Fate of sloar energy by Abdul Hai

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Information about Fate of sloar energy by Abdul Hai

Published on December 13, 2016


Source: slideshare.net

1. Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh Topic : Solar Energy

2. Presenter  Md.Abdul Hai  Cell:+8801752003007  University : Bangladesh Agricultural University , Mymensingh,Bangladesh.  Email:abdulhai_bau_bd@asia.com

3. Supervised by Dr. Khan Md. Shaiful Islam Professor Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh 3

4. Solar energy

5. Contents Basic Concept of Sun &Solar energy History of solar energy? How Solar Energy is stored & How much? Solar is a Photovoltaic Cell Environmental Aspects Fate of solar Energy How Solar Energy is Used? Summary

6. The Sun Age: 4.6 Billion Years Type: Yellow Dwarf Diameter: 1,392,684 km Circumference at Equator: 4,370,005.6 km Surface Temperature: 5500 °C

7. At a Glance Sun

8. Sunlight on Earth


10. Introduction Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.[1][2] It is an important source of renewable energy and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Solar energy is any type of energy generated by the sun.

11. History of Solar Cells Discovery of Photovoltaic effect by French physicist , Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. A description of the first solar cells made from selenium wafer were made by Charles Fritts and operated at 1% effeciency . Charles Fritts constructed what was probably the first true solar cell. He coated a semiconductor material (selenium) with an extremely thin layer of gold. A cadmium sulphide p-n junction was produced with an efficiency of 6% Audobert and Stora discover the photovoltaic effect in cadmium sulfide (CdS). The The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy achieve a 44.7% efficiency in solar cell technology. The University of South Wales breaks the 20% efficiency barrier for silicon solar cells under one sun conditions.

12. What is solar energy? radiant energy emitted by the sun. The Sun daily provides about 10,000 times more energy to the Earth than we consume. The earth receives 174 petawatts [1015 watts] of solar radiations from the sun. The total energy absorbed by earth’s atmosphere, oceans, land mass is 3,850,000 exajoules [1018 joules] per year. The energy reaching earth’s atmosphere consists of about 8% UV radiation, 46% visible light, 46% infrared radiations.

13. What’s Solar Energy? • Solar energy Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in the sun. • Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, and radio waves). • This energy consists of radiant light and heat energy from the sun. • Out of all energy emitted by sun only a small fraction of energy is absorbed by the earth. • Just this tiny fraction of the sun’s energy is enough to meet all our power needs.

14. History of Solar Cells Discovery of Photovoltaic effect by French physicist , Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel. A description of the first solar cells made from selenium wafer were made by Charles Fritts and operated at 1% effeciency . Charles Fritts constructed what was probably the first true solar cell. He coated a semiconductor material (selenium) with an extremely thin layer of gold. A cadmium sulphide p-n junction was produced with an efficiency of 6% Audobert and Stora discover the photovoltaic effect in cadmium sulfide (CdS). The The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy achieve a 44.7% efficiency in solar cell technology. The University of South Wales breaks the 20% efficiency barrier for silicon solar cells under one sun conditions.

15. Why Solar Energy? • The fossil fuels are non renewable sources so we can not depend on them forever. • Though nuclear energy is a clean and green energy ,as said by Dr.A.P.J Abdul Kalam, there are always some problems associated with it. • So the only option we have is solar energy because it is a nonpolluting and silent source of electricity and also low maintenance and long lasting energy.

16. How solar energy is used ? • Photovoltaic Cells • Solar Thermal Energy • Solar Heating • – Solar Water Heating • – Solar Space Heating • – Solar Space Cooling • Electricity Generation Using Solar Concentrators • Photovoltaic Cells

17. Types of Solar Energy • Photovoltaic and - Photovoltaic technology directly converts sunlight into electricity. • Thermal -Solar thermal technology harnesses its heat. These different technologies both tap the Sun’s energy, locally and in large-scale solar farms. Two different types of installations are used: • Individual systems for homes or small communities. Photovoltaic panels can power electrical devices, while solar thermal collectors can heat homes or hot water. • Photovoltaic or concentrated solar power plants that cover hundreds of acres produce electricity on a large scale, which can be fed into power grids.

