Published on March 27, 2014
5 Factors Affecting LLS Usage by : Norazlina binti Ab Karim P66433
FACTOR #1: SOCIAL ECO STATUS ● SES plays a role in determining LLS usage [The National Child Development Study (1972) cited in Azizi et al. (2005); Hess & Shipman (1970) ; Santrock (2004); OECD (2010)] ● Higher economic status families are able to provide conducive study rooms, reading material etc hence children appears to have higher cognitive ability compared to those from lower SES [The National Child Development Study (1972) cited in Azizi et al. (2005)] ● Parents’ academic background & family income are commonly used as variables in related studies
FACTOR #1: SOCIAL ECO STATUS Social Economic background Family Acad. background ● Parents with higher acad background provide mental & physical support for childrens’ physiology & cognitive development [Kamarul Syukri & Mohamed Amin (2010)] ● Significant relationship shown between parents academic background and use of LLS [Mohd Nazli (1999) ; Mohd Nazli et al (1999); Faizahani (2002); Kamarul Syukri & Mohamed Amin (2009) ] Family income ● Parents with higher/ stable income affect LLS use [Mohd Nazli (1999) ; Mohd Nazli et al (1999); Zamri et al (2003); Kamarul Syukri & Mohamed Amin (2009) ]
FACTOR #2: EXPERIENCE IN STUDYING ENG ● may affect the choice of LLS used in learning a language ● experience in studying Eng affects LLS usage [Purdie & Oliver (1999); Taguchi (2002)] ● Study done on 3 groups: Asian, European and Arab bilingual school-aged children [Purdie & Oliver (1999)] ● Study reveals students who have been in Australia for a longer period of time showed higher mean scores for cognitive strategies and for memory strategies [Purdie & Oliver (1999); Taguchi (2002)]
FACTOR #3: Age Graham (1997) Scarcella & Oxford (1995) Ehrman & Oxford (1995) Chen (1994) adult learner has more experience & contextual knowledge compared to young learner Adult learner has more advantage in terms of syntax and morphology [Scarcella & Oxford (1995)] and is also quick at learning grammar & new vocabulary [Ehrman & Oxford (1995)] No significant relationship shown between age and LLS usage Uses more strategies in learning a language This is due to the close age gap (12-17 years old) and small sample used for certain age group Young learner uses simple & easy strategies while adult learner is flexible at using both general & sophisticated strategies [Ehrman & Oxford (1995)] However young learner can achieve near native proficiency better than adult learner Young learner can achieve near native proficiency better than adult learner [Scarcella & Oxford (1995)]
FACTOR #4: GENDER LLS [Ehrman & Oxford (1989) Green & Oxford (1995) Politzer (1983) Oxford & Nyikos (1989) Wharton (2000) Zamri (2000) Tran (1988) Chang (1990) Osanai (2000) Significant difference shown between gender and LLS Usage Chao (2002) Kamarul Syukri & Mohamed Amin (2009) No significant difference shown between gender and LLS UsageWharton (2000) Significant difference shown between gender with certain strategy usage Oxford (1994) Bacon (1992)
Factor #5: STATUS OF TARGET LANG ● Status of language learnt influences students’ LLS usage [Kamarul Syukri & Mohamed Amin (2009) ● Language learning environment between L1, L2, L3 differs from one another [Oxford & Shearin (1994)] ● Studies on LLS usage among L2 & L3 English lang learners show more strategies being employed by L2 English lang learners thanL3 English lang learners [Oxford & Burry-Stock (1995)]. ● Reason : L3 English language learners perceive less use of the target language in their everyday life ● Status of Arabic language as L2, L3 differs among scholars [Kamarulzaman et al 2002; Nurazan (2004) ; Nik Mohd Rahimi (2005), Azlina (1998)] thus influencing LLS usage while learning the language
5 factors affecting. lls usage nora ezzati binti azmi p83215 motivation socioecono mic status language proficiency level learning style gender .
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