Published on June 23, 2016
1. EXPANSION JOINTS Catalogue
2. 2 www.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints THE CATALOGUE Steel expansion joint catalogue Belman A/S Edition B022016-1 All rights reserved The latest version of this catalogue is always available on our website: www.belman.dk Any drawings and information contained herein relate to the standards applicable on the date printed. Subject to alteration and misprints without notice.
3. 4 5 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints 73 Gimbal 75 U-pipe 79 Pressure balanced 87 Installation instruction EXPANSION JOINTS STANDARD PROGRAM 88 Nomenclature 93 Axial expansion joints 139 Lateral expansion joints 233 Angular expansion joints 307 Universal expansion joints MATERIALS 51 Expansion joint materials 53 Temperature limits 54 Bellow materials EXPANSION JOINTS SELECTION 57 Expansion joint selection 59 Fix points, guides etc. 60 Axial 64 Lateral 68 Hinged INTRODUCTION 9 Our experience, your benefit 10 Quick guide THE EXPANSION JOINT 15 What is an expansion joint 16 Expansion joint applications 20 Expansion joints vs. alternative flexible solutions 22 Movements 25 Axial expansion joints 27 Lateral expansion joints 29 Angular expansion joints 33 Universal expansion joints 35 Exhaust expansion joints ENGINEERING & QA 37 High quality expansion joints 38 Quality assurance 39 Welding and material control 41 Documentation 42 Test 45 Engineering & manufacturing 49 Validation of design I NTR OD U CTI ON Continued . . . 321 Exhaust expansion joints 347 Vibration absorbers SPECIAL EXPANSION JOINTS 359 Pressure balanced expansion joints 361 Pressure balanced expansion joints - compact design 363 Pressure balanced expansion joints - elbow 365 Chamber expansion joints 367 Rectangular expansion joints 369 Externally pressurised expansion joints 371 FCCU expansion joints 373 Crossover bellows 375 Expansion joints for LNG/LPG 377 Pantographic linkage 379 Equalizing ring reinforced expansion joints 381 Clamshell bellows 383 Expansion joints supplied in segments 385 Lens expansion joints CONTENT
4. 6 7 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints 422 Vibrations 424 Settlement 425 Torsion CORROSION 426 Corrosion 429 Protection against corrosion 431 Protection against corrosion PTFE coating 409 Fittings 410 Inner sleeve 413 Insulation 414 Pressure thrust 416 Spring rates 417 Stability 419 External pressure 421 Thermal expansion SOLUTIONS 387 Customised solutions 392 References ON-SITE SERVICES 395 On-site services 397 The service team TECHNICAL INFORMATION 398 The bellow and its function 402 Bellows forming 404 Stresses in the bellows 407 Service lifetime 408 Connection ends I NTR OD U CTI ON 432 Protection against corrosion Tantalum coating TECHNICAL SUPPORT SECTION 437 BelMaker Light® 439 Resistance tables 460 Flange tables EN 1092-1:2007 478 Flange table DIN 86044-1:2010-1 480 Material tables 488 Conversion tables 492 Steam table 495 Downloads (Isometric paper, inquiry form etc.) CONTENT
5. 9 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints OUR EXPERIENCE, YOUR BENEFIT Thank you for choosing the Belman expansion joint catalogue. With this product catalogue of metallic expansion joints, we are pleased to provide a helpful, informative and inspirational tool for specifying and selecting the correct metallic expansion joint needed. We trust this catalogue will become a useful tool for everyone working with expan- sion joints and connected systems. Content This catalogue consists of a wide range of expansion joints, each can be selected to ensure the optimum performance and service life of the pipe system. If your expansion joint requirements are not covered in this catalogue, Belman is always ready to engineer customised solutions to suit your specific needs. This is not limited to metallic expansion joints but also: steel bellows, fabric expansion joints, rubber expansion joints, metallic flexible hoses, PTFE bellows and in general any service related to expansion joints and flexible units. This catalogue furthermore contains comprehensive technical information about metallic expansion joints, and helps to understand: how to specify, how to operate, and how to correctly install them. Design codes The expansion joints in this catalogue are calculated according to the latest prevailing standards and pressure directives, and are therefore designed according to EN 14917. The only exception is the exhaust expansion joints that are calculated according to EJMA 9. We reserve the right to make changes in the technical calculations, descriptions and illustrations without notice. The latest version of the product catalogue is always available on our website www.belman.dk. For the revision number, please refer to the left bottom of the page. Other design codes If your application and/or project requires other design codes such as ASME, EJMA etc., please forward your specifications to us. We can either adapt the expansion joints in this catalogue to comply with these design codes and supply the new data on them, or we can design a customised solution for you. Since its foundation, Belman has been supplying customised expansion joints for unique and challenging situations. More information Throughout this catalogue you will find a 5-digit number “WebLink” displayed on the page. This number can be typed into the box “WebLink” on the front page of www.belman.dk from which you will be directly taken to the relevant page. Additionally, you can also find a QR code that can take you directly to the relevant page. Further information/assistance is always available via +45 7515 5999 or email@example.com. I NTR OD U CTI ON
