Published on February 25, 2014
Feedback on Big Compute & HPC on Windows Azure Antoine Poliakov HPC Consultant ANEO firstname.lastname@example.org http://blog.aneo.eu Innovation Recherche
Introduction HPC : a challenge for the cloud • Cloud : on-demand access through a telecommunications network to shared and userconfigurable IT resources • HPC (High Performance Computing) : a branch of computer science conercned with maximizing software efficiency, in particular in terms of execution speed – – – Raw computing power doubles every 1.5 - 2 years Network throughput doubles every 2 - 3 years The compute/network gap doubles every 5 years • HPC in the cloud allows makes computing power accessible to all (SME, research labs, etc.) Fosters innovation • Our question : can the cloud offer sufficient performances for HPC workloads ? – – – #mstechdays CPU : 100% native speed RAM: 99% native speed Network ??? #3 Innovation Recherche
Introduction 3 ingredients yield an answer through experimentation Technology HPC oriented cloud Use-case HPC software Experiments State of the art of HPC in the cloud #mstechdays #4 Innovation Recherche
Introduction Experimenting on HPC in the cloud : our approach Identify technologies and partners • HPC software use-case • Efficient cloud computing service Port the applicative HPC code : cluster cloud • Skills improvements • Feedback on the technologies Experiment and measure performances • Scaling • Data transfers #mstechdays #5 Innovation Recherche
Introduction A collaborative project with 3 complementary actors Consulting firm: organization and technologies HPC Practice: fast/massive information processing for finance and industries Established HPC research teams: Distributed software & big data Machine learning and interactive systems Windows Azure provides a cloud solution aimed at HPC workloads: Azure Big Compute Goals Identify most relevent use-cases for our clients Estimate the complexity of porting and deploying an app Evaluate if the solution is production-ready Goals Is the cloud ready for scientific computing ? Specificities of deploying in the cloud ? Performances Goals Pre-release feedback Inside view of a HPC cluster cloud transition #mstechdays #6 Innovation Recherche
Introduction Dedicated and competant teams: thank you all! Consulting Ported and deployed the application in the cloud Led the benchmarks Constantinos Makassikis HPC Consultant Research Use-case: distributed audio segmentation Experiments analysis Stéphane Vialle Professor, Computer science Antoine Poliakov HPC Consultant Stéphane Rossignol Assistant Professor, Signal processing Wilfried Kirschenmann HPC Consultant Kévin Dehlinger Computer scientist intern CNAM #mstechdays #7 Provider Created the technical solution Made available notable computational power Innovation Recherche Xavier Pillons Principal Program Manager, Windows Azure CAT
Presentation contents 1. Technical context 2. Feedback on porting the application 3. Optimizations 4. Results #mstechdays #8 Innovation Recherche
1. TECHNICAL CONTEXT a. Azure Big Compute b. ParSon #mstechdays #9 Innovation Recherche
Azure Big Compute Azure Big Compute = New Azure nodes + HPC Pack New nodes: A8 and A9 • • • • 2x8 snb E5-2670 @2.6Ghz, 112Gb DDR3 @1.6Ghz InfiniBand (network direct @40Gbit/s): RDMA via MS-MPI @3.5Gb/s, 3µs IP over Ethernet @10Gbit/s ; HDD 2Tb @250Mo/s Azure hypervisor HPC Pack • Task scheduler middleware: Cluster Manager + SDK • Tested with 50k cores in Azure • Free Extension Pack : any Windows Server install can be a node #mstechdays #10 Innovation Recherche
Azure Big Compute HPC Pack : on permise cluster • • #mstechdays N N N N N N N N Administration : hardware + software N N M N Cluster dimensioned w.r.t. maximal workload • AD Active Directory, Manager and nodes in a privately managed infrastructure N #11 Innovation Recherche
Azure Big Compute HPC Pack : in the Azure Big Compute cloud • Active Directory and manager in the cloud (VMs) • Nodes allocation and pricing on demand • Admin : software only PaaS nodes IaaS VM Remote desktop/CLI #mstechdays #12 M Innovation Recherche N N N N N AD N N N N N N N
