F# and Reactive Programming for iOS

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Information about F# and Reactive Programming for iOS

Published on May 21, 2014

Author: pixelmeister



My May 2014 presentation at the Indianapolis Cocoaheads Meetup in the use of F# and Reactive Programming (Rx) for iOS application development.

F# AND REACTIVE PROGRAMMING FOR IOS Presented at Indy CocoaHeads, May 2014 Brad Pillow, PillowSoft LLC twitter: @BradPillow

OVERVIEW • What’s new in Xamarin for F# and iOS • What is F# • What is RX (Reactive Extensions) • Using both on iOS It’s going to be a very high-level overview….

WHAT'S NEW IN XAMARIN • Support for latest iOS • IDE improvements • Speed/memory footprint optimizations • Generics and JIT issues largely fixed • More PCL (portable class library) support • Soon to have “shared project” support • Component for portable RX support • Most importantly to me, F# support

POSSIBLE TARGETS • iOS: iPhone, iPad • Mac Desktop • Android:Android phones,Android tablets, Google Glasses,Amazon FireTV,Android Watches With Xamarin: With Visual Studio: • Windows Store & Desktop • Windows Phones With FunScript or WebSharper: • Web & Web Apps

MY FIRST FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE • Back in 1976 started using APL -The Array Programming Language, developed by IBM in the 60’s (over 1/2 a century ago!) • Now experiencing a minor resurgence (see J Language) • I like to call it “programming in the language of the ancients” for Stargate Fans • Example, find all prime numbers from 1 to R: • (~R∊R∘.×R)/R←1↓ιR

WHY DOTHEY CALL IT FUNCTIONAL? The name functional comes from mathematics. If we think about pure math functions like: f(x) = sin(x) we know that for any value of x, we will always get the same value for f(x) when we do the computation.This allows us to reason better about our function, avoid the complications of mutation and state, and do optimizations like memoization.

F# AND RX LEARNING CURVE • First time I tried F# I just didn’t get it • I tried writing OOP style • That’s does not work! • Same with RX • Go with the grain and you’ll have some wonderful aha moments

THE BASICS • Type Inference • ImmutableValues vsVariables • Recursion or Loops? • Function Composition Rather than Inheritance • Functions as First-OrderTypes • Pattern Matching • But what about OOP?Yep, backward compatibility… F# is essentially a .Net implementation of OCaml, combining the power and expressive syntax of functional programming with the tens of thousands of classes which make up the .NET class library

THE BASICS A Type Inference ! Let the compiler worry about your types and proof checking that your code is correct. Known as Hindley-Milner type inference.The compiler is essentially deriving types by ensuring that everything makes sense.All the goodness of less keystrokes with dynamic typing, with all the power of static typing. Immutable Values versus variables ! Being a functional programming language, F# encourages use of values or immutable variables.You can use mutable variables, but it’s typically a “code smell”.While it may seem inefficient to ignore mutation, researchers have come up with impressive immutable data structures that are fast and share memory.

RECURSION OR LOOPS • F# and most functional programming languages prefer recursion over looping, as looping implies mutability • If we recurse, then we are typically passing values up and down through our recursion…values mean immutability • Fib in recursive form: let rec fib n = if n <= 2 then 1 else fib (n - 1) + fib (n - 2) • Recursive functions can sometimes be hard to understand • You will typical use fold, unfold and other functional variants to replace recursing let data = [("Cats",4); ("Dogs",5); ("Mice",3); ("Elephants",2)] let count = List.fold (fun acc (nm,x) -> acc+x) 0 data printfn "Total number of animals: %d" count

Function Composition Rather than Inheritance // create an "adder" by partial application of add let add42 = (+) 42 // partial application add42 1 add42 3 ! // create a new list by applying the add42 function to each element [1;2;3] |> add42 ! // create a "tester" by partial application of "less than" let twoIsLessThan = (<) 2 // partial application twoIsLessThan 1 twoIsLessThan 3 ! // filter each element with the twoIsLessThan function [1;2;3] |> List.filter twoIsLessThan ! // create a "printer" by partial application of printfn let printer = printfn "printing param=%i" ! // loop over each element and call the printer function [1;2;3] |> List.iter printer

