Extensive Reading

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Published on August 14, 2008

Author: Lingtechguistics

Source: slideshare.net

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A sample extensive reading program proposal for the study of social theory in the second language classroom

EXTENSIVE READING PROGRAMS AS ENVIRONMENTS FOR CULTURAL TOLERANCE, EDUCATION, AND SOCIAL CHANGE. Michelle Ossa

ABSTRACT Goal: a) To illustrate the theme of Depth component b) To demonstrate how Bronfenbrenner’s Model of Human ecology is mirrored in an extensive reading program Bibliography Bronfenbrenner Application

ABSTRACT

Goal:

a) To illustrate the theme of Depth component

b) To demonstrate how Bronfenbrenner’s Model of Human ecology is mirrored in an extensive reading program

Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. Reading , MA: Addison-Wesley . The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) is an instructional model first proposed in 1986, and still considered one of the most potent approaches that was developed to meet the academic needs of students learning English as a second language in American schools (p.3). It is a model that was based on research findings on cognition. It integrates academic language development (ALL), content area instruction, explicit instruction in learning strategies, and it includes both content and language acquisition. The model has been reviewed and been refined. The result of the latest review is the CALLA Handbook , first published in 1994. The purpose of the handbook is to solidify a foundation and offer basic guidelines to build an effective a CALLA program. CALLA is an approach that integrates an entire academic curriculum under the scope of target language learning, making it useful and relevant to the learner. The reason why this handbook is essential to the depth and application components of this KAM is because it explains the importance of including cooperative learning, the language experience approach, academic content, language skills, and learning strategies as part of any classroom-based learning system. The depth component of this KAM will analyze recent research about the effectiveness of extensive learning in the ESL classroom under the scope of Bronfenbrenner’s Social ecology theory. The application project will aim to actually build an extensive reading program using the model of social ecology, complete with all the aspects to be taken into consideration. On the basis of this, the CALLA handbook will be immensely beneficial since it offers the research-based factors that are most important to back up the rationale behind establishing such a program in an ESL classroom.

Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. Reading , MA: Addison-Wesley .

The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) is an instructional model first proposed in 1986, and still considered one of the most potent approaches that was developed to meet the academic needs of students learning English as a second language in American schools (p.3). It is a model that was based on research findings on cognition. It integrates academic language development (ALL), content area instruction, explicit instruction in learning strategies, and it includes both content and language acquisition. The model has been reviewed and been refined. The result of the latest review is the CALLA Handbook , first published in 1994.

The purpose of the handbook is to solidify a foundation and offer basic guidelines to build an effective a CALLA program. CALLA is an approach that integrates an entire academic curriculum under the scope of target language learning, making it useful and relevant to the learner.

The reason why this handbook is essential to the depth and application components of this KAM is because it explains the importance of including cooperative learning, the language experience approach, academic content, language skills, and learning strategies as part of any classroom-based learning system. The depth component of this KAM will analyze recent research about the effectiveness of extensive learning in the ESL classroom under the scope of Bronfenbrenner’s Social ecology theory. The application project will aim to actually build an extensive reading program using the model of social ecology, complete with all the aspects to be taken into consideration. On the basis of this, the CALLA handbook will be immensely beneficial since it offers the research-based factors that are most important to back up the rationale behind establishing such a program in an ESL classroom.

Clarity, M. (2007) An Extensive Reading Program for Your ESL classroom The Internet TESL Journal , 13 (8) retrieved from the Internet December 2, 2007 from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/ClarityExtensiveReading.html The purpose of this article is to provide ESL/EFL teachers with guidelines and information that would promote an extensive reading program. The philosophical background of this article is research-based premise that second language learners will improve their language learning skills through exposure to reading, as stated in other research articles within this KAM. The author offers a variety of rationales that support these claims. Such rationale implies also that an extensive reading program is a way to connect the second language learner not only to the language skills, but also to the classroom as a social system. Implementing an extensive reading program based on free will reading might help the second language (L2) student feel safe and accepted enough in the classroom to perceive himself as part of the its sociology, and himself as a member of a group. In addition to this, extensive reading can help L2 students engage in discussions, consolidate their vocabulary, develop their speaking fluency, learn new words, and develop a further love for literacy. The author suggests that adult ESL learners can benefit from an extensive reading program as well, particularly if the teacher can find creative ways to use books as conversation subjects i.e, book clubs, book discussion sessions, plays, and other. The author gathered this information from her own personal experience as an ESL teacher, and from the ample amount of recent research that points to reading and exposure to literacy as key elements that aid in the process of second language acquisition. Moreover, the importance of this article to the depth and application components of this KAM is that it shows how including this element as part of an effective ESL program not only will aid in the student’s learning success, but it also mirrors the social systems theory and the model of social ecology. The way it does it is by centering the student in the nest of a multi-level classroom system where all the tools are provided to ensure success. In addition to it, it shows how implementing an extensive reading program will help the student seek and identify his or her role within a social system conducive to learning.

