Faunal DIVERSITY in wetlands

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Information about Faunal DIVERSITY in wetlands
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Published on January 5, 2009

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Slide 1: Wetlands And Their Biodiversity, with special reference to waterbirds Dr.Vinod Khanna Zoological Survey of India What are wetlands? “Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life. They occur where the water table is at or near the surface of the land, or where the land is covered by shallow water”.The Ramsar Convention takes a broad approach in determining the wetlands which come under its aegis. Under the text of the Convention (Article 1.1), wetlands are defined as:"areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".In addition, the Convention (Article 2.1) provides that wetlands:"may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands".As a result of these provisions, the coverage of the Convention extends to a wide variety of habitat types, including rivers and lakes, coastal lagoons, mangroves, peatlands, and even coral reefs.In addition there are human-made wetlands such as fish and shrimp ponds, farm ponds, irrigated agricultural land, salt pans, reservoirs, gravel pits, sewage farms, and canals. : What are wetlands? “Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life. They occur where the water table is at or near the surface of the land, or where the land is covered by shallow water”.The Ramsar Convention takes a broad approach in determining the wetlands which come under its aegis. Under the text of the Convention (Article 1.1), wetlands are defined as:"areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres".In addition, the Convention (Article 2.1) provides that wetlands:"may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands".As a result of these provisions, the coverage of the Convention extends to a wide variety of habitat types, including rivers and lakes, coastal lagoons, mangroves, peatlands, and even coral reefs.In addition there are human-made wetlands such as fish and shrimp ponds, farm ponds, irrigated agricultural land, salt pans, reservoirs, gravel pits, sewage farms, and canals. Slide 3: Wetlands cover approximately 6% of the earth's surface :  Wetland values Wetlands provide tremendous economic benefits, for example: water supply (quantity and quality); fisheries (over two thirds of the world’s fish harvest is linked to the health of coastal and inland wetland areas); agriculture, through the maintenance of water tables and nutrient retention in floodplains; timber production; energy resources, such as peat and plant matter; wildlife resources; transport; and recreation and tourism opportunities. In addition, wetlands have special attributes as part of the cultural heritage of humanity: they are related to religious and cosmological beliefs, constitute a source of aesthetic inspiration, provide wildlife sanctuaries, and form the basis of important local traditions. These functions, values and attributes can only be maintained if the ecological processes of wetlands are allowed to continue functioning. Unfortunately, and in spite of important progress made in recent decades, wetlands continue to be among the world’s most threatened ecosystems, owing mainly to ongoing drainage, conversion, pollution, and over-exploitation of their resources. Slide 6: Flood control Prevention of saline water intrusion 1 2 1 2 3 4 2 Recreation & Tourism Slide 7: Shoreline stabilisation and storm protection Water quality improvement Carbon sequestration Slide 8: Why conserve wetlands? Wetlands are among the world’s most productive environments. They are cradles of biological diversity, providing the water and primary productivity upon which countless species of plants and animals depend for survival. They support high concentrations of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrate species. Of the 20,000 species of fish in the world, more than 40% live in fresh water. Wetlands are also important storehouses of plant genetic material. Rice, for example, which is a common wetland plant, is the staple diet of more than half of humanity. The interactions of physical, biological and chemical components of a wetland, such as soils, water, plants and animals, enable the wetland to perform many vital functions, for example: water storage; storm protection and flood mitigation; shoreline stabilization and erosion control; groundwater recharge (the movement of water from the wetland down into the underground aquifer); groundwater discharge (the movement of water upward to become surface