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Extreme Heat Training by NOAA/National Weather Service

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Information about Extreme Heat Training by NOAA/National Weather Service
Business & Mgmt

Published on March 16, 2014

Author: complianceandsafety

Source: slideshare.net

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ExtremeHeat: How it Killsand What WeCan Do About It Gail Hartfield Meteorologist NOAA/National WeatherService - Raleigh, NC American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

We’ll discuss...  Heat dangers  Warning signs  Those most at risk  Aggravating factors  Why heat dangers “get no respect”  What can be done:  NWS’s role  Community awareness/preparedness  Informational posters & handouts targeting at-risk groups  Excessive Heat Danger Awareness Day (media involvement)  National expansion of awareness program American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Why should we care about heat? American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Heat waves kill (and injure)  Called the “silent disaster”  Develop slowly  Kill 175 people nationwide in average year... more than tornadoes, hurricanes, lightning, or flooding (& injure many more)  7,421 deaths from 1979 to 1998; 2,590 deaths from 1986 to 2003 American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005  The #1 weather killer every year from 1998-2002

American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005 U.S. Excessive Heat Deaths 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 19861987 19881989 1990 19911992 19931994 19951996 19971998 1999 20002001 20022003 Year Deaths

In North Carolina…  UNC study: 161 deaths 1977-2001  NWS Storm Data: 14 NC deaths directly attributed to heat 1998-2001 (this is greatly underreported)  Many more were injured, & heat contributed to other deaths  NWS doesn’t actively seek heat injury/death data  Dept. of Health and Human Services and hospitals do not report to NWS  Many people moving here aren’t acclimatized  2004 NCAR modeling study:  More & worse heat waves to come (Science, August 13, 2004) American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Europe Heat Wave: August 2003  Temperatures regularly exceeded 104˚ for 10 days  Air conditioning uncommon  Nearly 15,000 died in France; European toll was near 35,000 (Earth Policy Institute estimation)  Heat wave hit during August, when many doctors & hospital staff take vacation  Morgue workers were called out of retirement to help American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005 Europe Heat Wave: August 2003

American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Chicago Heat Wave: July 12-16, 1995  Temperature over 98° for four days in a row  High of 106° on 7/13  Heat indices well over 110°  Over 700 deaths from heatstroke and heat-related illness  Exacerbated by urban heat island effects American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Graphic courtesy of LLBL Heat Island Group Urban Heat Island Effect No rth Caro lina Natural Hazard Co nference 2002 Sunset Beach, NC March 4-6 , 2002

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Hottest temp ever at RDU: 105˚

Hottest temp ever at RDU: 105˚

Heat rash Sunburn Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heat stroke Heat Illnesses (“Hyperthermia”)Severity American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

 More serious than heat cramps  Caused by depletion of salt/water due to:  Intense prolonged exercise  Gradual dehydration  Symptoms:  Painful heat cramps  Heavy sweating  Fast/weak pulse; shallow breathing  Dizziness, headache, nausea  Can progress to heat stroke Heat Exhaustion American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Heat Stroke  Body becomes unable to regulate itself & sweating mechanism fails; core body temperature rises  IMMEDIATE attention required... body temperature can rise to >106° in 10-15 min.  Symptoms:  Very high body temperature  Red, hot skin  Rapid strong pulse  Throbbing headache  Confusion– altered mental state  Dizziness, nausea, vomiting  Unconsciousness American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Who’s most at risk?  Children  Outdoor workers (construction, roofers, migrant workers)  Military  Elderly (especially urban) American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

The Elderly and Extreme Heat  55% of fatalities in 2003 were over 70 yrs. old  “Classic” heat stroke: builds over time  Often isolated & difficult to reach  May not have air conditioning, or turn it off to reduce bills  May not dress properly for the heat  May not open windows due to safety concerns  Immobile… unable to get to cooling centers  Medication can make them vulnerable American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Children and Extreme Heat  Over 213 children have died from heat stroke in vehicles in the U.S. since 1998  One third: trapped while playing  When temp=83°, car temp can rise to 109° in 15 minutes  Bodies don’t self-regulate like adults  Core temperature can rise 3-5 times faster than that of adult  Might not know they’re dehydrated  May not be able to convey thirst American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Outdoor Workers & Extreme Heat  25% of heat-related deaths in NC  Documented deaths and injuries include:  Migrant workers  Roofers  Firefighters  Often work long hours in direct sunlight  May not have adequate shade or air conditioning  Abundant water alone won’t prevent illness American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

The Military & Extreme Heat  New recruits performing strenuous training, pushed by drill sergeants  Lack of acclimatization (from Medical Surveillance Monthly Report, U.S. Army) American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

The “newest” at-risk group... 18 high school & college football deaths 1995-2002… 104 heat stroke cases resulting in death from 1960 to 2004… … all of which could have been prevented !