Clarity, M. (2007) An Extensive Reading Program for Your ESL classroom The Internet TESL Journal , 13 (8) retrieved from the Internet December 2, 2007 from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/ClarityExtensiveReading.html

The purpose of this article is to provide ESL/EFL teachers with guidelines and information that would promote an extensive reading program. The philosophical background of this article is research-based premise that second language learners will improve their language learning skills through exposure to reading, as stated in other research articles within this KAM. The author offers a variety of rationales that support these claims. Such rationale implies also that an extensive reading program is a way to connect the second language learner not only to the language skills, but also to the classroom as a social system.

Implementing an extensive reading program based on free will reading might help the second language (L2) student feel safe and accepted enough in the classroom to perceive himself as part of the its sociology, and himself as a member of a group. In addition to this, extensive reading can help L2 students engage in discussions, consolidate their vocabulary, develop their speaking fluency, learn new words, and develop a further love for literacy. The author suggests that adult ESL learners can benefit from an extensive reading program as well, particularly if the teacher can find creative ways to use books as conversation subjects i.e, book clubs, book discussion sessions, plays, and other.

The author gathered this information from her own personal experience as an ESL teacher, and from the ample amount of recent research that points to reading and exposure to literacy as key elements that aid in the process of second language acquisition. Moreover, the importance of this article to the depth and application components of this KAM is that it shows how including this element as part of an effective ESL program not only will aid in the student’s learning success, but it also mirrors the social systems theory and the model of social ecology. The way it does it is by centering the student in the nest of a multi-level classroom system where all the tools are provided to ensure success. In addition to it, it shows how implementing an extensive reading program will help the student seek and identify his or her role within a social system conducive to learning.

Fritze, J., & Rowan, K. (2005). Access to books and a quiet comfortable place to read: A practical guide to establishing a free voluntary reading program. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1 (4), 27-29. Retrieved November 10, 2007 from http://www.tprstories.com/ijflt/IJFLTFall05 This paper is philosophically grounded in the frameworks that second language (L2) acquisition is most effective when students are exposed to literacy. The author bases that premise to advocate that the highest level of access and availability to reading materials is imperative to make this aspect of second language learning a successful system. The article calls for the use of a classroom library is a resource that would continuously expose all students to literacy and reading materials, and L2 students would benefit immensely from this opportunity to do free, voluntary reading. However, the author argues that the two main problems that teachers face when creating these libraries include limited access to the right books, and lack of learning environments conducive to reading inside the classroom. Other factors such as time management, class schedules and testing requirements of each school makes it harder for teachers to dedicate a block of free reading time for their students. Due to these constraints, the authors offer a guide with suggestions on how to overcome these obstacles. The suggestions for getting books include obtaining access from a public library under a teaching account that would allow more checkouts for longer periods of time, using school and PTO funding for the purchase of yearly-based licenses that allow printing and downloading books online, asking for scholastic book order donations, and inviting the parents to participate in book fairs. For accessibility, the authors suggest the use of rain gutters as bookshelves that can be mounted to the walls, asking for donations of comfortable, soft chairs or bean bags, large pillows, and sheets to place on the floor, asking the students to elect their spot to read and the titles that they want to read, and putting all materials at eye level, within reach, labeled, and organized. The importance of this research to the depth and application portions of this KAM is that it offers yet another element that can be included in a model ESL system within a classroom, and also provides different ways to involve the mesosystem within the ecology of the classroom as a social system.

Fritze, J., & Rowan, K. (2005). Access to books and a quiet comfortable place to read: A practical guide to establishing a free voluntary reading program. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1 (4), 27-29. Retrieved November 10, 2007 from http://www.tprstories.com/ijflt/IJFLTFall05

This paper is philosophically grounded in the frameworks that second language (L2) acquisition is most effective when students are exposed to literacy. The author bases that premise to advocate that the highest level of access and availability to reading materials is imperative to make this aspect of second language learning a successful system. The article calls for the use of a classroom library is a resource that would continuously expose all students to literacy and reading materials, and L2 students would benefit immensely from this opportunity to do free, voluntary reading. However, the author argues that the two main problems that teachers face when creating these libraries include limited access to the right books, and lack of learning environments conducive to reading inside the classroom.