18. How much solar energy? The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount is usable.

19. 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Bio-fuels Hydro-based Nuclear SOLAR(0.8%) Windmills Fossils • Using present solar techniques some of the solar energy reaching the earth is utilized for generating heat, electricity etc…. • Even then the energy demand met by using solar energy is very less.

20. Structure of a Solar Cell • A typical solar cell is a multi-layered unit consisting of a: • Cover - a clear glass or plastic layer that provides outer protection from the elements. Transparent Adhesive - holds the glass to the rest of the solar cell. • Anti-reflective Coating - this substance is designed to prevent the light that strikes the cell from bouncing off so that the maximum energy is absorbed into the cell. • Front Contact - transmits the electric current. • N-Type Semiconductor Layer - This is a thin layer of silicon which has been mixed (process called doping) with phosphorous. • P-Type Semiconductor Layer - This is a thin layer of silicon which has been mixed or doped with boron. • Back Contact - transmits the electric current.

21. Basic structure of a SOLAR CELL

22. How Solar energy enters to the Earth Almost all of the Earth's energy input comes from the sun. Not all of the sunlight that strikes the top of the atmosphere is converted into energy at the surface of the Earth. The Solar energy to the Earth refers to this energy that hits the surface of the Earth itself. The amount of energy that reaches the the Earth gives a useful understanding of the energy for the Earth as a system. This energy goes towards weather, keeping the temperature of the Earth at a good level for life and powers the entire biosphere. Additionally, this solar energy can be used for solar power either with solar thermal power plants or photovoltaic cells.

23. Solar energy to the Earth Energy from Sun to Earth The Sun is generally considered to produce a constant amount of power with a surface intensity of , expressed in units of power per unit area. As the Sun's rays spread into space this radiation becomes less and less intense as an inverse square law.[1] The average radiation intensity that hits the edge of the Earth's atmosphere is known as the solar constant, or . Although this value is called a constant it varies by about 7% between January 4th (perihelion), when the Earth is closest to the sun, and July 4th (aphelion), when the Earth is furthest away.[2] Therefore a yearly average is used and is determined to be .[1] To determine this value from solar flux, the distance from the Earth to the Sun is used. As well, the total solar flux - not solar flux per unit area - must be determined. Then the total solar flux from the Sun is divided by the surface area of a sphere that has a radius equal to the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

24. How is Solar Energy Stored • One of the drawbacks of solar energy systems is that the Sun doesn't provide a constant stream of energy.On cloudy days or at night, the amount of energy your system receives is reduced or eliminated altogether. This in turn impacts the amount of electricity or heat that your system produces during those times. • To overcome this drawback, homeowners can take advantage of several methods available to them for storing solar energy. The methods available differ depending on whether you are using solar electricity applications or solar heating application.

25. Electricity from Solar Energy • Solar power is described as the conversion of sunlight into electricity. Sunlight could be changed into electricity with the use of : • Directly using PV or photovoltaic or • Indirectly by CSPs.

26. Solar Electricity Storage Homeowners are able to generate solar electricity by using a photovoltaic solar power system. There are two primary methods of Energy Storage with a PV solar power system...  Battery Banks  Grid Inter-Tie One way solar power storage can be accomplished is by using a battery bank to store the electricity generated by the PV solar power system. A battery solar power storage system is used in a grid-tied PV system with battery backup and stand-alone PV systems

27. What is a Photovoltaic Cell? also called solar cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Solar Cell (PV) Light Electricity

28. Solar is a Photovolatic Cell

29. Storing Photovoltaic Energy  Solar panels can not produce energy at night or during cloudy periods. But rechargeable batteries can store electricity: the photovoltaic panels charge the battery during the day, and this power can be drawn upon in the evening.  Residential systems usually use deep-cycle batteries that last for about ten years and can repeatedly charge and discharge about 80 percent of their capacity.  While batteries can be expensive, in remote areas it can often be more cost effective to use batteries rather than extending an electricity cable to the grid. But if choosing to go off the grid in this way, the batteries must be sized correctly, with a storage capacity sufficient to meet electricity needs. In most cases, though, purchasing electricity from the grid is cheaper than opting for batteries.