Azure Big Compute HPC Pack : hybrid deployment • Active Directory and manager on premise • Nodes both in the datacenter and in the cloud • Local dimensioning w.r.t. average load Dynamic cloud dimensioning: absorbs peaks • Admin: software + hardware N N N N N N N N N N #13 VPN M Innovation Recherche N N N N N AD N N N N #mstechdays N N N N N
ParSon ParSon: an audio segmentation scientific software • ParSon = audio segmentation algorithm : voice / music 1. Supervised training on known audio samples to calibrate the classifier 2. Classification based on spectral analysis (FFT) on sliding windows Digital audio ParSon Segmentation and classification #mstechdays #14 Innovation Recherche voice music
ParSon ParSon is distributed with OpenMP + MPI 6. Get outputs Data Control 4. MPI Exec 2. Reserves N computers OAR 5. Tasks with heavy intercommunications 1. Upload input files NAS #mstechdays #15 3. Input deployment Reserved computers Innovation Recherche Linux cluster
ParSon Performances are limited by data transfers Best runtime (s) 2048 512 128 IO bound 32 Nodes read from NAS en réseau, à froid Nodes read froid en local, à locally 8 1 4 16 Number of nodes #mstechdays #16 Innovation Recherche 64 256
2. PORTING THE APPLICATION a. Porting C++ code: Linux Windows b. Porting distribution strategy: Cluster HPC Cluster Manager c. Porting and adapting deployment scripts #mstechdays #17 Innovation Recherche
Standards conformance = easy Linux Windows porting • ParSon and Visual conform to the C++ standard few code changes • Dependencies are the standard libraries and cross-platform scientific libraries : libsnd, fftw • Thanks to MS-MPI, inter-process communication code doesn’t change • Visual Studio natively supports OpenMP • The only task left was translating build files: Makefiles Visual C++ projects #mstechdays #18 Innovation Recherche Porting
Porting ParSon in the cluster 6. Get output Data Control 4. MPI Exec 2. Reserves N computers OAR 5. Run and inter-com. 1. Upload input file NAS #mstechdays #19 3. Input deployment Reserved computers Innovation Recherche Linux cluster
Porting ParSon dans le Cloud Azure 6. Get output IaaS PaaS 4. MPI Exec 2. Reserves N nodes HPC Cluster Manager AD Domain controller 5. Run and inter-com. 1. Upload input file HPC pack SDK Azure Storage #mstechdays #20 3. Input deployment Provisioned A9 nodes Innovation Recherche PaaS Big Compute Data Control
Porting Deployment within Azure At every software update : package + send in the cloud 1. Send to manager – – Either with Azure Storage Set-AzureStorageBlobContent Get-AzureStorageBlobContent hpcpack create ; hpcpack upload hpcpack download Or with normal transfert : internet accessible fileserver : FileZilla, etc. 2. Packaging script: mkdir, copy, etc. ; hpcpack create 3. Send to Azure storage: hpcpack upload At every node provisioning : local copy 1. Remotely execute on nodes from the manager with clusrun 2. hpcpack download 3. powershell -command "Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned" Invoke-Command -FilePath … -Credential … Start-Process powershell -Verb runAs -ArgumentList … 4. Installation : %deployedPath%deployScript.ps1 #mstechdays #21 Innovation Recherche
Porting This first working setup has some limitations • Transferring the input file is longer than sequential computation on a single thread • On many cores, computation times is negligible compared to transfers • WAV format headers and ParSon code limit input size to 4Gb #mstechdays #22 Innovation Recherche
3. OPTIMIZATIONS #mstechdays #23 Innovation Recherche
Optimizations Methodology : suppress the bottleneck Identified bottleneck is the input file transfer 1. Disk write throughput: 300 Mb/s We use a RAMFS 2. Accès Azure Storage : QoS 1.6 Gb/s Download only once from the storage account, then broadcast through InfiniBand 3. Large input files: 60 Gb FLAC c8 lossless compression halves size + not limited to 4Gb Declare all counters as 64 bits ints in C++ code #mstechdays #24 Innovation Recherche
