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Extending the SpanishWordNet

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Published on October 31, 2007

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Slide1:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Clara Soler Universitat Ramon Llull Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Aims: Proposal about: A new classification and a new way of representing Adjectives and their polysemy in the lexical database By means of: Using MikroKosmos Ontology (Nirenburg 1994 et al.) to modificate if necessary EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology Index:  Index Classification of Adjectives in WordNet How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented Classification of Adjectives in EuroWordNet – SpanishWordNet The Ontological Criteria Mikrokosmos Ontology / Treatment of Adjective Polysemy EuroWordNet Top Ontology Conclusions Classification of Adjectives in WordNet:  Classification of Adjectives in WordNet WordNet 1.5 contains 16428 adjectivals synsets (including nouns, participles and prepositional phrases which work as adjectives) Kept in three files: Descriptive, Relationals and Participles. How are they organized? Each class expresses typical syntactic and semantic features. Antonymy is the lexical relation that divides adjectives: Descriptives adjectives have antonyms and Relationals do not. Classification of Adjectives in WN:  Classification of Adjectives in WN Descriptives adjectives are organized into non-hierarchic synsets formed by one, or more, pairs of antonyms. These synsets are clusters that represent values, from one extreme to the other, of some attribute. Relational adjectives are represented with pointers to the noun or verb from which they derive (a pointer expresses a lexical relation) Participle adjectives are considered a kind of Descriptives adjectives ending in -ing and -ed, they do not suit very much in cluster structures and are kept in a separated file. Classification of Adjectives in WN:  Classification of Adjectives in WN Descriptives adjectives: attribute Warmth torrid – hot – warm – tepid – cool – cold- frigid Relational adjectives 2 senses of cosmologic Sense 1 cosmologic, cosmological, cosmogonic, cosmogonical, cosmogenic, cosmogenical -- (pertaining to the branch of astronomy dealing with the origin and history and structure and dynamics of the universe; "cosmologic science"; "cosmological redshift"; "cosmogonic theories of the origin of the universe") Pertains to noun cosmology (Sense 2) =>cosmology, cosmogony, cosmogeny -- (the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe)        Classification of Adjectives in WN:  Classification of Adjectives in WN Relational adjectives Sense 2 cosmologic, cosmological -- (pertaining to the branch of philosophy dealing with the elements and laws and especially the characteristics of the universe such as space and time and causality; "cosmologic philosophy"; "a cosmological argument is an argument that the universe demands the admission of an adequate external cause which is God") Pertains to noun cosmology (Sense 1) =>cosmology -- (the metaphysical study of the origin and nature of the universe) => metaphysics -- (the philosophical study of being and knowing)         How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented:  How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented WordNet understands polysemy as a correlation of the frequency of occurrence ( Zipf 1945). It means that on the average, the more frequently a word is used the more different meanings it will have. Therefore, new, which is : Highly frequent, it is considered Highly polysemous How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented:  How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented 1. new (vs. old) -- (not of long duration; having just (or relatively recently) come into being or been made or acquired or discovered; "a new law"; "new cars"; "a new comet"; "a new friend"; "a new year"; "the New World") 2. new(prenominal) -- (other than the former one(s); different; "they now have a new leaders"; "my new car is four years old but has only 15,000 miles on it"; "ready to take a new direction") 3. new, unexampled -- (having no previous example or precedent or parallel; "a time of unexampled prosperity") How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented:  How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented 4. fresh, new, novel -- (of a kind not seen before; "the computer produced a completely novel proof of a well-known theorem") 5. raw, new, wet behind the ears(predicate) -- (lacking training or experience; "the new men were eager to fight"; "raw recruits"; "he was still wet behind the ears when he shipped as a hand on a merchant vessel") 6. newfangled, new -- (of a new (often outrageous) kind or fashion) 7. new, new to(predicate) -- ((often followed by `to') unfamiliar; "new experiences"; "experiences new to him"; "errors of someone new to the job") How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented:  How Polysemy of Adjectives is represented 8. new, young -- ((of crops) harvested at an early stage of development; before complete maturity; "new potatoes"; "young corn") 9. new -- (unaffected by use or exposure; "it looks like new") 10. New -- (in use after Medieval times; "New Eqyptian was the language of the 18th to 21st dynasties") 11. Modern, New -- (used of a living language; being the current stage in its development; "Modern English"; "New Hebrew is Israeli Hebrew") Classification of Adjectives in EuroWordNet:  Classification of Adjectives in EuroWordNet Adjectives were not included in EuroWordNet, because: Being a modifier, the information that conveys is less vital It was considered a highly polysemous category- therefore representation in an enumerative lexicon becomes difficult Classification