Functions as First-OrderTypes F# liberally uses functions as types and it is a basic component of using a powerful technique called higher order functions.A higher-order function is a function that takes another function as a parameter, or a function that returns another function as a value, or a function which does both. ! The Composition Function (<< operator) In algebra, the composition function is defined as compose(f, g, x) = f(g(x)), denoted f o g. ! let f x = x*x let g x = -x/2.0 + 5.0 let fog = f << g Console.WriteLine(fog 0.0) // 25 Console.WriteLine(fog 1.0) // 20.25 ! The Pipeline Function ( |> operator) The pipeline operator, |> , is one of the most important operators in F#. Here is how it is defined: let inline (|>) x f = f x ! It allows us to write: [1 ;2; 3; 4; ] |> List.filter (fun e -> e % 2 = 0) |> (fun v -> v * v) rather than: (fun v -> v * v) (List.filter (fun e -> e % 2 = 0) [1 ;2; 3; 4; ]) The “pipeline” notation is much easier to read and conveys meaning better.

QUICK INTROTO F# VARIABLES…SORT OF // single line comments use a double slash (* multi line comments use (* . . . *) pair ! -end of multi line comment- *) ! //The "let" keyword defines an (immutable) value - note that no types are needed let myInt = 5 let myFloat = 3.14 let myString = "hello" let myList = [ “dog”; “cat”; “cow”;] let myArray = [| 1; 2; 3; 4; ] let mySequence = seq { 1..1000 } // lazy sequences Credits:

QUICK INTROTO F# LISTS let twoToFive = [2;3;4;5] // Square brackets create a list with // semicolon delimiters. let oneToFive = 1 :: twoToFive // :: creates list with new 1st element ! // The result is [1;2;3;4;5] ! let zeroToFive = [0;1] @ twoToFive // @ concats two lists ! ! // NOTE: commas are never used as delimiters, only semicolons !

QUICK INTROTO F# FUNCTIONS //The "let" keyword also defines a named function. let square x = x * x // Note that no parens are used. square 3 // Now run the function.Again, no parens. ! let add x y = x + y // don't use add (x,y)! It means something // completely different. add 2 3 // Now run the function. ! // to define a multiline function, just use indents. No semicolons needed. let evens list = let isEven x = x%2 = 0 // Define "isEven" as a sub function List.filter isEven list // List.filter is a library function // with two parameters: a boolean function // and a list to work on ! evens oneToFive // Now run the function

QUICK INTROTO F# MORE FUNCTIONS //You can use parens to clarify precedence. In this example, // do "map" first, with two args, then do "sum" on the result. // Without the parens, "" would be passed as an arg to List.sum let sumOfSquaresTo100 = List.sum ( square [1..100] ) ! //You can pipe the output of one operation to the next using "|>" // Here is the same sumOfSquares function written using pipes let sumOfSquaresTo100piped = [1..100] |> square |> List.sum // "square" was defined earlier ! // you can define lambdas (anonymous functions) using the "fun" keyword let sumOfSquaresTo100withFun = [1..100] |> (fun x->x*x) |> List.sum ! // In F# there is no "return" keyword.A function always // returns the value of the last expression used.

QUICK INTROTO F# PATTERN MATCHING // Match..with.. is a supercharged case/switch statement. let simplePatternMatch = let x = "a" match x with | "a" -> printfn "x is a" | "b" -> printfn "x is b" | _ -> printfn "x is something else" // underscore matches anything ! // Some(..) and None are roughly analogous to Nullable wrappers let validValue = Some(99) let invalidValue = None ! // In this example, match..with matches the "Some" and the "None", // and also unpacks the value in the "Some" at the same time. let optionPatternMatch input = match input with | Some i -> printfn "input is an int=%d" i | None -> printfn "input is missing" ! optionPatternMatch validValue optionPatternMatch invalidValue

QUICK INTROTO F# DATATYPES //tuples are quick 'n easy anonymous types let twoTuple = 1, 2 let threeTuple = “a", 2, true ! //record types have named fields type Person = {First:string; Last:string} let person1 = {First="john"; Last="Doe"} ! //union types have choices type Temp = | DegreesC of float | DegreesF of float let temp = DegreesF 98.6 ! //types can be combined recursively in complex ways type Employee = | Worker of Person | Manager of Employee list let jdoe = { First=“John"; Last=“Doe" } let worker = Worker jdoe

QUICK INTROTO F# PRINTING //The printf/printfn functions are similar to the // Console.Write/WriteLine functions in C#….but strongly typed! printfn "Printing an int %i, a float %f, a bool %b" 1 2.0 true printfn "A string %s, and something generic %A" "hello" [1;2;3;4] ! // all complex types have pretty printing built in printfn "twoTuple=%A,nPerson=%A,nTemp=%A,nEmployee=%A" twoTuple person1 temp worker ! //There are also sprintf/sprintfn functions for formatting data // into a string, similar to String.Format.