Other factors such as time management, class schedules and testing requirements of each school makes it harder for teachers to dedicate a block of free reading time for their students. Due to these constraints, the authors offer a guide with suggestions on how to overcome these obstacles. The suggestions for getting books include obtaining access from a public library under a teaching account that would allow more checkouts for longer periods of time, using school and PTO funding for the purchase of yearly-based licenses that allow printing and downloading books online, asking for scholastic book order donations, and inviting the parents to participate in book fairs.

For accessibility, the authors suggest the use of rain gutters as bookshelves that can be mounted to the walls, asking for donations of comfortable, soft chairs or bean bags, large pillows, and sheets to place on the floor, asking the students to elect their spot to read and the titles that they want to read, and putting all materials at eye level, within reach, labeled, and organized. The importance of this research to the depth and application portions of this KAM is that it offers yet another element that can be included in a model ESL system within a classroom, and also provides different ways to involve the mesosystem within the ecology of the classroom as a social system.

Furr, M.(2007). Reading circles: Moving great stories from the periphery of the language classroom to its centre. The Language Teacher, 31 (5), 15-18. This article shows the importance of using reading circles in order to teach second language. Reading circles combine the skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening that would benefit greatly those students who are learning English for the first time. According to Furr, they “provide two things often lacking in many communication courses: material that is both comprehensible and interesting to talk about, and a framework which makes having a real discussion in English an achievable goal for students.” In the research presented in the article, Furr shows that communication courses often lack the materials that would help support and enrich the process of learning English. The research suggests that students have a proven tendency to enjoy reading graded readers, regardless of their age groups. It is the level of the book and the ability to connect to books of the proper lexile level what primarily motivates students to continue reading. ESL learners are no different in this respect. Therefore, the author proposes that reading circles would serve as the vehicle that these students would need, regardless of their age group, to connect to the language, and to other students who also share a love for reading. The article also advocates the use of reading circles as a way to entice communication, classroom discussions, dialogue, critical thinking, and to foster a continuous love for reading.

Gibbons, P. (2006) Bridging discourse in the ESL classroom. Sydney. Continuum International. This book presents a compilation of research performed by Gibbons herself, where she examines the interactions between learners and teachers in a content-based classroom where English is the primary language. The investigation aims to disclose patterns of discourse which can support the second language acquisition component of the classroom as well as curriculum integration, learning, and all the contexts in which they occur. The importance of this book to the literature and research component of the depth and application portions of this KAM is that it organizes the observations of how the learning occurs in the classroom under a sociocultural scope. This scope translates into classrooms that are sociologically organized, showing the basic social systems basics such as classroom rules, roles, support systems, and leadership. According to Bronfenbrenner’s model of social ecology, all these elements are essential for the proper development of a well-rounded individual. The research paper component of this KAM will show how the social ecology theory can be applied into an ESL classroom’s extensive reading program. Therefore, Gibbons’s book presents as if in a graphic organizer different ideas that can be applied to an extensive language program using the model of social ecology to anticipate greater language acquisition. In addition to this organizational benefit, Gibbons provides enough background research that, combined with the other research presented in the annotated bibliography of this KAM, will serve as both theoretical and research frameworks to prove the effectiveness of a potential program of this nature. Gibbons’s book starts with a sociocultural view on language and learning that is later combined with the inclusion of literacy in the ESL classroom. On the second part of her book, she describes the roles of both teachers and learners within the classroom as part of a social system that interacts together to make one common mission possible: The acquisition of language.

Gibbons, P. (2006) Bridging discourse in the ESL classroom. Sydney. Continuum International.

This book presents a compilation of research performed by Gibbons herself, where she examines the interactions between learners and teachers in a content-based classroom where English is the primary language. The investigation aims to disclose patterns of discourse which can support the second language acquisition component of the classroom as well as curriculum integration, learning, and all the contexts in which they occur. The importance of this book to the literature and research component of the depth and application portions of this KAM is that it organizes the observations of how the learning occurs in the classroom under a sociocultural scope. This scope translates into classrooms that are sociologically organized, showing the basic social systems basics such as classroom rules, roles, support systems, and leadership. According to Bronfenbrenner’s model of social ecology, all these elements are essential for the proper development of a well-rounded individual.