Korey Stringer: 1974-2001 Lots of warning signs…  Temps in low 90s with “stifling humidity”  Vomited 3 times that morning  Lost consciousness after drills ended  Paramedics couldn’t get blood pressure reading  Body temp: 108.8°  Kidneys began failing, then heart failed American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Athletes and Extreme Heat  Exertional heat stroke (rather than classic)  At risk: Includes football players, wrestlers, runners  Body producing heat faster than it can be shed  Sudden, noticeable alteration in mental function: disorientation, combativeness, irritability  Egos & competition may play role  Some drugs can worsen heat death risk  Ephedra-related death of Oriole player Steve Bechler in ’03; body temp was 108˚ American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

If they’re so bad… why don’t heat dangers get attention?  Not as urgent/exciting as tornadoes & hurricanes  Threat creeps up slowly  Public confusion abounds...  “Code yellow”, “code orange”, “code red” days: for ozone, not necessarily dangerous heat !  Heat index: what does it mean?  Temperatures are in shade; sun adds 15+° Educationis needed!! American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

www.nws.noaa.gov/om/heat/ Heat index info… explanation of alert program… heat disorder info Forecasts/warnings… brochures… past heat waves American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

The Heat Index American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Excessive Heat  Defined by NWS as: 1) Heat index ≥ 110° for 3 hrs or more, with overnight temps > 80° through ~ 2 am 2) Heat index ≥ 115° for any length of time American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005  Problem: heat can be dangerous below these criteria for at-risk groups – especially for the first event of the year

NWS Heat Products  Excessive Heat Outlooks  Issued for 2nd or 3rd day of forecast  Excessive Heat Watches  12-36 hr period  Heat Advisories  HI 105°-109° for 3 hours (1st period)  Excessive Heat Warnings  HI 110° for 3 hours  Additional alerts:  Include HI in forecasts  Special Weather Statements providing risk details & safety rules American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

NWS Heat Products 3 to 7 day max heat index outlook 6-10 day & 8-14 day max heat index outlook American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

This is great stuff, but… … useless if no one sees it!! We need to get the word out... American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Informational materials Elder care facilities Day care centers Schools Agriculture groups Military bases Churches … Media coverage can tie it all together American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Materials for at-risk groups  Posters  Locally produced & tailored to NC  Can be posted year-round  Contain:  Heat index forecast sources  Illness danger signs & first aid tips  Prevention tips  Pamphlets  Can be taken home  Handy reference: heat index chart, warning signs American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

Latest public education efforts  WFO Raleigh distributed information packets to 140 high schools across central NC  Locally-produced color posters  Locally-produced pamphlets  Talking points  Declaration of Heat Awareness Day in central NC  Heat-related experiments for younger children  Local web site developed  www.erh.noaa.gov/rah/heat/  Includes 3-hourly HI forecasts & longer range outlooks American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005  Summer 2004: NWS Raleigh partnered with the North Carolina High School Athletic Association on awareness campaign

Upcoming plans:  Expand information dissemination to  Ag groups  Need to translate all materials into Spanish  Middle schools and elementary schools  Day care centers and preschools  Posters for centers, pamphlets for parents  Elder care facilities, military bases  Expand local web site  Publicize local heat index forecasts American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

National Heat/Health Watch/Warning System  Announced at 2005 national AMS meeting  Tested last year in major cities where death tolls are highest  Set threat based on temperature, dewpoint, sky, and wind  Will be expanded to more cities this summer American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005  Also needed: improved calls-to-action at the local level  Specific actions to be taken by casual & organized athletic groups, elderly

Thank you for your time and attention! Any questions? Gail.Hartfield@noaa.gov American Meteo ro lo gical So ciety Central No rth Caro lina Chapter April 21 , 2005

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