of Adjectives in the SpanishWordNet:  Classification of Adjectives in the SpanishWordNet Spanish and Catalan adjectives are translations of the English adjectives included in WordNet 1.5. They are classified and represented in the same way Classification of Adjectives in the SWN:  Classification of Adjectives in the SWN 01256444a all lock 0 new_1 0 nuevo_5 0 nou_1 not of long duration; having just come into being or been made or acquired or discovered: "a new law"; "new cars"; "a new comet"; "a new friend" 01290120a all lock 0 fresh_2 novel_1 new_2 0 fresco_8 nuevo_8 novel_1 0 fresc_2 novell_1 nou_2 of a kind not seen before: "the computer produced a completely novel proof of a well-known theorem" Classification of Adjectives in the SWN:  Classification of Adjectives in the SWN 00104365a all lock 0 new_4 unexampled_1 lock 0 inaudito_1 nuevo_2 lock 0 inaudit_2 nou_4 "an unprecedented expansion in population and industry" 00803732a all lock 0 hot_12 new_5 0 fresco_4 nolex 0 "hot off the press"; "fresh ideas" Classification of Adjectives in the SWN:  Classification of Adjectives in the SWN all lock 0 new_8 newfangled_1 lock 0 novedoso_1 nolex 0 of a new (often outrageous) kind or fashion all lock 0 modern_5 new_9 lock 0 moderno_2 contemporáneo_6 lock 0 modern_4 contemporani_4 used of a living language; being the current stage in its development: "Modern English"; "New Hebrew is Israeli Hebrew" Perteneciente o relativo al tiempo actual Pertanyent o relatiu al temps actual Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet At issue: Relationals are not polysemous? It is possible to represent polysemy of Adjectives without enumerating all the possible shades they may take? Is it possible to relate polysemy with other parameters differents from frequency, compatibility with greater or smaller number of nominals, noun desambiguation? Are Adjectives that polysemous? Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet This proposal bases the extending of the SpanishWordnet by incorporating Adjectives on the following premises: Adjectives will be classified too in Descriptive and Relationals notwithstanding based on ontological criteria. Their polysemy will also be accounted by the same ontological taxonomy. They can also be classified according to the Base Concepts of the Top Ontology. The Ontological Criteria:  The Ontological Criteria These criteria come from within the framework of the Mikrokosmos Ontology (Nirenburg 1994 et al.). In this model the lexicon mediates between a language of Text Meaning Representation and an ontology. Adjective meaning is explained according to this conceptual ontology. Lexical entries are instances of ontological types. The MikroKosmos Ontology:  The MikroKosmos Ontology Classification of Adjectives: Scalars: based on Property ontological concepts Numerical scale : Warmth torrid – hot – warm – tepid – cool – cold - frigid Literal scale : colour red – yellow – black – white – blue – orange- Evaluative Terrific – Great – Good – Regular – Bad – Awful - Horrible The MikroKosmos Ontology:  The MikroKosmos Ontology Non-Scalars (Relationals): Denominals: Object ontological concepts National – nation Deverbals: Event ontological concepts Readable – read An Adjectival Class: an ontological type The MikroKosmos Ontology:  The MikroKosmos Ontology Numerical scale properties: Evaluation Price Size Speed Mass Ease Girth Age Cost Literal scale properties: Orientation Direction Side Color Shape Treatment of Adjectival Polysemy:  Treatment of Adjectival Polysemy In this proposal: Polysemy of a lexical item implies a change of meaning A romantic style / a romantic adventure In Spanish: negocio familiar / una atmosfera familiar In English: a family business / a familiar atmosphere Good son / Good deal : always positive Polysemy has to do with relatedness of senses arising through extension of meaning (Aarts & Calbert, 1979) This relatedness of senses can be explained by the ontological model Treatment of Adjectival Polysemy:  Treatment of Adjectival Polysemy A change of Ontological Type: from an Ontology of Entities or Events to an Ontology of Properties Victor Hugo is a French romantic author who lived during the XIX century Venice is a very romantic city for lovers A change within the same Ontological Type: High altitude: Scale Height High ideals: Scale Evaluative EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology :  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology Top Concept Ontology classifies the Base Concepts Base Concepts are the most important prevailing meanings in the local wordnets, and constitute a shared set of 1059. Represent the shared cores of the different wordnets. Top Concept Ontology consists of 63 fundamental semantic distinctions, organized by subtype and opposition relations, which organize the Base Concepts EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology:  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology It is linked to the Inter-Lingual-Index (ILI) and provides some language-independent structuring of it. The 63 semantic distinctions or Top Concepts are classified according to three types of entities: 1st-Order-Entities, 2nd-Order-Entities and 3rd-Order-Entities. EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology :  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology 1st-Order-Entities: expressed by concrete nouns, concrete entities. One euro, a college, a hobbit 3rd-Order-Entities: expressed by abstract nouns: any unobservable proposition. Platonic ideas EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology :  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology 2nd-Order-Entities: denoted by any part of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs). represent any static or dynamic situation that cannot be grasped, seen, felt, or experienced as an independent physical thing. located in time, they