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Factors Affecting Growth & Development of children

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Information about Factors Affecting Growth & Development of children
Health & Medicine

Published on February 10, 2009

Author: jeena.aejy

Source: slideshare.net

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JEENA AEJY M.Sc (N)

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT DEPENDS ON NOT ONLY ONE BUT A COMBINATION OF MANY FACTORS

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT DEPENDS ON NOT ONLY ONE BUT A COMBINATION OF MANY FACTORS

 

PHENOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARENTS. RACE SEX BIO-RYTHEM & MATURATION GENETIC DISORDERS

PHENOTYPE

CHARACTERISTICS OF PARENTS.

RACE

SEX

BIO-RYTHEM & MATURATION

GENETIC DISORDERS

A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism : such as its morphology , development, biochemical or physiological properties , or behaviour . Parental traits are transmitted to the offspring's. Height, size of the head, structure of the chest, fatty tissue ..etc have better genetic association than other somatic characteristics.

A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism : such as its morphology , development, biochemical or physiological properties , or behaviour .

Parental traits are transmitted to the offspring's.

Height, size of the head, structure of the chest, fatty tissue ..etc have better genetic association than other somatic characteristics.

parents of high IQ having children of the same and vice versa. (further enhanced by environmental stimulation)

Growth potential; of children of different racial groups is different E.g. African ,American ,Asian

Growth potential; of children of different racial groups is different

E.g. African ,American ,Asian

Boys are heavier & taller than girls at birth and this is maintained till 11 yrs of age. pre pubertal Growth spourt occurs earlier in girls . Once again the boys grow taller than girls once they reach the prepubertal growth spourt.

Boys are heavier & taller than girls at birth and this is maintained till 11 yrs of age.

pre pubertal Growth spourt occurs earlier in girls .

Once again the boys grow taller than girls once they reach the prepubertal growth spourt.

Daughters attaining menarche at similar age as their mothers. Similar length of menstrual cycle.

Daughters attaining menarche at similar age as their mothers.

Similar length of menstrual cycle.

G & D are adversely affected by certain genetic disorders. 1. Chromosomal abnormalities E.g. Turner syndrome, down syndrome 2. Gene mutations E.g. metabolic defects like galactosemia, mucopolysaccharidosis

G & D are adversely affected by certain genetic disorders.

1. Chromosomal abnormalities

E.g. Turner syndrome, down syndrome

2. Gene mutations

E.g. metabolic defects like galactosemia,

mucopolysaccharidosis

Physical surroundings (sunshine hygiene, living standards) Social factors (relation with other family members, teachers, friends.. etc)

Physical surroundings (sunshine hygiene, living standards)

Social factors (relation with other family members, teachers, friends.. etc)

Uterus shields the fetus from external adverse conditions.

Maternal nutritional deficiencies Mal positions metabolic , endocrine disturbances. Infectious diseases( or diseases like rubella, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, herpes) Rh incompatibility, smoking , alcohol and intake of certain drugs.

Maternal nutritional deficiencies

Mal positions

metabolic , endocrine disturbances.

Infectious diseases( or diseases like rubella, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, herpes)

Rh incompatibility, smoking , alcohol and intake of certain drugs.

These determines the pace and pattern of growth and development

Nutrition Infections & infestations Trauma socio - economic level Climate Cultural factors Emotional factors Chronic diseases Ordinal position in the family. Growth potentials.

Nutrition

Infections & infestations

Trauma

socio - economic level

Climate

Cultural factors

Emotional factors

Chronic diseases

Ordinal position in the family.

Growth potentials.

Growth of children from PEM, anemia and vitamin deficiency status is retarded Over eating and obesity accelerates somatic growth

Persistent and recurrent diarrhea and RTIs leads to growth impairment. Systemic & parasitic infections decreases velocity of growth.

Persistent and recurrent diarrhea and RTIs leads to growth impairment.

Systemic & parasitic infections decreases velocity of growth.

Fracture of the end of the bone damages the growing epiphysis and thus hampers the skeletal growth. Head injury may cause brain damage and affect the mental development of the child.

Fracture of the end of the bone damages the growing epiphysis and thus hampers the skeletal growth.

Head injury may cause brain damage and affect the mental development of the child.

High socio economic level = superior nutritional status, fewer infections . Poverty = diminished growth

High socio economic level = superior nutritional status, fewer infections .

Poverty = diminished growth

Velocity of growth may alter in different season ( usually higher in spring and low in summer months). Infections and infestations are common in hot and humid climates.

Velocity of growth may alter in different season ( usually higher in spring and low in summer months).

Infections and infestations are common in hot and humid climates.

 

Methods of child rearing & infant feeding in the community are determined by the cultural habits. Some religious taboos( related to food stuff) also affect the growth and development.

Methods of child rearing & infant feeding in the community are determined by the cultural habits.

Some religious taboos( related to food stuff) also affect the growth and development.

Children from broken homes and orphanages do not grow and develop in an optimum level.

Emotional trauma from unstable family, insecurity, sibling jealousy and revelry , loss of parents , inadequate schooling.. etc have negative effect on growth and development

Chronic diseases impair with growth & development compared with acute illness.

Chronic diseases impair with growth & development compared with acute illness.

Fist born child – gets more attention. The only child - develop more rapidly & intellectually than other children with siblings. The middle child – gets less attention & is less achievement oriented than the first born. Youngest child _ more peer oriented , less achievement oriented, less intellectually inclined …but gets great deal of love& attention( therefore develop good nature , friendly , warm personality & high self esteem).

Fist born child – gets more attention.

The only child - develop more rapidly & intellectually than other children with siblings.

The middle child – gets less attention & is less achievement oriented than the first born.

Youngest child _ more peer oriented , less achievement oriented, less intellectually inclined …but gets great deal of love& attention( therefore develop good nature , friendly , warm personality & high self esteem).

The smaller the child at birth the smaller he is likely to be in subsequent years and the vice versa.

The smaller the child at birth the smaller he is likely to be in subsequent years and the vice versa.

 

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