The research paper component of this KAM will show how the social ecology theory can be applied into an ESL classroom’s extensive reading program. Therefore, Gibbons’s book presents as if in a graphic organizer different ideas that can be applied to an extensive language program using the model of social ecology to anticipate greater language acquisition. In addition to this organizational benefit, Gibbons provides enough background research that, combined with the other research presented in the annotated bibliography of this KAM, will serve as both theoretical and research frameworks to prove the effectiveness of a potential program of this nature.

Gibbons’s book starts with a sociocultural view on language and learning that is later combined with the inclusion of literacy in the ESL classroom. On the second part of her book, she describes the roles of both teachers and learners within the classroom as part of a social system that interacts together to make one common mission possible: The acquisition of language.

Hunt, A. & Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17 (1), 23-59. Retrieved April 27, 2007, from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2005/hunt/hunt.html The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic framework for EFL teaching that can be implemented and used in a learning system in order to speed up the process of lexical development. This systems-based framework consists on two approaches: promoting explicit lexical instruction and learning strategies, and encouraging the use of implicit lexical instruction and learning strategies. The problem of the study is that EFL learners frequently acquire “impoverished lexicons” despite years of studying language. The study argues that effective second language vocabulary should be the focus on all EFL program. The investigators focus on the crucial strategies that will guarantee the success of this program: 1) acquiring decontextualized lexis, 2) using dictionaries, and 3) teaching how to use cues to infer context. The study advocates implicit lexical instruction though the use of integrated task sets, narrow reading and, as with much recent research-based evidence, the use of extensive reading is especially encouraged. In fact, the study claims that extensive reading is “arguably the primary way that EFL learners can build their reading vocabulary to an advanced level”. The importance of this research to the depth and application components of the depth and application portions of this KAM is that it adds more evidence to the need of implementing a systematic program into second language systems that uses research-based, effective methods of teaching and learning as will be shown in the research paper and application project. Krashen, S. (2007). Free voluntary web-surfing. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 3 (1), 2-9. Retrieved October 21, 2007, from http://www.tprstories.com/ijflt/IJFLTJuly07.pdf The purpose of this paper is to support alternative teaching methods of second language learning in addition to the methodologies that are most commonly accepted by recent research. Krashen argues that teachers might be overlooking tools that are already in place in the classroom, and which could be use creatively as an alternative method of teaching and assessment for ESL/EFL. The methodology Krashen is particularly focused on in what he calls Free Voluntary Web surfing. This method is Krashen’s take on Wide Reading and Free Reading approach where students are allowed to select reading titles, and whose main goal is to expose children to language through books as the primary source of consistent language exposure. Based on that premise, Krashen concludes that one of the sources of most print-rich information is, undoubtedly, the Internet. Considering the multitude of different opportunities for reading that the Internet offers, it should mirror a Wide Reading and Free Reading system in that it is print-rich, accessible, fun, and engages the student into reading. If a teacher establishes a system of Free, Voluntary Web surfing program as part of a learning system, says Krashen, the entire myriad of resources that a student could possibly be exposed to will now be available. The internet is free, available, mostly monitored by most educational systems if they are using it in the classroom, teaches students about online ethics, responsible web browsing, and helps them become better at technology. If the teacher has the creativity to make the most out of the online experience, it can lead to dialogue, classrooms discussions, and other educational ways to include technology into second language learning.

Hunt, A. & Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17 (1), 23-59. Retrieved April 27, 2007, from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2005/hunt/hunt.html

The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic framework for EFL teaching that can be implemented and used in a learning system in order to speed up the process of lexical development. This systems-based framework consists on two approaches: promoting explicit lexical instruction and learning strategies, and encouraging the use of implicit lexical instruction and learning strategies. The problem of the study is that EFL learners frequently acquire “impoverished lexicons” despite years of studying language. The study argues that effective second language vocabulary should be the focus on all EFL program.

The investigators focus on the crucial strategies that will guarantee the success of this program: 1) acquiring decontextualized lexis, 2) using dictionaries, and 3) teaching how to use cues to infer context. The study advocates implicit lexical instruction though the use of integrated task sets, narrow reading and, as with much recent research-based evidence, the use of extensive reading is especially encouraged. In fact, the study claims that extensive reading is “arguably the primary way that EFL learners can build their reading vocabulary to an advanced level”. The importance of this research to the depth and application components of the depth and application portions of this KAM is that it adds more evidence to the need of implementing a systematic program into second language systems that uses research-based, effective methods of teaching and learning as will be shown in the research paper and application project.

