feist ch01Intro

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Published on August 4, 2007

Author: Malbern

Source: authorstream.com

Theories of PersonalitySixth Edition:  Theories of Personality Sixth Edition By Jess Feist and Gregory J. Feist Introduction to Personality Theory :  Introduction to Personality Theory Chapter 1 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Outline:  Outline What Is Personality? What Is Theory? Theory Defined Why Different Theories? What Makes a Theory Useful? Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity Research in Personality Theory What Is Personality?:  What Is Personality? Word stems from 'persona' Latin for 'mask' Personality Defined: A pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior What Is Personality?:  What Is Personality? Traits Consistency over time Individual differences in behavior Stability across situations Characteristics Unique qualities (e.g., temperament, physique, and intelligence) What Is a Theory?:  What Is a Theory? Theory Defined A set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses Theory and Its Relatives:  Theory and Its Relatives Philosophy Broader than theory Speculation Must be tied to empirical data and science Hypothesis Specific guess that can be tested using scientific method Taxonomy Classification according to natural relationships Why Different Theories?:  Why Different Theories? Different Personal Backgrounds Childhood experiences Interpersonal relationships Different Philosophical Orientations Unique Ways of Looking at the World Data Chosen to Observe is Different Theorists’ Personalities & Their Theories of Personality:  Theorists’ Personalities andamp; Their Theories of Personality Psychology of Science The empirical study of scientific thought and behavior (including theory construction) of the scientist The personalities and psychology of different theorists influence the kinds of theories that they develop What Makes a Theory Useful: Criteria for Evaluating a Theory:  What Makes a Theory Useful: Criteria for Evaluating a Theory Generates Research Is Falsifiable (Verifiable) Organizes Known Data Guides Action (Practical) Is Internally Consistent Is Parsimonious Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity:  Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity Determinism v. Free Choice Pessimism v. Optimism Causality v. Teleology Conscious v. Unconscious Determinants of Behavior Biological v. Social Influences on Personality Uniqueness v. Similarities Research in Personality Theory:  Research in Personality Theory Must Generate Research Theory gives meaning to data Data comes from experimental research designed to test hypothesis generated by the theory Systematic observations Predictions are consistent and accurate Research in Personality Theory:  Research in Personality Theory Two Empirical Criteria for Instruments Reliability Consistency of Measurement Validity: Construct Validity Convergent Divergent Discriminant Predictive Validity

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