Published on March 5, 2014
Experience Design & Design Thinking Vinay & Anshuman Friday, 24 September 2010 1
Table of Contents • Design Thinking and Experience Design – Emergence of Experience Economy – Changing nature of business – Traits of Design Thinking and it’s implication • Designing Experiences – Staging, Back-staging, ... – Aspects of Experience Design • Experience Design at MindTree – – – – – Staging: Front Staging and Back Staging Users vs. People Tasks vs. Activities Context Thinking vs. Offering Friday, 24 September 2010 2
What are experts/ leaders saying about Experience Design POINT OF VIEWS Friday, 24 September 2010 3
Emergence of Experience Economy Friday, 24 September 2010 4
Experience Economy Offering Commodities Goods Services Experiences Economy Agrarian Industrial Service Experience Function Extract Make Deliver Stage Nature Fungible Tangible Intangible Memorable Key Attribute Natural Standardised Customised Personal Method of Supply Stored in bulk Inventoried after Delivered on production demand Revealed over a duration Seller Trader Manufacturer Provider Stager Buyer Market User Client Guest Factors of demand Characteristics Features Benefits Sensations Friday, 24 September 2010 5
The Empathy Economy • Quality-management programs can't give you the kind of empathetic connection to consumers that increasingly is the key to opening up new business opportunities. All the B-school-educated managers you hire won't automatically get you the outside-the-box thinking you need to build new brands – or create new experiences for old brands. The truth is we're moving from a knowledge economy that was dominated by technology into an experience economy controlled by consumers and the corporations who empathize with them. More » – Bruce Nussbaum, Business Week Friday, 24 September 2010 6
Investing in Design Pays: Design Index Share prices of companies using design effectively have outperformed the FTSE All-Share index by 200 per cent over ten year.
Only one can be the cheapest • Others compete on Design – There is one philosophy that businesses only turn to design when they're desperate. After they've competed on price, delivery, systems, etc., and they find their business is totally commoditized and they have no other choice, THEN they turn to design. – Some suggest that's true of Apple. • David Burney, VP, Red Hat Friday, 24 September 2010 8
Design Thinking http://designthinking.ideo.com Friday, 24 September 2010 9
Another Form… Friday, 24 September 2010 10
Finally, Design Thinking guides you to • Understanding users’ desires, needs, motivations, and contexts • Understanding business, technical, and domain opportunities, requirements, and constraints • Using this knowledge as a foundation for plans to create products whose form, content, and behavior is useful, usable, and desirable, as well as economically viable and technically feasible Friday, 24 September 2010 11
Have a sense of Play • Play is important in design thinking. Critical even. Having fun is often the objective. Giving up ownership. Listening, humbly. Forming teams from people who come from very different disciplines and cultures; not keeping them compartmentalized. Getting into the world and testing things out. Prototyping and failing. These are all good things in design thinking cultures. Friday, 24 September 2010 12
Design Thinking Companies • Companies like OXO, Target, VW, Progressive Insurance. These are great examples of design thinking – companies that really involve their customers in cocreation of their products/service – companies that build great systems. • “Design is treated like a religion at BMW.” – Fortune Magazine • “Fifteen years ago, companies competed on price. Today it’s quality. Tomorrow it’s design.” – Bob Hayes, Professor Emeritus, Harvard Business School Friday, 24 September 2010 13
It’s beyond the Product • "Today, when we think about designing, say, a new MRI system, we don't just think about designing the product, we think about designing the whole radiology suite. Design in the next 10 years will move beyond the product. It will move beyond workflow. Hospitals in the future...will have different ways of interacting with the patient. We have to think about setting the course for how design can affect the whole health-care experience." – GE Healthcare Technologies CEO Joseph M. Hogan Friday, 24 September 2010 14
What is Design Thinking, How is it different and how does it help DESIGN THINKING Friday, 24 September 2010 15
Traits of Design Thinking • Focus on People: It's not about the company, how you segment your products or how your business is organised. • People don’t care about it. They care about doing their tasks and achieving their goals that are within their limits. – What it means for us: Stop thinking about ‘Users or Customers’ and think ‘People’ Friday, 24 September 2010 16