30. The PV systems convert sunlight directly into electricity using p-n junctions. The system consists of a number of modules connected together and are ideally placed on equator-facing angles, at an inclination slightly less than the site latitude. Rooftop Photovoltaics (PV)

31. Solar farms that are of larger size have a large number of large PV modules connected together for generating large amounts of solar electricity. For improving the amount of sun captured by the face of PV module some of the farms make use of tracking systems for tracking the sun. Large Scale PV Farm

32. Solar Thermal Energy Storage  Residential solar hot water systems – which use the sun’s thermal energy to heat water for the home – have a simpler storage system. Water flows through solar collectors on the roof, and then goes to a storage tank where it can be drawn upon as needed. • Concentrating solar power(CSP) plants use thermal energy to power a generator. While some CSP facilities use water as the heat transfer medium, most new systems us oil or molten salt. These fluids allow the heat energy to be stored for use during cloudy periods or at night. Parabolic troughs at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria CSP facility in Spain. Photo Credit: PSA.es  The solar resource is enormous. Just 18 days of sunshine on Earth contains the same amount of energy as is stored in all of the planet's reserves of coal, oil, and natural gas.

33. Solar Thermal Energy • Solar thermal technologies involve harvesting energy from the sun for heating water or producing electrical power. • Solar collectors are used for this purpose. • Three Types: • Flat-plate collectors • Evacuated-tube collectors • Integral collector-storage systems(Batch or Bread Box)

34. Concentrating Solar Power System Concentrating solar power devices concentrate on the sun’s thermal energy for driving a heat engine or generator. This is done by using mirrors arranged in a trough, tower or dish configuration.

35. Typical Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems are utilized in remote places in Australia and have a PV panel and battery bank for storing electricity for future usage. A generator set is needed for an emergency backup. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS)

36. Solar Power Plant • Solar power plant is based on the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect.[1] The largest photovoltaic power plant in the world is the 250 MW Agua Caliente Solar Project in Arizona.[2]  Concentrated solar power plants first appeared in the 1980s. Now, the 354 MW Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) CSP installation is the largest solar power plant in the world; it is located in the Mojave Desert, California. Other large CSP plants include the Solnova Solar Power Station (150 MW, 250 MW when finished)[3] and the Andasol solar power station (150 MW), both in Spain.[4]Solar power is increasingly used.[5][6] @Murich Airport.

37. Nuclear power plant A nuclear power plant is a type of power station that generates electricity using heat from nuclear reactions. These reactions take place within a reactor. The plant also has machines which remove heat from the reactor to operate a steam turbine and generator to make electricity. Electricity made by nuclear power plants is called nuclear power. Nuclear power plants are usually near water to remove the heat the reactor makes. Some nuclear power plants use cooling towers to do this. Nuclear power plants use uranium as fuel. When the reactor is on, uranium atoms inside the reactor split into two smaller atoms. When uranium atoms split, they give off a large amount of heat. This splitting of atoms is called fission. The most popular atoms to fission are uranium and plutonium. Those atoms are slightly radioactive. The atoms produced when fuel atoms break apart are strongly radioactive. Today, fission only happens in nuclear reactors. In nuclear reactors, fission only happens when the reactors parts are arranged properly. Nuclear power plants turn their reactors off when replacing old nuclear fuel with new fuel. There are about four hundred nuclear power plants in the world, with many in the United States, France, and Japan.