6. 10 11 www.belman.comwww.belman.com x x B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints Page 248 AN1BK ID no 62 ANGULAR Description AN1BH ID no 61 Page 240 Movements Axial Lateral Single plane Lateral Multi plane Angular Single plane x Angular Multi plane Comment This quick guide will give you an overview of all types of expansion joints in this catalogue, indicating QUICK GUIDE where you can find more data on the item selected and the conditions in which they are suitable for use. X = Suitable (X) = Partly suitable (see comment) AXIAL LATERAL LATERAL Description Description Description AX1BU ID no 41 LA1BT ID no 71 LA2BT ID no 81 LA2SH ID no 88 Page 98 Page 146 Page 174 Page 202 AX1FU ID no 42 LA1FT ID no 72 LA2FT ID no 84 LA2SK ID no 89 Page 110 Page 154 Page 182 Page 216 AX1SU ID no 43 LA1ST ID no 73 LA2ST ID no 87 Page 122 Page 162 Page 190 Movements Axial Movements Axial Movements Axial x (x) (x) x (x) (x) x (x) (x) Lateral Single plane Lateral Single plane Lateral Single plane (x) x x x (x) x x x (x) x x Lateral Multi plane Lateral Multi plane Lateral Multi plane (x) x x x (x) x x x (x) x x Angular Single plane Angular Single plane Angular Single plane (x) (x) (x) Angular Multi plane Angular Multi plane Angular Multi plane (x) (x) (x) Comment Comment Comment Depending on the pipe layout. Only AX movement if designed for it. Only AX movement if designed for it. Depending on the pipe layout. Only AX movement if designed for it. Only AX movement if designed for it. Depending on the pipe layout. Only AX movement if designed for it. Only AX movement if designed for it. I NTR OD U CTI ON
7. 12 13 www.belman.comwww.belman.com x B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints ANGULAR EXHAUST Description US1BU ID no 11 Page 328 US1SU ID no 13 Page 332 US2BU ID no 21 US2SU ID no 23 Page 336 Page 338 Movements Axial x x x x Lateral Single plane x x x x Lateral Multi plane x x x x Angular Single plane x x x x Angular Multi plane x x x x Comment UNIVERSAL Description UN2BU ID no 51 Page 312 UN2FU ID no 52 Page 314 UN2SU ID no 53 Page 316 Movements Axial x x x Lateral Single plane x x x Lateral Multi plane x x x Angular Single plane x x x Angular Multi plane x x x Comment US3BU ID no 31 US3SU ID no 33 Page 340 Page 342 x x x x x x x x x x Description AN1FK ID no 64 Page 264 AN1SH ID no 65 Page 272 AN1SK ID no 66 Page 288 Movements Axial Lateral Single plane Lateral Multi plane Angular Single plane x x x Angular Multi plane x x Comment I NTR OD U CTI ON VI1FT ID no 90 Page 352 (x) x x Only AX movement if designed for it. 0,5 mm vibrations in all planes. VIBRATION ABSORBER Description Movements Axial Lateral Single plane Lateral Multi plane Angular Single plane Angular Multi plane Comment Page 256 AN1FH ID no 63
8. 15 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints WHAT IS AN EXPANSION JOINT? There are other terms in use for expansion joints such as expansion bellows, flexible joints and compensators. A typical expansion joint is comprised of one or more metal bellows (most commonly stainless steel) or from materials such as rubber, fabric or plastic such as PTFE. While materials such as rubber, plastic and fabric have their limitations, metal is the most versatile of all materials. Metals are suitable for use at high tempera- tures, have high strength properties and are resistant to corrosion. Metallic expansion joints are designed to safely absorb the dimensional changes of steel pipe systems and ducts. The changes could be heat-induced expansion and contraction, vibrations caused by rotating machinery, pressure deformations, misalignment during installation or building settlements. The main element of the expansion joints is the bellow. The bellows are made up of a series of convolutions, with the shape of the convolution designed to withstand the internal pressure of the system, but flexible enough to accept axial, lateral and angular deflections. Expansion joints are considered as very important components of a complete pipe system and are widely used particularly in industries where thermal expansion in pipe systems occur. Expansion joints also offer the advantage of reducing stresses in pipe systems generated by thermal expansion, and reduce pipe loads at connections to sensitive equipment such as pumps and steam turbines. Taken together this acts to prolong the service life of pipe systems, and reduces the risk of their downtime for additional maintenance and repair. Engineers and pipe designers routinely incorporate expansion joints into their pipe systems, as expansion joints add flexibility in to the design and reduce costs through removing the complexity of fix points, guides and reduces the overall space requirements for the pipe system. Further expansion joints are more effective than alternatives such as pipe bends and pipe loops due to Steel expansion joints are important components in many industries and are used extensively in among others: l Energy sector (power plants, nuclear power plants, district