Traits of Design Thinking • Finding Alternatives. Designing isn't about choosing between multiple options, it's about creating those options. • It's this finding of multiple solutions to problems that sets designers apart. – What it means for us: train our folks to think laterally, generate alternatives, use systematic innovation techniques (remember De Bono’s ‘divide a square in four’ exercise) Friday, 24 September 2010 17
Traits of Design Thinking • Ideation and Prototyping: Prototype, prototype, prototype • Use it to refine your thinking, generate alternatives, combine and create a third option – What it means for us: Change the way project teams are structured – ideate in groups before you set out to create solutions – Invest in tools & trainings – Ideate before you begin work Friday, 24 September 2010 18
Traits of Design Thinking • Wicked Problems. The problems designers are used to taking on are those without a clear solution, with multiple stakeholders, fuzzy boundaries, and where the outcome is never known and usually unexpected. Being able to deal with the complexity of these "wicked" problems is one of the hallmarks of design thinking. – What it means for us: Hire thinkers who can analyse, visualise, build consensus, prototype and validate Friday, 24 September 2010 19
Traits of Design Thinking • A Wide Range of Influences. Because design touches on so many subject areas (psychology, ergonomics, economics, engineering, architecture, art, etc.), designers should bring to the table a broad, multi-disciplinary spectrum of ideas from which to draw inspiration and solutions. – What it means for us: Change our team compositions and create a wider skill-base (more) Friday, 24 September 2010 20
Traits of Design Thinking • Emotion. In analytical thinking, emotion is seen as an impediment to logic and making the right choices. In design, decisions without an emotional component are lifeless and do not connect with people. – What it means for us: Focus on what someone /something stands for than what they/it does – Take the focus away from ‘ROI type’ thinking. Remember Google! (Focus on the user and all else will follow.) Friday, 24 September 2010 21
How do we design experiences, what to look for DESIGNING EXPERIENCES Friday, 24 September 2010 22
Experience Design • Experience design is the practice of designing products, processes, services, events, and environments:- each of which is a human experience:- based on the consideration of an individual's or group's needs, desires, beliefs, knowledge, skills, experiences, and perceptions. • We define experience as a mental journey that leaves the customer with memories of having performed something special, engaging, having learned something or just having fun and entertainment. Friday, 24 September 2010 23
Experience Production • Experiences are designed, produced and delivered • Experience production system encompasses – Marketing and experience strategy – Organization structure – Producers and directors – HR and capability management – Performers – Technology and Innovation – Just like in manufacturing and service economies – Customer orientation (experience delivery) – Audiences, participants, consumers Friday, 24 September 2010 24
Experience Design • Back Staging and Front Staging are two aspects of experience production system – Concept of an experience is created Backstage along with general business principles to improve competitive advantage by focusing on increasing productivity, meet price competition (optimization), organizing innovation activities – Front Staging can be artistic in nature where services are used as platform and products as props • • • • • • Participation Personality Experience ‘logistics’ Sensuous input Physical experience Material ‘supp Friday, 24 September 2010 25
Why Back-staging? • Front staging increases opportunities and this in turn increases competition. • The focus will then shift to delivering customized and variety of experiences. • Here Back-staging will help in improving competitive advantage by: – – – – Thinking strategically Shorter time to market Focusing on meeting productivity and keeping low price Crafting packaged experiences (a bundle of experience, added services and so on.) • Organizing innovation activities systematically Friday, 24 September 2010 26
Anatomy of Experience Design Peripheral Experience A part of the overall experience and customer provide a lot of emphasis to it initially (visually) Core experience The core experience to the customer. Cannot be appreciated without a good theme Core Activity The Concept Peripheral/Support Service Friday, 24 September 2010 The core experience (the music, the theatre play, the TV broadcast) is created on the stage or performed on the stage The concept or theme is created backstage to be experienced front stage by the audience. It is the story telling approach what customer finally admire Other material and service support 27