Optimizations Accelerating local data access with a RAM filesystem • RAMFS = filesystem stored in a RAM block – – • ImDisk – – • Lightweight: driver + service + command line Open-source but signed for Win64 Scripted silent install : – – – – • Very fast Limited capacity, non persistent hpcpack create … rundll32 setupapi.dll,InstallHinfSection DefaultInstall 128 disk.inf Start-Service -inputobject $(get-service -Name imdisk) imdisk.exe -a -t vm -s 30G -m F: -o rw format F: /fs:ntfs /x /q /Y $acl = Get-Acl F: $acl.AddAccessRule(…FileSystemAccessRule("Everyone","Write", …)) Set-Acl F: $acl Run at every node provisioning #mstechdays #25 Innovation Recherche
Optimizations Accelerating input file deployment • All standard transfer systems go through the Ethernet interface – Azure Storage access via Azure and HPC Pack SDKs – Windows share or CIFS network drive – Standard file transfer protocols: FTP, NFS, etc. • The simplest way to leverage InfiniBand is through MPI 1. On one node: download the input file: Azure RAMFS 2. mpiexec broadcast.exe : 1 process per node • We developped a command line utility in C++ / MPI • If id = 0, reads RAMFS, by 4mb blocs and sends to other nodes through InfiniBand : MPI_Bcast • If id ≠ 0, recieve data blocs and save them on RAMFS • Uses Win32 API: faster than standard library abstractions 3. Input data is in the RAM of all nodes, accessible as a file from the application #mstechdays #26 Innovation Recherche
4. RESULTS #mstechdays #27 Innovation Recherche
Results Computations scale well, especially for bigger files Computation efficiency for different input sizes Computation time (sec, log) Real speedup / ideal speedup Computation time scaling (log-log plot) Number of cores (log) Number of cores (log) #mstechdays #28 Innovation Recherche
Results Input file transfer make global scaling worse Efficiency for compute only and including transfers Time decomposition, for an hour of input audio + - Real speedup / ideal speedup Time (sec, log) Raw compute Number of cores (log) #mstechdays #29 Number of cores (log) Innovation Recherche
Broadcast time (sec, log) Download time (min) Consistent storage throughput (220Mb/s), latency may be high Broadcast constant @700 Mb/sAsure storage download performances Broadcast time scaling Number of machines File size (Gb) #mstechdays #30 Innovation Recherche Results
5. CONCLUSION #mstechdays #31 Innovation Recherche
Our feedback on the Big Compute technology • HPC standards conformance: C++, OpenMP, MPI – • • Nodes administration – Azure storage latency sometimes high – Azure storage limited QoS users must implement multiple account striping – HDDs are slow (for HPC), even on A9 Ported in 10 work days Compute: CPU, RAM Network: InfiniBand between nodes Reactive support – • Data transfers Solid performances – – • • Community, Microsoft – Nodes ↔ Manager transfers must go through Azure storage: less convenient than conventional remote file systems Intuitive user interface – – manage.windowsazure.com HPC Cluster Manager • Everything is scriptable & programmable • Cloud is more flexible than cluster • Unified management of cloud and on-premise #mstechdays #32 • Provisioning time must be taken into account (~7min) Innovation Recherche
Azure Big Compute for research and business Predictable, pay what you use cost model Modern design, extensive documentation, efficient support Decreased need for administration – but still needed on the software side For research • • Access to compute without any barrier paperwork, finance, etc. • A super computer for all, without investment • Elastic scaling : on-demand sizing Start your workload in minutes • Interoperable with Windows clusters – Cloud absorbs peaks – Best of both worlds • Datacenters in UE : Ireland + Netherlands – • For business For squeezing a few more before the (extended) deadline for that conference Well suited to researchers in distributed computing – Parametric experiments #mstechdays #33 Innovation Recherche
Thank you for your attention • Antoine Poliakov email@example.com • Stéphane Vialle firstname.lastname@example.org • ANEO http://aneo.eu http://blog.aneo.eu • Retrouvez nous aux TechDays ! Stand ANEO jeudi 11h30 - 13h Au cœur du SI > Infrastructure moderne avec Azure #mstechdays #34 Thanks All our thanks to Microsoft for lending us the nodes ? A question : don’t hesitate! Innovation Recherche
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