QUICK INTROTO F# THE REPL Definition of REPL: Read-Eval-Print Loop ! The REPL is your friend. Use it heavily while learning F#. Excellent to use when working out small algorithms as well


Peter Norvig's Spelling Corrector in F# open System.IO open System.Text.RegularExpressions ! let edits1 (word : string) = let splits = [for i in 0 .. word.Length do yield (word.[0..i-1], word.[i..])] let deletes = [for a, b in splits do if b <> "" then yield a + b.[1..]] let transposes = [for a, b in splits do if b.Length > 1 then yield a + string b.[1] + string b.[0] + b.[2..]] let replaces = [for a, b in splits do for c in 'a'..'z' do if b <> "" then yield a + string c + b.[1..]] let inserts = [for a, b in splits do for c in 'a'..'z' do yield a + string c + b] deletes @ transposes @ replaces @ inserts |> Set.ofList ! let NWORDS = File.ReadAllText "big.txt" |> (Regex "[a-zA-Z]+").Matches |> Seq.cast |> (fun (m:Match) -> m.Value.ToLower()) |> Seq.countBy id |> Map.ofSeq ! let known_edits2 word = [for e1 in edits1(word) do for e2 in edits1(e1) do if Map.containsKey e2 NWORDS then yield e2] |> let known words = [for w in words do if Map.containsKey w NWORDS then yield w] |> Set.ofList ! let (<||>) (first : Lazy<_>) (second : Lazy<_>) : Lazy<_> = lazy(if Set.isEmpty first.Value then second.Value else first.Value) let correct word = (lazy known([word]) <||> lazy known(edits1(word)) <||> lazy known_edits2(word) <||> lazy Set.singleton word).Value |> Seq.sortBy (fun w -> -NWORDS.[w]) |> Seq.head ! // Example correct "speling"

WHY RX Integrated LINQ (language Integrated Query) is integrated into the C# language. Unitive Using LINQ allows you to leverage your existing skills for querying data at rest (LINQ to SQL, LINQ to XML or LINQ to objects) to query data in motion.You could think of Rx as LINQ to events. LINQ allows you to transition from other paradigms into a common paradigm. For example you can transition a standard .NET event, an asynchronous method call, aTask or perhaps a 3rd party middleware API into a single common Rx paradigm. By leveraging our existing language of choice and using familiar operators like Select,Where, GroupBy etc, developers can rationalize and communicate designs or code in a common form. Extensible You can extend Rx with your own custom query operators (extension methods). Declarative LINQ allows your code to read as a declaration of what your code does and leaves the how to the implementation of the operators.

WHENTO USE RX? Managing events like these is what Rx was built for: • UI events like mouse move, button click • Gestures - see • Domain events like property changed, collection updated, "Order Filled", "Registration accepted" etc. • Infrastructure events like from file watcher, system events • Integration events like a broadcast from a message bus or a push event

KEY RX DATATYPES • IObserver<T> - an object that can observe an observable by subscribing to it, receives OnNext, OnError and OnCompleted form observables • IObserverable<T> - an object that can be observed. Allows other to observe it via the Subscribe method. • ISubject<T> - and observer and an observable

F# RX OPERATORS add - Create an observer which permanently subscribes to the given observable and which calls the given function for each observation. ! subscribe - Create an observer which subscribes to the given observable and which calls the given function for each observation. ! map - Return an observable which transforms the observations of the source by the given function. ! filter - Return an observable which filters the observations of the source by the given function. ! scan - Return an observables which, for each observer, allocates an item of state and applies the given accumulating function to successive values arising from the input.The returned object will trigger observations for each computed state value, excluding the initial value.The returned object propagates all errors arising from the source and completes when the source completes. ! choose - Return an observable which chooses a projection of observations from the source using the given function. ! split - Return two observables which split the observations of the source by the given function.