water in a wetland); water purification through retention of nutrients, sediments, and pollutants; and stabilization of local climate conditions, particularly rainfall and temperature Slide 9: Wetlands are transitional areas between dry terrestrial and permanent aquatic ecosystems. In recent years, more particularly during the last three decades of the twentieth century wetlands are recognised as highly productive ecosystems Their importance in socio-economical and ecological frontiers has also been increasingly felt. Wetlands include 22 habitat types (IUCN, 1989) In India they are generally categorized as: : Wetlands include 22 habitat types (IUCN, 1989) In India they are generally categorized as: Ø  Tanks, Reservoirs and other water bodies of the Deccan peninsula; Ø   Backwaters and Estuaries of west coast of the peninsula; Ø   Saline Expanses of Rajasthan and Gujarat; Ø   Freshwater Lakes and Reservoirs from Gujarat, Rajasthan and M. P.; Ø   Deltaic Wetlands, Lagoons and Salt swamps of India’s east coast; Ø Marshes, Jheels, Terrai swamps and Chaur lands of the Gangetic plains; Ø  Flood plain of Brahmaputra and Marshes and Swamps in N.E. India hills; Ø   Lakes and Rivers of the montane regions in J.& K., U.P.and H. P.; Ø   Wetlands (primarily Mangrove associations and Coral reefs) of islands of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. Ø   Coastal brackishwater wetlands in West Bengal, A. P., T. N. and Kerala. EXTENT OF INDIAN WETLANDS: Estimates of total wetlands area in India from the Directory of Asian Wetlands TABLE - 1 : EXTENT OF INDIAN WETLANDS: Estimates of total wetlands area in India from the Directory of Asian Wetlands TABLE - 1 Wetland type Area (in ha.) Area under paddy cultivation 40,990,000 Area suitable for fish culture 3,600,000 i) Freshwater 1,600,000   ii) Brackish water 2,000,000 Area under capture fisheries 2,900,000 Mangroves 356,000 Estuaries 3,900,000 Backwaters 3,540,000 Man-made impoundments 3,000,000 Rivers including main tributaries (28,00 km) Canals and irrigation channels (113,000 km) Total area (excluding rivers, canals and channels) 58,286,000 Slide 13: As per the estimate of the Ministry of Environment & Forests, India possesses about 4.1 million ha wetlands (excluding paddy fields and mangroves), of which 1.5 million ha are natural and 2.6 million ha man-made. Using IRS 1A/1B, Space Application Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad (1998) estimated total Indian wetlands areas to be about 7.6 million ha excluding paddy fields, rivers and canals, out of which 3.6 million ha are inland and 4 million ha are coastal. Ramsar Sites in India ( 2002 ) : Ramsar Sites in India ( 2002 ) 1. Bitrakanika mangroves … Orissa 2. Chilika Lake…………….. Orissa 3. Deepar Beel ……………. Assam 4. Harike lake …………….. Punjab 5. Keoladeo Ghana N P … Rajasthan 6. Kolleru lake…………….. Andhra Pradesh 7. Loktak lake…………….. Manipur 8. Point Calimere………… Tamilnadu 9. Pong dam lake……….. Himachal Pradesh 10. Ropar wetland ……….. Punjab 11. Sambar lake ………….. Rajasthan 12. Sasthamkota …………. Kerala 13. Tsomurai ……………… Ladakh 14. Wular lake ……………. Kashmir 15. Astamudi wetland ……. Kerala 16. Bhoj wetland …………. Madhya Pradesh 17. East Kolkata wetland … West Bengal 18. Kanjili Wetland ………. Punjab 19. Vempanad Kolmetud ….. Kerala Some Important Wetland Sanctuaries in North India : Some Important Wetland Sanctuaries in North India Renuka lake Okhla Wetland Sultanpur N P Patna W L S Sandi lake Lakh- Bahusi WLS Suraha Tal Bahera Parbati Arga Samaspur Nawabganj Vijaya Sagar Samman Sur Sarovar Harike WLS Ropar WLS Bharatpur NP Some Important Wetland I B A’s in India : Some Important Wetland I B A’s in India Majuli Beel ( Assam) Son Beel ( Assam ) Tal Wetlands ( Bihar ) Okhla Barrge ( Delhi ) Ilhas wetlands ( Goa ) Wetlands of Kheda District ( Gujarat ) Pariehj & Kaneval Reservoirs ( Gujarat ) Rudramata Dam ( Gujarat) Rudramata Dam ( Gujarat) Luna Jheel ( Gujarat ) Thol lake ( Gujarat ) Basai wetland ( Haryana) Wetlands of Yamuna ( Haryana) Chushul marshes ( Ladakh ) Mirgund Jheel ( Ladakh) Katerina ( U P ) National Chambal ( U P ) Sheikha Jheel ( U P ) Tikra Jheel ( U P ) Surha Tal ( U P ) Sita Dwar & Payagpur Jheel ( U P ) Kura Jheel ( U P ) Tumeria Barrage ( U P ) Assan Barrage ( Uttaranchal ) FAUNAL DIVERSITY : FAUNAL DIVERSITY An appreciable amount of information is available on the fauna of Indian wetlands. Of 1,421 sites counted in India, 34 sites covered during the Asian waterfowl census 1994-1996 qualify as sites of international importance. Of these, the Chilka Lake topped the national list harbouring a total of 1,484,186 waterbirds of 85 species. Chilka Lake hosts over 729 species