Anatomy of an Experience Concept What customer ‘feels’ Core Experience What customer experiences Experience Solution Peripheral experience What customer use technical in nature Happiness is in small moments of life and must be shared Eating Frozen ice cream Unilever ice cream vending machine (More) Machine serving ice cream through face recognition (Smile) Multisensory experience of sending online messages Drop Dead Easy Gold Mail way of creating and messaging service sending multimedia (More) messaged online Adding video, audio, photo to personal messages Long term thinking of environmental impact of making sustainable choices Quick and Easy evaluation of energy consuming products and compare with neighbors Smart meters and a web service keeping track of contribution to power usage Friday, 24 September 2010 Economozier (More) 28
Taxonomy of Experience Production System • Type of experience the firms produce – Distant experience – customer is away from the place of production. in the distant experiences, Backstaging is extremely important: what is experienced ‘on the stage’ is wholly dependent on the ability of the producer to design the staging. – Close experience – customer is present at the place of production • The value chain – Lighting and sound system used on a TV program -> TV program - > TV -> TV Designer Technological Personal Distant Experiences TV Radio Broadcast Facebook NA Close Experiences Iphone Nintendo Wii Hotel 3D/4D Cinema Theatre Barber Concert Museum Friday, 24 September 2010 29
Dimensions of Experience Design • Duration (Initiation, Immersion, Conclusion, and Continuation) • Intensity (Reflex, Habit, Engagement) • Breadth (Products, Services, Brands, Nomenclatures, Channels/Environment/Promotion, and Price) • Interaction (Passive < > Active < >Interactive) • Triggers (All Human Senses, Concepts, and Symbols) • Significance (Meaning, Status, Emotion, Price, and Function) – Making Meaning: How Successful Businesses Deliver Meaningful Customer Experiences. Friday, 24 September 2010 30
Corporate Experience Design • 80% of companies believe they deliver a superior customer experience, but only 8% of their customers agree Friday, 24 September 2010 31
Experience Design can’t be piecemeal • In designing propositions for specific segments, leaders focus on the entire customer experience. They recognize that customers interact with different parts of the organization across a number of touch-points, including purchase, service and support, upgrades, billing, and so on. A company can't turn its customers into satisfied, loyal advocates unless it takes their experiences at all these touch-points into account. Design is thus closely tied to the delivery from the very beginning. Planning focuses not only on the value propositions themselves but on all the steps that will be required to deliver the propositions to the appropriate segments. Friday, 24 September 2010 32
3 D of Customer Experience • Companies that produce great customer experiences – They design the right offers and experiences for the right customers. – They deliver these propositions by focusing the entire company on them with an emphasis on cross-functional collaboration. – They develop their capabilities to please customers again and again—by such means as revamping the planning process, training people in how to create new customer propositions, and establishing direct accountability for the customer experience. Friday, 24 September 2010 33
Where to look • Data mining and customer relationship management (CRM) systems can be valuable for creating hypotheses, but the ultimate test of any company's delivery lies in what customers tell others. The best companies find ways to tune in to customers' voices every day. – Analysing word-of-mouth is an intrinsic part of Experience Design Friday, 24 September 2010 34
What does this mean for us? EXPERIENCE DESIGN Friday, 24 September 2010 35
Design • Challenges in designing a differentiated Customer Experience at MindTree – It can’t be piecemeal or limited to the front-end. It needs to cut across all functions & touch points – Structural challenges: It requires cross-functional teams and not compartmentalisation – probably the onus is on us – Change in Mindset: Get the product out fast vs. Get the right product out – Designing better experiences will also require us to engage upstream or redefine problem statements Friday, 24 September 2010 36
Designing Better Customer Experience • In Experience Design, there’s no Customer – only a Guests or Participants • Structural Aspects – So far, we have been focussed on the Front Stage. We need to build Back Stage capabilities • Approach to Thinking – – – – Focus on Ideation, Refining through Prototyping, Ideate, Research, Observe Think of People and not Users Focus on Activities and not on Tasks Remember the context! • Sell Thinking and not Offerings – Take an Idea to the Customer and not a PPT(X) – People relate to what you stand for and not what you can do Friday, 24 September 2010 37