38. The solar hot water systems supply heated water at the point of use by making use of sunlight for generating heat energy and not electricity. Systems can be boosted by electricity or gas to supply heated water when the sun isn’t shining. Solar Hot Water

39. Active solar heating system makes use of solar collectors. The solar radiation heats up the collectors, which transfers heat to water or air. This kind of system is used mainly for water and space heating. Active Solar Heating

40. Passive solar heating harnesses the natural heat and the sunlight, making use of basic elements of the building like windows, walls, roofs and floors for controlling sun’s energy, which is lost or absorbed in a building and moved through air handling. Passive Solar Heating

41. These capture the sun’s heat energy in water. Salt is used for holding more heat energy in deeper parts of the pond. The water’s heat energy is stored in big insulated storage containers and may be used for powering a steam turbine and producing electricity later. Solar Ponds

42. Converting solar energy into chemical energy

43. Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion with Photoelectrochemical Tandem Cells. Efficiently and inexpensively converting solar energy into chemical fuels is an important goal towards a sustainable energy economy. An integrated tandem cell approach could reasonably convert over 20% of the sun's energy directly into chemical fuels like H2 via water splitting. Many different systems have been investigated using various combinations of photovoltaic cells and photoelectrodes, but in order to be economically competitive with the production of H2 from fossil fuels, a practical water splitting tandem cell must optimize cost, longevity and performance. In this short review, the practical aspects of solar fuel production are considered from the perspective of a semiconductor-based tandem cell and the latest advances with a very promising technology - metal oxide photoelectrochemical tandem cells - are presented Solar energy is an inexhaustible source of energy with the most potential as it will continue to produce solar power as long as the sun is there. Solar energy is totally free, widely available, produces no pollution, no emission and no noise which means generating solar power produces no carbon footprint. Among all the renewable energy sources available on Earth, solar energy is one of the most widely used renewable source of energy. Solar energy has wide array of uses. It can be used to produce electricity, to run calculators, swimming pool heating, solar oven or solar cooker. Solar energy can now also be used to fly planes. This technology is however in its initial stage. In the year 2015, Solar Impulse , the first solar powered aircraft, started its Round-The-World flight from Abu Dhabi, on March 9. There is no doubt that solar energy is going to play a significant role in meeting demand supply gap for electricity.

44. USES OF SOLAR ENERGY • Heaters Green houses • Cars water pumps • Lights Desalination • Satellites Chilling • Dryers Solar ponds • Calculators Thermal Commercial use • On an office building , roof areas can be covered with solar panels . • Remote buildings such as schools , communities can make use of solar energy. • In developing countries , this solar panels are very much useful. • Even on the highways , for every five kilometres ,solar telephones are used.

45. Solar car Solar heater Solar lights

46. Environmental Impacts of Solar Power • Land Use • Water Use • Hazardous Materials • Life-Cycle Global Warming Emissions

47. LAND USE  Depending on their location, larger utility-scale solar facilities can raise concerns about land degradation and habitat loss. Total land area requirements varies depending on the technology, the topography of the site, and the intensity of the solar resource. Estimates for utility-scale PV systems range from 3.5 to 10 acres per megawatt, while estimates for CSP facilities are between 4 and 16.5 acres per megawatt.  Unlike wind facilities, there is less opportunity for solar projects to share land with agricultural uses. However, land impacts from utility-scale solar systems can be minimized by siting them at lower-quality locations such as brownfields, abandoned mining land, or existing transportation and transmission corridors [1, 2]. Smaller scale solar PV arrays, which can be built on homes or commercial buildings, also have minimal land use impact.

48. Water Use  Solar PV cells do not use water for generating electricity. However, as in all manufacturing processes, some water is used to manufacture solar PV components.  Concentrating solar thermal plants (CSP), like all thermal electric plants, require water for cooling. Water use depends on the plant design, plant location, and the type of cooling system.  CSP plants that use wet-recirculating technology with cooling towers withdraw between 600 and 650 gallons of water per megawatt-hour of electricity produced. CSP plants with once- through cooling technology have higher levels of water withdrawal, but lower total water consumption (because water is not lost as steam). Dry-cooling technology can reduce water use at CSP plants by approximately 90 percent [3]. However, the tradeoffs to these water savings are higher costs and lower efficiencies. In addition, dry-cooling technology is significantly less effective at temperatures above 100 degrees Fahrenheit.  Many of the regions in the United States that have the highest potential for solar energy also tend to be those with the driest climates, so careful consideration of these water tradeoffs is essential.