of wetland fauna including 227 species of fishes and 156 species of birds (ZSI, 1995). FAUNAL DIVERSITY : FAUNAL DIVERSITY Avifaunal diversity in Keoladeo Ghana National Park, the most famous wetland sanctuary in India is very rich, hosting at least 332 avian species including endangered Siberian White Crane, Grus leucogeranus. Pulicat Lake is another important wetland for resident and migratory waterfowl, notably pelicans, flamingos, ducks, storks, herons, egrets, gulls, terns and other shorebirds. The largest concentrations of Greater Flamingos, Phoenicopterus ruber occur in Andhra Pradesh in part of Pulicat lake Sanctuary. ENDEMISM : ENDEMISM Endemism in wetland fauna is poorly known. Among vertebrates, one species of mammal, namely, the Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris reported as new species from Salt lake swamp, 44 species of water birds, one species of Himalayan Newt Pleurodeles verrucosus and 223 species of fish are known to be endemic in Indian wetlands. INTRODUCED SPECIES : INTRODUCED SPECIES Introduction of exotic animal species in Indian wetlands has been made mainly for commercial purpose. Such exotic species include several species of fishes, viz., tilapia, silver carp, grass carp, cyprinus carp,English trout, bighead carp, etc., which are introduced in the Indian waters from Africa, Europe and other parts of the world. CULTURABLE SPECIES : CULTURABLE SPECIES Besides a large number of fishes (more than 50 species), both endigenous and exotic, there are about 10 species of mollusks and 15 species of crustaceans inhabiting inland wetlands that are being cultured and harvested in India. Of these, the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon, the mud crab, Scylla serrata, etc., are exported frozen, canned or alive from India. Estimated number of animal species occurring in wetlands in IndiaTABLE – 2 : Estimated number of animal species occurring in wetlands in IndiaTABLE – 2 Taxonomy group No. of species occurring in % of wetlands India Wetland  Kingdom: PROTISTA  Protozoa 2577 1250 48.5 Kingdom: ANIMALA Mesozoa 10 10 100.0 Porifera 486 400 82.3 Cnidaria 842 540 64.1 Ctenophora 12 10 83.3 Platyhelminthes 1622 1200 73.9 Rotifera 330 330 100.0 Gastrotricha 100 80 80.0 Kinorhyncha 10 10 100.0 Nematoda 2850 500 17.5 Acanthocephala 229 150 65.5 Sipuncula 35 30 85.7 Mollusca 5070 2300 45.3 Echiura 43 40 93.0 Annelida 840 500 59.5 Onychophora 1 - - Arthropoda 68389 7302 10.6 Crustacea 2934 2000 68.1 Insecta 59353 5000 8.4 Arachnida 5818 300 5.1 Pycnogonida 16 - - Chilopoda 100 - - Diplopoda 162 - - Symphyla 4 - - Merostomata 2 2 100.0 Phoronida 3 3 100.0 Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) 200 100 50.0 Entoprocta 10 5 50.0 Brachiopoda 3 3 100.0 Chaetognatha 30 10 33.3 Tardigrada 30 20 66.6 Echinodermata 765 500 65.3 Hemichordata 12 10 83.3 Chordata 4952 2550 51.5 Protochordata (Cephalachordata + Urochordata) 119 70 58.8 Pisces 2546 2000 78.5 Amphibia 209 150 71.7 Reptilia 456 50 10.9 Aves 1232 250 20.3 Mammalia 390 30 7.7 TOTAL 89,451 17,853 19.9 Threatened Species : Threatened Species Odonata – Epiophlebia laidlawi Pisces - Barilius bola; Semiplotus semiplotus; Puntius chilinoides; Enobarbichthyes maculatus; Cirrhinus cirrhosa; Labeo fimbriatus; L. potail; L. kontius; Puntius jerdoni; P. cumacea; Tor tor, Tor putitora; T. Khurdee; Schizothorax richardsonii; S. paragasium; Silona childreni; Pangasius pangasius; Bagarius bagarius; Osteocheilus & Osteobrama sp. Amphibia – Pleurodeles verrucosus Reptilia Crocodylia – Gavialis gangeticus; Crocodylus palustris Chelonia – Batagur baska; Trionyx gangeticus; T. hurrum; Kachuga tecta; Lissemus punctata Lacertelia – Varanus bengalensis; V. flavescens Ophidia – Python molurus, P. reticulatus Threatened Species : Threatened Species Mammalia Carnivora – Aonyx cinerea; Felis viverrina Cetacea – Platenista gangetica Perissodactyla –Rhinoceros unicornis Artiodactyla – Cervus duavecili; Cervus eldi; Bubalus bubalis The  Criteria for Identifying Wetlands of International ImportanceWetlands should be selected for the List [of Wetlands of International Importance] on account of their international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology" and indicates that "in the first instance, wetlands of international importance to waterfowl at any season should be included". Group A of the Criteria. Sites containing representative, rare or unique wetland typesCriterion 1: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it contains a representative, rare, or unique example of a natural or near-natural wetland type found within the appropriate biogeographic region.Group B of the Criteria. Sites of