Krashen, S. (2007). Free voluntary web-surfing. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 3 (1), 2-9. Retrieved October 21, 2007, from http://www.tprstories.com/ijflt/IJFLTJuly07.pdf

The purpose of this paper is to support alternative teaching methods of second language learning in addition to the methodologies that are most commonly accepted by recent research. Krashen argues that teachers might be overlooking tools that are already in place in the classroom, and which could be use creatively as an alternative method of teaching and assessment for ESL/EFL. The methodology Krashen is particularly focused on in what he calls Free Voluntary Web surfing. This method is Krashen’s take on Wide Reading and Free Reading approach where students are allowed to select reading titles, and whose main goal is to expose children to language through books as the primary source of consistent language exposure. Based on that premise, Krashen concludes that one of the sources of most print-rich information is, undoubtedly, the Internet. Considering the multitude of different opportunities for reading that the Internet offers, it should mirror a Wide Reading and Free Reading system in that it is print-rich, accessible, fun, and engages the student into reading.

If a teacher establishes a system of Free, Voluntary Web surfing program as part of a learning system, says Krashen, the entire myriad of resources that a student could possibly be exposed to will now be available. The internet is free, available, mostly monitored by most educational systems if they are using it in the classroom, teaches students about online ethics, responsible web browsing, and helps them become better at technology. If the teacher has the creativity to make the most out of the online experience, it can lead to dialogue, classrooms discussions, and other educational ways to include technology into second language learning.

Demonstration of the Application The following is a model for an extended reading program in the ESL classroom based on Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Human Ecology Model of Social Development. Continue to Bronfenbrenner’s Model

The following is a model for an extended reading program in the ESL classroom based on Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Human Ecology Model of Social Development.

Extensive Reading Program Model Click on the Stars Continue to Extensive Reading Model

Sample Extensive Reading Program setting. for more information on each minor system within the classroom FORUM Leadership roles Rules Citizenship (Exosystem) Self-selected reading Self monitoring center Free based web surfing (Krashen, 2007) Bulletin Board to post forum rules, classroom rules, and other notices Parent/Community Connection-Newsletter Macrosystem: Exposure to the media, news of the world, and other cultures- Ex: through television (Bronfenbrenner, 1969) Click on the Stars Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model

School and peers as microsystems, and the Extensive Reading program as Mesosystem : The classroom as the place where all minor systems become interdependent (Gibbons, 2006) The classroom serves as the place to set rules, establish boundaries, and interact as citizens (Gibbons, 2006) The classroom is the provider of all resources to increase language acquisition and reading skills with utmost availability (Williams, 2007) Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

The classroom as the place where all minor systems become interdependent (Gibbons, 2006)

The classroom serves as the place to set rules, establish boundaries, and interact as citizens (Gibbons, 2006)

The classroom is the provider of all resources to increase language acquisition and reading skills with utmost availability (Williams, 2007)

The extensive reading program as a social microcosmic mesosystem Must provide accessibility to the materials, and encourage dialogue (Fritze, Rowan, 2005) (Furr, 2007) Should allow a space for reading forums where students set rules, and set roles that they must follow as parts of a group (Gibbons, 2006; Fritze, Rowan, 2005; Clarity, 2007) Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

Must provide accessibility to the materials, and encourage dialogue (Fritze, Rowan, 2005) (Furr, 2007)

Should allow a space for reading forums where students set rules, and set roles that they must follow as parts of a group (Gibbons, 2006; Fritze, Rowan, 2005; Clarity, 2007)

Citizenship in the extensive reading program Is the resource of language acquisition and reading skills Increases the social acceptance of its participants through dialogue, arguments, and interaction. (Brentmeier, 2005) Rules foster citizenship and mutual respect Self monitoring fosters responsibility (Gibbons, 2006) Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

Is the resource of language acquisition and reading skills

Increases the social acceptance of its participants through dialogue, arguments, and interaction.

(Brentmeier, 2005)

Rules foster citizenship and mutual respect

Self monitoring fosters responsibility

(Gibbons, 2006)

Mutual Respect and Support Forums, self monitoring and Wide Reading, Free Reading, make them feel comfortable and successful. Proximity and interaction foster a stronger classroom community (Fritze, Rowan, 2005; Gibbons, 2006; Clarity, 2007) Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

Forums, self monitoring and Wide Reading, Free Reading, make them feel comfortable and successful.