happen, rather than exist. EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology:  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology 2ndOrderEntities: (two classification schemes) Situation Type: the event-structure in terms of which a situation can be characterized as a conceptual unit over time Dynamic: transition -BoundedEvent -UnboundedEvent Static -Property: colour, speed, age, length, size, shape, weight. (single entity) -Relation: relation, kinship, distance, space (two entities) EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology :  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology Usage Time Social Quantity Purpose Possession Physical Situation Components (BC as conceptually coherent clusters. SC reflect the most salient semantic components) EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology:  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology Modal Mental Manner Location Experience Existence Condition Communication EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology:  EuroWordNet Top Concept Ontology Cause Agentive Stimulating Phenomenal Proposal: to reuse Top Concepts as a new Property, Object and Event ontological concepts, and viceversa. Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet The idea is to use the ontological structure of MikroKosmos in events, objects and properties to introduce and classify the adjectives in the SpanishWordNet In the Top Ontology: to verify if all the Top Concepts Concepts of 2nd-Order-Entities denote all possible adjectives-situations Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Joining both ontologies Incorporation of the adjectival synsets into the Inter-Lingual-Index Incorporation of the new Top Concepts that represent the adjectival scales into the class of 2nd-Order-Entities. Scalar adjectives will be defined according to the Base Concepts of 2nd-Order-Entities Non Scalar adjectives (Denominals and Deverbals) will be defined in relation with the Base Concepts of all Entities. Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Classification(s) of adjectives in the SWN: Following the MikroKosmos ontological taxonomy, adjectives can be classified according to the three types of entities: Scalars: subsumed under 2nd-Order-Entities Non Scalars: subsumed under 1st, 2nd and 3rd Order Entities (Denominals) and under 2nd-Order-Entities (Deverbals) 2nd -Order-Entities are denoted by adjectives. Therefore all of them can be classified according to the Base Concepts of these Entities Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Proposal of an adjectival synset which represents polysemy: denominal and scalar The adjective "romantic" has 3 senses in WordNet. 1. romantic, romanticist, romanticistic -- (belonging to or characteristic of romanticism or the Romantic movement in the arts; "romantic poetry") 2. amatory, amorous, romantic -- (expressive of or exciting sexual love or romance; "her amatory affairs"; "amorous glances"; "a romantic adventure"; "a romantic moonlight ride") 3. quixotic, romantic, wild-eyed -- (not sensible about practical matters; unrealistic; "as quixotic as a restoration of medieval knighthood"; "a romantic disregard for money"; "a wild-eyed dream of a world state") Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Proposal of an adjectival synset which represents polysemy: denominal and scalar The adjective romantic has also 3 senses in the SWN. 1. romantic, romanticist, romanticistic Based on an Object ontological concept (Romanticism): denominal 2. romantic, amorous Based on a Property ontological concept (scale: evaluative (sentimentalism) 3. romantic, wild-eyed Based on a Property ontological concept (scale: evaluative (idealism) Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Proposal of an adjectival synset which represents polysemy: scalar The adjective new has only 4 senses in the SPW 1. new (vs. old) -- (not of long duration; having just (or relatively recently) Based on a Property ontological concept (scale: temporal (duration) 2. new(prenominal) -- (other than the former one(s); different;) 3. new, unexampled -- (having no previous example or precedent or parallel;) 4. fresh, new, novel -- (of a kind not seen before; ) Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Proposal of an adjectival synset which represents polysemy: scalar 5. raw, new, wet behind the ears(predicate) -- (lacking training or experience; ) 6. newfangled, new -- (of a new (often outrageous) kind or fashion) 7. new, new to(predicate) -- ((often followed by `to') unfamiliar; ) 9. new -- (unaffected by use or exposure; "it looks like new") Based on a Property ontological concept (scale: newness) Extending the SpanishWordNet:  Extending the SpanishWordNet Proposal of an adjectival synset which represents polysemy: scalar 8. new, young -- ((of crops) harvested at an early stage of development; before complete maturity;) Based on a Property ontological concept (scale: maturity) 11. Modern, New -- (used of a living language; being the current stage in its development; ) Based on a Property ontological concept (scale: temporary nature) Conclusions:  Conclusions This paper tries to propose a new classification of Adjectives heading towards an extension of the SpanishWordNet, as well as a new way of representing polysemy. The following has been shown: Relationals are also polysemous Adjective polysemy can be reduced and represented Ontological criteria can reflect the relationship between diferents senses of a lexical item Conclusions:  Conclusions Future work includes: To focus on the syntagmatic level of the Adjective-Noun combinations, and to study the diferent grades of co-ocurrence (Of compositive, semicompositive and noncompositive character). To treat if possible the called adverbials adjectives using the same ontological structure

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