international importance for conserving biological diversityCriteria based on species and ecological communitiesCriterion 2: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities.Criterion 3: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports populations of plant and/or animal species important for maintaining the biological diversity of a particular biogeographic region. : The  Criteria for Identifying Wetlands of International ImportanceWetlands should be selected for the List [of Wetlands of International Importance] on account of their international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology" and indicates that "in the first instance, wetlands of international importance to waterfowl at any season should be included". Group A of the Criteria. Sites containing representative, rare or unique wetland typesCriterion 1: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it contains a representative, rare, or unique example of a natural or near-natural wetland type found within the appropriate biogeographic region.Group B of the Criteria. Sites of international importance for conserving biological diversityCriteria based on species and ecological communitiesCriterion 2: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities.Criterion 3: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports populations of plant and/or animal species important for maintaining the biological diversity of a particular biogeographic region. Criterion 4: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports plant and/or animal species at a critical stage in their life cycles, or provides refuge during adverse conditions.Specific criteria based on waterbirdsCriterion 5: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 20,000 or more waterbirds.Criterion 6: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbird.Specific criteria based on fishCriterion 7: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports a significant proportion of indigenous fish subspecies, species or families, life-history stages, species interactions and/or populations that are representative of wetland benefits and/or values and thereby contributes to global biological diversity.Criterion 8: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it is an important source of food for fishes, spawning ground, nursery and/or migration path on which fish stocks, either within the wetland or elsewhere, depend. : Criterion 4: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports plant and/or animal species at a critical stage in their life cycles, or provides refuge during adverse conditions.Specific criteria based on waterbirdsCriterion 5: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 20,000 or more waterbirds.Criterion 6: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbird.Specific criteria based on fishCriterion 7: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it supports a significant proportion of indigenous fish subspecies, species or families, life-history stages, species interactions and/or populations that are representative of wetland benefits and/or values and thereby contributes to global biological diversity.Criterion 8: A wetland should be considered internationally important if it is an important source of food for fishes, spawning ground, nursery and/or migration path on which fish stocks, either within the wetland or elsewhere, depend. What is a Waterbird? : What is a Waterbird? Waterbirds are broadly defined as: “birds ecologically dependent on wetlands”. It includes traditionally recognised groups popularly known as wildfowl, waterfowl and shorebirds/waders. In addition to these groups, there are other birds also dependent on wetlands such as kingfishers, birds of prey and passerines. These birds benefit from efforts undertaken to conserve waterbirds. Migratory populations include species in which the entire population or a significant proportion of the population (>1%) cyclically and predictably crosses one or more national jurisdictional boundaries. Based on the text of the Conventionon the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Article 1). What is Water bird's Migration : What is Water bird's Migration The cyclical migration of waterbirds across the globe has been long recognised as a natural wonder. Annually millions of waterbirds fly many thousands of kilometers across a vast range of climates and habitats in response to the urge to nest and to avoid adverse weather conditions. These flights require them to replenish their reserves along the way. This cyclic pattern has occurred for eons and predates the evolution of mankind. In meeting the demands of their