (0.5 msec sh. time) 0.9% FWHM @ 60 keV Noise (ENC) 45 e- rms @ 20° 241Am 55Fe (C. Labanti et al., IASF-Bo) (Gatti & Rehak 1984) The Controlled Drift Detector: The Controlled Drift Detector “Evolution” of SDD: multi-linear SDD detector with longitudinal coordinate derived by charge drift time (T0 from backside electrode). Noise performance comparable to SDD, position resolution ~100 m, read-out electronics for multi-linear SDD only (N vs N2), room temperature operation. Effective low energy threshold and single detector area to be assessed. (A. Castoldi et al., 2003) Developed at INFN-Milano / Politecnico di Milano (A. Castoldi, E. Gatti, C. Guazzoni, L. Struder, et al., 2001+). TIGRE in images: seen from AAS-I: TIGRE in images: seen from AAS-I Detectors Array Slit Collimator Mask Collimator Service Module Solar Array Star Sensor Observation Modes: Observation Modes Open Field Slit or Mask Collimator Alto-Azimuthal Orientation: Alto-Azimuthal Orientation North South Independent Operation of Adjustable Sets of Modules: Independent Operation of Adjustable Sets of Modules Launch and Deployment (AAS-I): Launch and Deployment (AAS-I) 2060 mm 1590 mm The release mechanism could be spring-loaded with pyro-bolts. Multi-Module Communication: Multi-Module Communication Large antenna module module module module module module Mass Budget (AAS-I): Mass Budget (AAS-I) Power Budget (AAS-I): Power Budget (AAS-I) This budget includes large solar arrays to recharge batteries while the module is operating. Batteries have been dimensioned to give the needed power continuously for a period of 14 days (336 hours). The FE heaters power consumption has been considered in the night only operational configuration. Slide21: … fly me to the moon … ♬ ♬ ♬
A TIGRE on the Moon Timing Italian Gamma Ray Experiment E. Costa, Y. Evangelista, M. Feroci, M. Rapisarda(*), P. Soffitta INAF – IASF Rome (*) ENEA Frascati
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... most of any possible scientific rationale which can be conceived High Priority and Heavier Payloads 16:00 TIGRE M. Feroci (INAF) 16:15 PIM C ...