RX EXAMPLE A let observable = new Subject<int>() ! let mySubscribe = let interested = observable |> Observable.filter (fun x -> x%2=0) interested.Subscribe(fun i -> Console.WriteLine("Hello " + i.ToString())) ! let myYields = observable.OnNext(1) observable.OnNext(2) observable.OnNext(3) observable.OnNext(4)

RX EXAMPLE B // Create form let form = new Form(Visible=true,TopMost=true,Text="Event Sample") ! // Create under and over for X andY coordinates let (overEvent, underEvent) = form.MouseDown |> Observable.merge form.MouseMove |> Observable.filter (fun args -> args.Button = MouseButtons.Left) |> (fun args -> (args.X, args.Y)) |> Observable.partition (fun (x, y) -> x > 100 && y > 100) ! // Subscribe to each let overSubscription = overEvent |> Observable.subscribe (fun (x, y) -> printfn "Over (%d, %d)" x y) let underSubscription = underEvent |> Observable.subscribe (fun (x, y) -> printfn "Under (%d, %d)" x y) // Much later, clean up overSubscription.Dispose() underSubscription.Dispose()

SO MUCH MORE!! • Quotations - your code as meta-data • Computation Expressions - for language oriented programming • Type Providers - type safe access to untyped data • Async - came before C#’s but just as powerful • Agents - for multi-threaded and concurrent apps • Active Patterns - wrap ad hoc values and objects in union-like structures for use in pattern matching. • Units Of Measurement - “unit safe” computing • DSL’s - define more user friendly, internal dsl’s

F#TYPE PROVIDERS TWITTER SEARCH IN 10 LINES typeT = FSharp.Data.JsonProvider<""> let tweets (tag : string) (since : System.DateTime) = let enc = System.Web.HttpUtility.UrlEncode : string -> string let rec page n = let data =T.Load(sprintf "" (enc tag) n since.Year since.Month since.Day) seq{ yield! data.Results if not (Seq.isEmpty data.Results) then yield! page (n + 1) } page 1 ! // usage tweets "#fsharp" (System.DateTime.Parse("5/17/2013")) |> Seq.iter ( fun t -> printfn "%-21O %-15s %s" t.CreatedAt t.FromUser t.Text ) Ref:

SIMPLE IOS EXAMPLE namespace Simple open System open MonoTouch.UIKit open MonoTouch.Foundation open System.Drawing type ContentView ( color : UIColor ) as self = inherit UIView () do self.BackgroundColor < - color type SimpleController ( ) = inherit UIViewController () override this.ViewDidLoad () = this.View <- new ContentView(UIColor.Blue) [<Register ("AppDelegate")>] type AppDelegate () = inherit UIApplicationDelegate () let window = new UIWindow (UIScreen.MainScreen.Bounds) // This method is invoked when the application is ready to run. override this.FinishedLaunching (app, options) = let viewController = new SimpleController() viewController.Title <- "F# Rocks" let navController = new UINavigationController(viewController) window.RootViewController <- navController window.MakeKeyAndVisible () true module Main = [<EntryPoint>] let main args = UIApplication.Main (args, null, "AppDelegate") 0 Credits:

IOS EXAMPLE WITH RX member this.Setup() = let WIDTH = 32.0f ! let chars = " F# reacts to events!" |> (fun c -> new UILabel( Text = c.ToString(System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture), Frame = RectangleF(100.f, 100.f, 24.f, 24.f), BackgroundColor = UIColor.Clear, TextAlignment = UITextAlignment.Center, TextColor = UIColor.White, Font = UIFont.FromName("courier", 24.0f) )) |> Seq.toArray ! ! do for tb in chars do this.AddSubview(tb) ! this.AddSubview( new UILabel( Text = "Hello World!", Frame = RectangleF(50.f, 50.f, 400.f, 50.f), BackgroundColor = UIColor.Clear, TextAlignment = UITextAlignment.Left, TextColor = UIColor.White, Font = UIFont.FromName("courier", 32.0f) )); ! this.BackgroundColor <- color this.UserInteractionEnabled <- true this.MultipleTouchEnabled <- true ! touchMoveEvent |> Observable.add (fun p -> async { for i in 0..chars.Length-1 do do! Async.Sleep(90) this.UpdateLabelPosition(chars.[i], p, i) } |> Async.StartImmediate ) |> ignore

VIEWMODEL FORTIPCALC UI type MainViewModel() = let payCommand = new ReactiveCommand() let _ = payCommand.Subscribe(fun (boolVal) -> printfn "Paid") ! let subTotalText = new ReactiveProperty<string>() let subTotal = new ReactiveProperty<float>() let tipPercent = new ReactiveProperty<float>() let calculatedTip = dependentsToReactiveProperty<float, float, float> subTotal tipPercent (fun x y -> x * (y / 100.0)) let calculatedTotal = dependentsToReactiveProperty<float, float, float> subTotal calculatedTip (fun x y -> x + y) ! member this.Subtotal with get() = subTotal member this.TipPercent with get() = tipPercent member this.CalculatedTip with get() = calculatedTip member this.CalculatedTotal with get() = calculatedTotal member this.PayCommand with get() = payCommand ! member this.InputText with get () = inputText member this.DisplayText with get() = displayText member this.ReplaceTextCommand with get() = replaceTextCommand