life cycles, birds depend on high quality wetlands and other habitats in many countries. However, this pattern of existence of migratory waterbirds has come under increasing threat. Rapid human development across the globe has dramatically increased pressure on wetlands and other habitats resulting in their degradation and loss, and their pollution. Efforts to conserve migratory species in one country can only be effective, if they are complemented by actions in the other countries through which the species moves during its annual cycle. Complementary actions in all range states are therefore essential for the conservation of migratory species. Slide 32: Breeding Areas Wintering Areas Passage Areas Slide 33: A Flyway is broadly defined as: the migration route of a population, species, or group of species of bird, between a breeding area, through the staging sites (passage) and non-breeding area (wintering area). Migratory Waterbird ConservationMillions of migratory waterbirds make a long migration each year between the Arctic tundra of the northern hemisphere and the coastal beaches and mudflats of the southern hemisphere. These birds cross more than 20 countries along their migratory path known as the East Asian–Australasian Flyway.The migratory lifestyle of these birds poses great challenges for their conservation. It is important to protect the birds during all three phases of their annual life cycle: breeding, migration and non-breeding. Effective conservation of these birds relies on international action to protect the birds and their habitat in all the countries through which they move.Many waterbirds undertaking annual migrations along \different flyways spanning the length and breadth of the globe between their breeding and non-breeding grounds. During their annual migration, waterbirds stop for very short periods of time to rest and feed at staging sites - 'stepping stones' that are essential for migration and crucial to their survival. They regularly cross national boundaries and thus conservation of migratory waterbirds is clearly a collective responsibility of all countries in the flyway.Central Asian-Indian Flyway East Asian-Australasian Flyway West Pacific Flyway : Migratory Waterbird ConservationMillions of migratory waterbirds make a long migration each year between the Arctic tundra of the northern hemisphere and the coastal beaches and mudflats of the southern hemisphere. These birds cross more than 20 countries along their migratory path known as the East Asian–Australasian Flyway.The migratory lifestyle of these birds poses great challenges for their conservation. It is important to protect the birds during all three phases of their annual life cycle: breeding, migration and non-breeding. Effective conservation of these birds relies on international action to protect the birds and their habitat in all the countries through which they move.Many waterbirds undertaking annual migrations along \different flyways spanning the length and breadth of the globe between their breeding and non-breeding grounds. During their annual migration, waterbirds stop for very short periods of time to rest and feed at staging sites - 'stepping stones' that are essential for migration and crucial to their survival. They regularly cross national boundaries and thus conservation of migratory waterbirds is clearly a collective responsibility of all countries in the flyway.Central Asian-Indian Flyway East Asian-Australasian Flyway West Pacific Flyway Slide 35: Migratory Waterbird Flyways Slide 36: Migratory Waterbird Flyways Threatened Species : Threatened Species Aves Pelecaniformes - Pelicanus philipinensis Ciconiformes – Ardea goliath; A insignis; Leptotilos dubius; L. javanicus; Ciconia ciconia; Platalea leucorodia Anseriformes – Dendrocigna bicolor; Anas gibberifrons; Rhodonessa caryophyllacea; Carinia scutalata Gruiformes – Grus nigricolis; G. monacha; G. leucogeranus; Heliopais personata Charadriformes – Cursiorius bitorquatus; Rynchops albicollis Near Threatened Water Bird Species : Near Threatened Water Bird Species Common name Species BirdLife Int. WL(P) A (1972) 1994 2001 1. Darter Anhinga melanogaster + + Sch. IV 2. Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala + + Sch. IV 3. Asian Openbill-Stork Anastomus oscitans + - Sch. IV 4. Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus - + Sch. IV 5. Oriental White Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus + + Sch. IV 6. Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa + - Sch. IV 7. Lesser Flamingo Phoenicopterus minor + + Sch. IV 8. Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca - + Sch. IV 9. Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata + - Sch. IV 10.Long-billed Ringed PloverCharadrius placidus + - Sch. IV 11.Great Snipe Gallinago media + + Sch. IV 12.Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus + + Sch. IV 13.Grey-headed Lapwing Vanellus cinereus + - Sch. IV 14.Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda GT + Sch. IV Species under Appendices I & II of CITES : Species under Appendices I & II of CITES 1. Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus Bruch, 1832 Appendix I 2. Black Stork Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) Appendix II 3. Oriental White Stork Ciconia boyciana Swinhoe, 1873 Appendix I 4. Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia Linnaeus, 1758 Appendix II 5. White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala (Scopoli, 1769) Appendix II 6. Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) Appendix II 7. White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata (S. Muller, 1842) Appendix I 8. Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos (Pennant, 1769) Appendix II 9. Baikal Teal Anas formosa Georgi, 1775 Appendix II 10. Pink-headed Duck Rhodo nessa caryophyllacea (Latham, 1790) Appendix I 11. Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 Appendix I 12. Hooded Crane Grus monacha Temminck, 1835 Appendix I 13. Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis Przevalski, 1876 Appendix I 14. Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer (Nordmann, 1835) Appendix I 15. Pallas’s Fish-Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus (Pallas, 1771) Appendix I 16. White-tailed Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla Linnaeus, 1758 Appendix I 17. Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 Appendix I 18. Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 Appendix I Slide 41: Endemic Species 1. Andaman Teal Anas gibberifrons Andaman Sch. I 2. Andaman crake (DD Megapodius nicobariensis Andamans Restricted- Range Species Biome-Restricted Species (Biomes classified as by BirdLife International): Biome 05: Eurasian High Montane (Alpine and Tibetan): SOUTH INDIAN SCENARIO : SOUTH INDIAN SCENARIO Geographcal area of south Indian states. > Andhra Pradesh-2,75,068 sq.km. > Tamil Nadu-1,30,058sq.km. > Karnataka-1,91,791sq.km. > Kerala-38,863sq.km. Given the land-area availability of the different south Indian states, Kerala is smaller in size, but has higher species diversity among most of the animal groups, possibly an indicator of its wetland wealth. NORTH INDIAN SCENARIO : NORTH INDIAN SCENARIO Geographcal area of north Indian states. Uttar Pradesh sq.km. Uttaranchal- sq.km. Jammu & Kashmir > Punjab sq.km. Haryana sq.km. Delhi Slide 44: MAJOR WETLANDS OF ANDHRA PRADESH Slide 45: MAJOR WETLANDS OF KARNATAKA Slide 46: MAJOR WETLANDS OF TAMIL NADU Slide 48: MAJOR WETLANDS OF KERALA India has 868 species of freshwater fishes, of which Kerala has the highest share, among the south Indian states, with 24% followed by Andhra Pradesh with 18%, Tamil Nadu with 17% and Karnataka with 16%. : India has 868 species of freshwater fishes, of which Kerala has the highest share, among the south Indian states, with 24% followed by Andhra Pradesh with 18%, Tamil Nadu with 17% and Karnataka with 16%. Slide 50: Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis Biju and Bossuyt (2003): a new species of a new genus and even a new family ! “once in a century” kind discovery from Idukki, Kerala; affinity to amphibians in the age of Dinosaurs; its closest relative now living in Seychelles, another piece of evidence supporting the theory of continental drift. India has an Amphibian diversity of 221 species, of which Kerala alone has to its credit 85 species, highest diversity for any state in the country. Of these, 24 species are endemic to Kerala. Out of the 196 wetland bird species found in southern India, 101 are migrants(52%), 56 are residents (29%), 31 are locally migratory and 8 are accidental visitors. : Out of the 196 wetland bird species found in southern India, 101 are migrants(52%), 56 are residents (29%), 31 are locally migratory and 8 are accidental visitors. WETLAND IBAs (IMPORTANT BIRD AREAS) OF KERALA : WETLAND IBAs (IMPORTANT BIRD AREAS) OF KERALA 1. KOLE WETLANDS- THRISSUR DISTRICT 2. VEMBANADU LAKE-KOTTAYAM & ALAPPUZHA DISRICTS 3. KATTAMPALLY- KANNUR DISTRICT 4. PURATHUR ESTUARY- MALAPPURAM DISTRICT 5. KADALUNDY- KOZHIKODE & MALAPPURAM DISTRICTS. WETLAND BIRDS OF INDIA : WETLAND BIRDS OF INDIA Slide 62: Keys: GT= Globally Threatened, CR=Critical, VU= Vulnerable,NT= Near Threatened, EN= Endangered, BRS= Biome-Restricted Species. CITES= Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild fauna and flora (List as per 2002) WL(P)A= Indian Wildllife (Protection) Act, 1972. SOME RARE & THREATENED WETLAND BIRDS OF INDIA INDIAN SKIMMERS Slide 63: Redwattled Lapwing Slide 64: Crane Species In India Threatened Fishes of UP and UA( as per CAMP ) : Threatened Fishes of UP and UA( as per CAMP ) Category A- Critically Endangered (CR) Glyptothorax brevipinnis alaknandai Glyptothorax garhwali Glyptothorax dakpathari Category B- Endangered (EN) Glyptothorax saisii Nemicheilus doonensis Tor mosal Tor putitora Category C- Vulnerable (VU) Barilius vagra Botia histronica Cirrhinus reba Garra gotyla gotyla Glyptothorax indicus Lepidocephalus caudofurcatus Puntius sarana Schizothorax richardsonii Aspidoparia jaya Labeo dero Labeo dyocheilus Pseudecheneis sulcatus AQUATIC INSECTS : AQUATIC INSECTS 11 out of the 29 known insect orders have representatives dependent on wetlands. They are, Collembola (Spring tails), Ephemeroptera (May flies), Odonata (Dragonflies & damselflies), Plecoptera (Stone flies), hydrophilous Orthoptera (Crickets), Hemiptera (aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs), aquatic Neuroptera (Lacewings, aquatic Coleoptera (Beetles), Diptera ( Crane flies, midges Mosquitoes, Horse flies, Marsh flies, Flesh flies etc.), Trichoptera (Caddis flies) and Some parasitic Hymenoptera (Wasps). ODONATA HEMIPTERA TRICHOPTERA DIPTERA EPHEMEROPTERA Slide 69: Geographcal area of south Indian states/ number of species Andhra Pradesh- 2,75,068 sq.km./ 4 spp. Tamil Nadu-1,30,058sq.km./42 spp. Karnataka- 1,91,791sq.km/ 40 spp. Kerala- 38,863sq.km/ 37 spp. Given the land-area availability of different states, Kerala is smaller in size,but has Higher species diversity of Gerromorpha, possibly an indicator of its wetland wealth. Dragonflies & Damselflies(Insecta:Odonata) : Dragonflies & Damselflies(Insecta:Odonata) All species of Odonata are predaceous, both in their nymphal and adult stages, and mainly prey upon insects including agricultural pests and vectors of diseases. Besides, the Odonate nymphs living in wetlands are bioindicators enabling us to monitor the alterations or changes in the health of aquatic habitat systems, hence ecologically important. 500 species and subspecies of Odonata are recorded from India. Of these, 137 species occur in Kerala. FAUNAL COMPONENTS & TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN A WETLAND : FAUNAL COMPONENTS & TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN A WETLAND Slide 72: India has a diversity of 200 species of freshwater molluscs. Among the south Indian states Kerala possesses the highest diversity with 34 species as opposed to 28 in Karnatraka 33 in Tamil Nadu and 29 in Andhra Pradesh. :  Some Common Aquatic Macrophytes In Indian Wetlands Threats to Wetlands : Threats to Wetlands Reclamation for Agriculture & Uncontrolled urban development Discharge of industrial & domestic wastes Human activities & livestock grazing pressure in the surrounding ecosystem causing soil erosion leading to siltation Eutrophication Introduction of exotic species Intensive aquaculture Overexploitation of resources Values : Values Role of protein food production (Finfish & Shellfish) Livelihood ( socio-economic ) Medicinal value Source for intensive Aquaculture Biomonitoring the health of ecosystem Conservation : Conservation Total management of diversified features of the wetland for fair & equal benefits of all user groups IUCN Initiatives Conservation - Network wetland programme Information & monitoring system - Database & Inventories Planning & Management – Strategies for sustainable development Species conservation- development of conservation areas Habitat conservation- Case studies on wetlands of international significance WISE USE OF WETLANDS : WISE USE OF WETLANDS Wise use of landscape pattern (eg.:avoidance of physical conversion). Avoidance of overtly exploitation of resources (eg.: Illegal fishing, grazing). Protection of potential habitats of waterfowls. Avoidance of excessive use of fertilizers & pesticides in floodplain agricultural systems (promoting organic fertilizers & pesticides). Fostering subsistence fishing for the local populace; may be also ecofriendly aquaculture. Protection of mangrove systems; ecorestoration of open mangrove sites with mangrove saplings. Controlled fishing operations during monsoon seasons for breeding and recruitment of progenies. Implementation of coastal zone management plan practices. Promoting ecofriendly tourism. Promoting conservation awareness programmes for ensuring peoples participation. THANK YOU : THANK YOU

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