49. Q: Which is the largest solar power producing country in the world? ? ?? ??

50. Germanyis the biggest solar power producer country in the world. It is less expensive and have no effect on humans. It is the most used method in the world now a days. Hydro is much expensive and nuclear has very bad effect on human health as it reveals radiations.

51. Top 10 largest Installed Solar Power Capacity Country in the World Rank Country Name Installed (GW) 1 Germany 35.736 2 China 18.528 3 Italy 17.861 4 Japan 13.947 5 USA 12.035 6 Spain 5.375 7 France 4.639 8 Australia 3.524 9 Belgium 3.470 10 United Kingdom 3.316

52. Top 10 largest Electricity Producer Country in the World Rank Country Name Production (GWh) 1 China 5,649,746 2 USA 4,260,463 3 India 1,102,941 4 Japan 1,088,684 5 Russia 1,069,593 6 Germany 633,618 7 Canada 626,074 8 France 568,584 9 Brazil 557,963

53. What About Our Sub- Continent?/India- Bangladesh..

54. In terms of overall installed PV capacity, India comes fourth after Japan, Germany and U.S. (With Installed capacity of 110 MW). India today is the second largest manufacturer in the world of PV panels. The Delhi Government has decided to make use of solar power compulsory for lighting up hoardings and for street lighting . Solar power generation is merely concentrated in three states. Gujarat Rajasthan Maharashtra Where India now and its total installed capacity?

55. Solar In Bangladesh View

56. IDCOL is playing a major role in expansion of Renewable Energy Technology in Bangladesh AN OVERVIEW OF IDCOL: IDCOL: 1997 Started as a fund manager • created jointly by the Government of Bangladesh and the World Bank. • to meet financing gap for large scale private sector infrastructure projects • undertook Renewable Energy program in 2003 with a view to financing green technology IDCOL: Today A full‐fledged financial intermediary • largest local financier in infrastructure and renewable energy projects • funded by the Government and multiple agencies i.e. World Bank, ADB, KfW, GIZ, IDB, GPOBA, SNV Netherlands etc.

57. Solar Power in Bangladesh • Over 1.8 million Solar Home Systems been installed benefiting over 15 million people • • Our model is internationally recognized for taking solar to the masses • More cost effective than grid infrastructure, is low maintenance and flexible – Solar is very suitable for a developing country like Bangladesh

58.  Solar panels are expensive.  Solar power is inefficient in cloudy areas.  A solar energy installation requires a large area for the system to be efficient in providing a source of electricity.  Solar power maintenance is a problem especially to those who doesn’t know the proper techniques.  Disposal is difficult for the batteries and solar panels when they have broken down because they contain toxic chemicals like lead, sulfuric acid & cadmium telluride. Disadvantages of solar cells Solarbuzz European and US All Solar Module Retail Price Index

59. Life-Cycle Global Warming Emissions  While there are no global warming emissions associated with generating electricity from solar energy, there are emissions associated with other stages of the solar life-cycle, including manufacturing, materials transportation, installation, maintenance, and decommissioning and dismantlement. Most estimates of life-cycle emissions for photovoltaic systems are between 0.07 and 0.18 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour. Most estimates for concentrating solar power range from 0.08 to 0.2 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour. In both cases, this is far less than the lifecycle emission rates for natural gas.

60. What is the Fate of Solar Energy??? ???

61. Earth Equatorial Diameter: 12,756 km Polar Diameter: 12,714 km Equatorial Circumference: 40,030 km Notable Moons: The Moon Orbit Distance: 149,598,262 km (1 AU) Orbit Period: 365.26 Earth days Surface Temperature: -88 to 58°C

62. Do you believe that the planet is warming? 1. Yes 2. No 1 2 0%0%

63. If you believe that the planet is warming, do you believe that human activity has contributed to the warming? 1. Yes 2. No 1 2 0% 100%