Proximity and interaction foster a stronger classroom community (Fritze, Rowan, 2005; Gibbons, 2006; Clarity, 2007)

Self Monitoring and Freedom of Learning A self-monitoring center is a place where the students will enter the information about the books read, This fosters vocabulary, community, self esteem. (Braintmeier, 2005; Fritze & Rowan, 2005; Gibbons, 2006; Gardner, 2007; Clarity, 2007) Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

A self-monitoring center is a place where the students will enter the information about the books read,

This fosters vocabulary, community, self esteem.

(Braintmeier, 2005; Fritze & Rowan, 2005; Gibbons, 2006; Gardner, 2007; Clarity, 2007)

Computer-Based Free Reading Literacy through web surfing is a way to connect students Prompts the ethical use of school property (internet access) Serves as an organized microsystem of respect and sharing. Teachers can establish videoconferences with other students, following basic rules of ethical conversation and respect . Krashen (2007) Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

Literacy through web surfing is a way to connect students

Prompts the ethical use of school property (internet access)

Serves as an organized microsystem of respect and sharing.

Teachers can establish videoconferences with other students, following basic rules of ethical conversation and respect . Krashen (2007)

Rules, Organization, and Roles Giving roles to the students fosters in them a sense of belonging and responsibility, citizenship, and order. (Gibbons, 2006; Clarity, 2007; Fritze, Rowan, 2005; Gardner, 2007; Goshn, 2007) Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

Giving roles to the students fosters in them a sense of belonging and responsibility, citizenship, and order.

(Gibbons, 2006; Clarity, 2007; Fritze, Rowan, 2005; Gardner, 2007; Goshn, 2007)

Parent and Community Support Via newsletter, webpages, and full access to the teacher. Parents who feel welcome into the school community will also become productive members of it. Sociolinguistics can build a professional learning community (Lebov,1950; Gibbons, 2006; Clarity, 2007) Conclusion Back to Bronfenbrenner’s Model BACK TO SAMPLE PROGRAM

Via newsletter, webpages, and full access to the teacher.

Parents who feel welcome into the school community will also become productive members of it.

Sociolinguistics can build a professional learning community (Lebov,1950; Gibbons, 2006; Clarity, 2007)

Conclusion The model of Human Ecology proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner consists on independent and interdependent factors that are directly provided by the individual’s immediate environment. These elements are the sociocultural inputs that help a person develop within society. Back to first slide

The model of Human Ecology proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner consists on independent and interdependent factors that are directly provided by the individual’s immediate environment.

These elements are the sociocultural inputs that help a person develop within society.

Conclusion, continued Concisely, they are called a) microsystems : or the immediate support systems of the individual such as family, peers, and school personnel; b) the mesosystem , or the Back to first slide

Concisely, they are called

a) microsystems : or the immediate support systems of the individual such as family, peers, and school personnel;

b) the mesosystem , or the

Conclusion, continued a. MICROSYSTEMS the immediate support systems of the individual such as family, peers, and school personnel Back to first slide

a. MICROSYSTEMS

the immediate support systems of the individual such as family, peers, and school personnel

Conclusion, continued a. MESOSYSTEMS connection between the primary support system to another system of importance Back to first slide a. MESOSYSTEMS connection between the primary support system to another system of importance

a. MESOSYSTEMS

connection between the primary support system to another system of importance

Conclusion, continued a. MESOSYSTEMS connection between the primary support system to another system of importance Back to first slide C. Exosystem experiences that the individual encounters through childhood that directly affect him or her in other systems

a. MESOSYSTEMS

connection between the primary support system to another system of importance

Conclusion, continued a. MESOSYSTEMS connection between the primary support system to another system of importance Back to first slide d. Macrosystem Idiosyncrasies that make the individual unique such as cultural characteristics involving religion, traditions, language, mannerisms, political preferences

a. MESOSYSTEMS

connection between the primary support system to another system of importance

Conclusion, continued a. MESOSYSTEMS connection between the primary support system to another system of importance Back to first slide e. Chronosystem combination of life-changing or life-altering events that any person encounters throughout their lives and are created, like the name “chronos” implies, by time.

a. MESOSYSTEMS

connection between the primary support system to another system of importance

Conclusion, continued a. MESOSYSTEMS connection between the primary support system to another system of importance Back to first slide This presentation shows how the Language Learning classroom has a microsystem and a mesosystem. These systems are both independent and interdependent. Each system ensures the success of the individual

a. MESOSYSTEMS

connection between the primary support system to another system of importance

 

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