Back Stage & Front Stage – version 1 Backstage Frontstage Planners Executers Leaders Managers Strategist Product Managers Researchers Presenters Designers Design Advocates Modellers Brand Guys Business Analysts Product Managers Activities Proposal management Project management Primary research Secondary research Brainstorming Ideation Concept Development Prototyping Specification Development Usability Testing etc. Friday, 24 September 2010 Actors Audiences Customers Consumers Users Visioning – Inspire a Guest and shared vision, participants Problem identification, Roadmap development Model the way, Challenge the processes – status quo, Enable others to act, Solution walkthru, Encourage 38
Changes in Thinking • Think People & not Users – People have behaviours & desires that are effected by Beliefs, Attitudes, Expectations, Personality, Experiences, Emotions, Prior knowledge – Have Contexts that are relational, historical, or emotional • Think Activities & not Tasks – Activities are driven by motivations that can be social, monitory, ideological, emotional • Think Context – Make the experience more meaningful by making it relevant to the context Friday, 24 September 2010 39
Users vs. People • Vodafone offers a good example. The U.K.-based mobile phone company grew rapidly through acquisitions in the 1990s, becoming one of the leading mobile providers in the world. • To ensure that its offerings could be effectively delivered to target customers in any country, it stopped categorizing its customers simply according to where they live, as most cellular providers do. • Instead, it divided its immense marketplace into just a few, high-priority global segments: "young, active, fun" users, occasional users, and a handful of others. Friday, 24 September 2010 40
Intangibles make the Experience Kevin Kelly argues that in the modern economy consumer products cost nothing to reproduce. Intangibles are that can’t be reproduced at any cost 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Immediacy: priority access, immediate delivery Personalization: tailored just for you Interpretation: support and guidance Authenticity: how can you be sure it is the real thing? Accessibility: wherever, whenever Embodiment: books, live music Patronage: "paying simply because it feels good", e.g. Radiohead Findability: "When there are millions of books, millions of songs, millions of films, millions of applications, millions of everything requesting our attention — and most of it free — being found is valuable.“ Friday, 24 September 2010 41
It requires multiple skills • cognitive • psychology and percept ual psychology, • • linguistics, • • cognitive science, • • architecture and enviro • nmental design, • • haptics, • • product design, • • information design, Friday, 24 September 2010 information architecture, ethnography, brand management, interaction design, service design, storytelling, heuristics, design thinking 42
Thinking & not Offering • Develop ideas into functional prototypes which are backed by research and take it to relevant customers. • Just add water: When on an assignment, take a near complete prototype to the customer for further ideation and not a blank slate • Take a film for their iPod, or a story-book that sits on their book-shelf, a prototype on their desk that they can play with. Remember experiences need to be multi-sensory & memorable. Friday, 24 September 2010 43
As-is vs. To-be “Business” Approach Problem Solving Approach “Design” Approach Definitive. Relies on equations for “proof”. Iterative. Relies on a “build to think” process dependent on trial and error. Validation through What customers say: often a combination of qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (surveys) research. What customers do: often direct observation and usability testing. Informed by Market analysis and aggregate consumer behavior. Direct consumer observation and abductive reasoning (“what might be”). Completed Completion of strategy phase marks the start of product development phase. Never: continually evolving with customers. Focused on An understanding of the results of customer activities. An understanding of customer activities. Tools used to communicate strategic vision Spreadsheets and PowerPoint decks Prototypes, films, and scenarios. Described through Words (often open to interpretation). Pictorial representations and direct experiences with prototypes. Team members Vertical expertise and individual responsibilities. “T-shaped” expertise: a principal vertical skill and a horizontal set of secondary skills. Collaborative (team) responsibilities. Work patterns Permanent jobs, on-going tasks, and fixed hours. Temporary projects with associated tasks and flexible hours. Reward structure Corporate recognition based on the bottom line. Peer recognition based on the quality of solutions. Friday, 24 September 2010 44
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