DSL FORVIEW A this.mainModel <- new MainViewModel() ! let payButton = Button (text = "Click Me!") let subtotalLabel = Label (text = "Subtotal:") let subtotalTextField = TextField () let tipPercentLabel = Label (text = "Tip Percent:") let tipPercentTextField = TextField () let tipPercentSlider = Slider(min = 0., max = 100.) let totalLabel = Label (text = "Total:") let totalValueTextField = TextField () ! let tipView = View(content = [ subtotalLabel; subtotalTextField; tipPercentSlider; tipPercentLabel; tipPercentTextField; totalLabel; totalValueTextField; payButton; loadTemplateButton; loadMarkdownButton; webView; ]) ! let _ = this.mainModel.TipPercent.Subscribe(fun f -> printfn "slider moved to %f" f) let _ = this.mainModel.Subtotal.Subscribe(fun f -> printfn “sub-total is %f" f) ! let altUIBindings = [ Command(payButton, this.mainModel.PayCommand ); Command(loadTemplateButton, loadTemplateCommand ); Command(loadMarkdownButton, loadMarkdownCommand ); ValueToFromFloat(tipPercentSlider, this.mainModel.TipPercent); ValueToFromString(tipPercentTextField, this.mainModel.TipPercent |> floatToStringProperty); ValueToString(subtotalTextField, this.mainModel.Subtotal |> floatToStringProperty) ValueFromString(totalValueTextField, this.mainModel.CalculatedTotal |> floatToStringProperty) ]

DSL FORVIEW B let layoutConstraints = [ UIConstraint( sprintf "|-[%s]-[%s]-[%s]-|" tipPercentSlider.Id tipPercentLabel.Id tipPercentTextField.Id, [LayoutAlignOption.AlignAllBaseline]); UIConstraint( sprintf "[%s]-[%s]-|" totalLabel.Id totalValueTextField.Id, [LayoutAlignOption.AlignAllBaseline]); UIConstraint( sprintf "[%s]-[%s]-|" subtotalLabel.Id subtotalTextField.Id, [LayoutAlignOption.AlignAllBaseline]); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:|-[%s]" subtotalLabel.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s]-[%s]" subtotalLabel.Id tipPercentLabel.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s]-[%s]" tipPercentLabel.Id totalLabel.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s]-[%s]-[%s]" subtotalLabel.Id tipPercentLabel.Id totalLabel.Id, [LayoutAlignOption.AlignAllRight]); UIConstraint( sprintf "[%s(>=70)]" tipPercentTextField.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s(>=20)]" tipPercentTextField.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s(==%s)]" subtotalTextField.Id tipPercentTextField.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s(==%s)]" totalValueTextField.Id tipPercentTextField.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "[%s(==%s)]" tipPercentSlider.Id tipPercentTextField.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s]-[%s]" totalLabel.Id payButton.Id); ! UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s]-|" webView.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "|-[%s]-|" webView.Id); UIConstraint( sprintf "V:[%s]-[%s]-[%s]-[%s]" payButton.Id loadTemplateButton.Id loadMarkdownButton.Id webView.Id, [LayoutAlignOption.AlignAllCenterX]); UIConstraint(payButton).WithSameCenterX(tipView); ] let viewSpec = { content = tipView; layout = layoutConstraints; bindings = altUIBindings } let viewFactory = UIFactory(viewSpec) let mainView = viewFactory.Build() ! this.ContentView <- mainView ()

WHYYOU SHOULD INVESTIGATE F# & RX • You like Python and wish it was a statically typed language • You like functional languages like Lisp, but have gone insane looking at too many parenthesis • You like Objective-C, C# or C++, but feel there just has to be a better way to express your ideas • You like math and see to elegance and beauty in function composition, immutability, folds, monoids, etc. • You want to use one language and yet target an amazing variety of devices and platforms with native performing code

WARNING!!! It’s addictive! Don’t believe me? Follow #FSharp onTwitter. THANKS!!

REFERENCES • F# Wiki Book - • Local author, Dave Fancher:The Book of F# - • The F# Foundation - • Reactive Extensions - • Xamarin - • F# and RX - • RX Examples (in C#) - • F# For Fun And Profit Blog -

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