feist ch14McCrae

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Published on August 6, 2007

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Theories of Personality Eysenck, McCrae and Costa:  Theories of Personality Eysenck, McCrae and Costa Chapter 14 ©Syndicated Features/Image Works ©Courtesy of Robert R. McCrae ©Courtesy of Paul T. Costa, Jr. Outline:  Outline Overview of Factor and Trait Theories Biography of Hans J. Eysenck The Pioneering Work of Raymond Cattell Basics of Factor Analysis Eysenck’s Factor Theory Dimensions of Personality Measuring Personality Biological Bases of Personality Cont’d Learning Objectives:  Learning Objectives After reading Chapter 14, students should be able to: 1. Explain the basics of factor analytic procedures. 2. Explain the importance of R. B. Cattell's pioneering work. 3. Describe Eysenck's approach to the measurement of personality. 4. Name and explain Eysenck;s criteria for identifying factors. 5. Name and describe Eysenck's three general types, or superfactors. 6. Describe how Eysenck's three superfactors relate to and predict behavior. 7. Explain how Eysenck's theory of personality relates to disease. 8. Distinguish between the Big Five as a taxonomy and as a theory. 9. List and briefly describe each of the Big Five factors. Outline:  Outline Personality as a Predictor The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory? Biographies of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr. In Search of the Big Five Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory Related Research Critique of Trait and Factor Theories Concept of Humanity Overview of Factor and Trait Theories:  Overview of Factor and Trait Theories Utilize Factor Analytic Methods to Determine How Many Traits or Dispositions Disagreement on How Many Personality Traits Cattell: Many Factors Eysenck: Three Factors McCrae and Costa: Five Factors Biography of Eysenck:  Biography of Eysenck Born in Berlin, Germany in 1916 As a teenager, moved to England to escape Nazis Received his PhD in psychology at the University of London in 1940 Published Dimensions of Personality in 1947 One of the most prolific and controversial psychologists in the world Died in 1997 at age 81 Cattell’s Trait Theory:  Cattell’s Trait Theory Cattell’s Method Used inductive method to gather data Used three different media of observation L data Q data T data Divided traits into common and unique traits His approach yielded 35 primary or first-order traits Basics of Factor Analysis:  Basics of Factor Analysis Correlation coefficient Factor analysis Factors Factor loadings Unipolar and bipolar traits Eysenck  orthogonal rotation Cattell  oblique rotation Eysenck’s Factor Theory:  Eysenck’s Factor Theory Criteria for Identifying Factors Psychometric evidence Heritability Must make sense from a theoretical point of view Must possess social relevance Hierarchy of Behavior Organization (from lowest to highest) Specific acts or cognitions Habitual acts or cognitions Traits Types or superfactors Dimensions of Personality:  Dimensions of Personality Three General Superfactors Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism Measuring Personality:  Measuring Personality Eysenck created four inventories for measuring superfactors: Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), which was revised (EPQ-R) Biological Basis of Personality:  Biological Basis of Personality Three fourths of personality dimensions can be accounted for by heredity Found these factors to exist cross-culturally Stability of traits over time Twin research suggests strong similarities on these dimensions Personality as a Predictor:  Personality as a Predictor Personality and Behavior Eysenck andamp; Eysenck (1985) Eysenck andamp; Eysenck (1975) Personality and Disease Several studies have found an association between personality and disease These do not prove that psychological factors cause disease, but they may interact with other factors to create risk The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory?:  The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory? Taxonomies are not theories The Five-Factor Model began as an attempt to identify basic personality traits as revealed by factor analysis Evolved into a taxonomy The model then became a theory It can predict and explain behavior Biographies of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr.:  Biographies of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr. Robert McCrae was born in Maryville, Missouri in 1949 Youngest of three children Completed PhD in psychology at Boston University, where he was referred to Paul Costa Began collaborating in 1976 Costa was born in Franklin, New Hampshire in 1942 He received his PhD in human development from the University of Chicago in 1970 The collaboration between McCrae and Costa has been fruitful, producing over 200 joint publications In Search of the Big Five:  In Search of the Big Five Five Factors Found Costa and McCrae utilized every major personality inventory and came up with a five-factor solution Most personality psychologists have opted for this model Cross-cultural Demonstrate stability over time Description of the Five Factors Extraversion Neuroticism Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory:  Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory Units of the Five-Factor Theory Core Components of Personality Basic tendencies Characteristic adaptations Self-concept Peripheral Components Biological bases Objective biography External Influences Basic Postulates Postulates for Basic Tendencies Postulates for Characteristic Adaptations Related Research:  Related Research Biology and Personality Neurophysiology and Personality Personality Across Cultures Five-Factor Model Across Cultures Stability of Traits Over the Lifespan Critique of Trait and Factor Theories:  Critique of Trait and Factor Theories Trait and Factor Theories are: Very High on Generating Research and Parsimony High on Organizing Knowledge Moderate on Falsifiability Moderate to Low as a Guide for Practitioners and Internal Consistency Concept of Humanity:  Concept of Humanity Eysenck, McCrae and Costa are not concerned with concepts of determinism versus free choice, optimism versus pessimism, and causality versus teleology Biology over Social Influence Conscious over Unconscious Uniqueness over Similarity

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