64. More complete picture.

65. The budget of solar radiation Reflected 35 Absorbed by atmosphere 17.5 Scattered to the Earth from blue sky 10.5 Scattered to the Earth from clouds 14.5 Radiation going directly to Earth's surface 22.5 Total 100

66. What is the Fate of Solar Energy??? • Some solar radiation is, in fact, absorbed as it travels down through the atmosphere. Mostly, this is radiation at wavelengths in the two 'tails' of the solar spectrum (Figure 5) - the ultraviolet and the near infrared. • Like water vapour and CO2, the ozone in the troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas. Unlike those two gases, however, very little of the Earth's ozone is, in fact, in the lower atmosphere; the bulk of it (some 90%) is in the stratosphere, where it forms the so- called ozone layer. In this more-rarefied region, ozone plays a different role because it also absorbs the shorter ultraviolet wavelengths in the solar spectrum - radiation that is lethal to many micro-organisms and can damage important biological molecules, leading to conditions such as skin cancer in humans. Fortunately for life on Earth, most of this radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer, preventing it from penetrating deeper into the atmosphere. • More pertinent here, the absorption of incoming solar energy by stratospheric ozone heats this region of the atmosphere directly. In effect, the stratosphere is heated from above, whereas the troposphere is heated from below. This is why the highest temperatures are found at the top of the stratosphere, but at the bottom of the troposphere.

67. What is the Fate of Solar Energy??? Global Warming has wide-ranging effects such as: 1. Increased sea levels (e.g in the Maldives) – As polar ice caps melt and fall into the sea, ocean levels will rise. E.g Snow coverage has decreased by 10% in the last 30 years in the Artic. This can pose many other complications such as: • Flooding of agricultural lowlands • Saltwater intrusion into underground aquifers, contaminating drinking water.

68. What is the Fate of Solar Energy??? 2. Extreme Weather Conditions – As sea surface temperature increases, this provides optimum conditions for storm formation, increasing the frequency and intensity of natural disasters such as hurricanes. E.g Super Storm Sandy Further complications can arise as lives and property are lost.

69. What is the Fate of Solar Energy??? • About half of the incoming near-infrared radiation is also absorbed, mainly by water vapor low down in the troposphere. In addition, the atmosphere contains a huge assortment of aerosols - fine solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in the air. • Except in the aftermath of a major volcanic eruption (of which more in Section 1.5), aerosols are also most abundant in the lower atmosphere; natural sources include desert dust wafted into the air by wind, smoke and soot from wildfires, salt from sea-spray, and so on. • Depending on their make-up, aerosols can absorb solar radiation - or (and this is usually more important) scatter some of it back to space. Globally, aerosols make a significant contribution to the Earth's albedo (included in the figure of 31% quoted earlier). They also play another important role. • Many aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei, providing surfaces that promote the condensation of water vapor to form the liquid droplets (or ice crystals, at higher and colder altitudes) suspended in clouds - a process that occurs less readily in 'clean' (i.e. aerosol-free) air.

70. Summary • Solar energy is the energy emitted by the sun. • It is the most abundant and renewable form of energy. • Photovoltaic cells convert light energy into electrical energy. • Assembly of PV cells make solar panels. • Solar panels finds its applications in many fields such as domestic lighting, solar vehicles etc. • Cost and area are big disadvantage of solar cells.

71. [1] V. Smil, “Energy at the crossroads”, OECD Global Science Forum, 2006. [2] V. Smil, “General Energetics Energy in the Biosphere and Civilization” , xiii + 369 pp (1991). [3] "Climate and Earth’s Energy Budget". NASA Earth Observatory, (2009). [4] Donald A. Neaman, “Semiconductor Physics and devices”, fourth edition, Tata McGraw Hill Pvt. Ltd., pg:- 177-197. [5] B.H.Khan, “Non –conventional energy resources”, second edition , Tata McGraw Hill Pvt. Ltd., pg:-88-192 [6] Mohit Kr. Srivastava, Sharad Kr. Gupta, Ashish Gupta, “Environmental Aspects of Solar Cell Modules”. Bibliography:

72. Thank you for your Kind Attention

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