heating pipe systems etc.) l Steel plants APPLICATIONS l Petrochemical industry (oil refineries, pumping stations, oil rigs etc.) l Chemical industries (asphalt manufacturers etc.) l Process industry (sugar factories etc.) l Exhaust systems and engines l Pulp and paper industries l LNG/LPG tankers, -carriers etc. Expansion joints are often installed near boilers, heat exchangers, pumps, turbines, condensers, engines and in long pipe systems or pipe ducts. their greater ability to conserve space, their economic efficiency and better performance in absorbing larger movements. Advantages l Simple in design and function l Space reduction l Weight reduction l Cost reduction l Reduces engineering and design complexity to piping systems l Better flexibility for piping layout l Reliable and proven in the field Expansion joint types Expansion joints come in a wide variety of designs. Some of them are standard and some are customised as per client requirements. Although their design may vary significantly, all expansion joints are nevertheless composed from some of the following components, all with one or more specific functionalities: bellows, welding ends, flanges, hinges, tie-rods, spherical washers, wire mesh, insulation, inner sleeve, external cover, elbow and/or ring reinforcement/equalizing rings. THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT
9. 16 17 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints EXPANSION JOINT APPLICATIONS Expansion joints are a vital part in many industries and plant types. Below we have illustrated the use of expansion joints in some selected plant types. For more information on the plant types and the optimal expansion joint types for them, please refer to: WebLink: 13600 THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT Steel plant Blast furnace FCCU plant Pie-chamber from Coke plant Dedusting Coke Coke Cooling chamber Steam Final cooler Blower Surplus gas Multicyclon Waste heat boilerCoarse dust catcher Air Rotary valve Dust Feed Water Stack Stovesforhotblast Stovesforhotblast Dustcatcher Coke Coke oven Coke Iron Powdered coal Slag pot Iron tap Blastfurnace Blast furnace off takes Hot blast Stack Scrubber Precip Flue Gas Cooler SCR Generator Tube Expander Oriﬁce Chamber Third Stage Seperator Main air Blower Regenerator Reactor Product Main Column
10. 18 19 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints EXPANSION JOINT APPLICATIONS THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT Conventional power plantCombined cycle power plant LNG/LPG Carrier Ship Generator Gas turbine Diffuser Diverter HRSG ExhaustStack Generator Steam turbine CondenserSteam turbine Cooling tower Air intake BypassStack Kompensator LNG Tanks LNG Tanks LNG Tanks LNG Tanks LNG Tanks Coal mill Boiler Steam turbine Steam turbine Generator Cooling tower Condenser SCR/ DeNox Airpreheater Stack
11. 20 21 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints EXPANSION JOINTS VS. ALTERNATIVE FLEXIBLE SOLUTIONS For the absorption of movements in pipe systems, the pipe designer can choose between the installation of expansion joints, or other flexible solutions such as a pipe loop. Pipe loops also allow movements of the pipe system, but only in the axial direction of the pipe system. Pipe loops require more material such as pipe bends, pipe support, insulation and NDT. Furthermore, pipe loops consume a lot more space and can generate a greater pressure loss. Due to this, the installation of expansion joints is considered as a reliable and cost effective alternative to the use of pipe loops. The use of expansion joints ensures less material consumption, greater space savings with the reduced number and complexity of fix points and guides. Further, it requires less labour inputs such as those for welding and NDT. Additionally, the selection of expansion joints eliminates the bending stresses in the pipe system, which could cause a fatigue crack of the pipe system. The appropriate type can absorb movement in several planes and is maintenance free. Further, a replacement of a worn-out unit is easier and more efficient in terms of downtime and costs, than replacing a complete pipe loop. Inverse pipe loops require strong fix points, which can obtain the full pressure thrust force. DN 100 Pipe loop Expansion joint *Extra space 2,5 m x 1,5 m 0 m Dimension of pipe loop (h x b) 2,44 m x 1,22 m - Extra pipe (114,3 x 3,6 mm) 2 x 2,44 m = 4,88 m 0 m Expansion joint 0 1 pcs. (length = 255 mm) Bends (3,6 mm thickness) 4 0 Time for welding 8 welds of approx. 0,5 hours 2 welds of approx. 0,75 hours *NDT (X-ray) 8 welds 2 welds *Pipe supports for pipe loop / expansion joint stronger fix points 3 – 4 guides (Outer pipe) 1 guide + stronger fix points Price index 100 63 Pressure loss The pressure loss is significantly lower when installing an expansion joint rather than a pipe loop. The advantage of expansion joints versus pipe loops, increases with larger pipe sizes (DN) and increased pipe thicknesses, which is further explained in the table below. In this table, an expansion joint is compared against a pipe loop. The table shows that a DN 100 expansion joint is in general approxi- mately 37% cheaper than a pipe loop of the same size. If the pipe size is DN 400, an expansion joint solution is approximately 82% cheaper than a pipe loop. The data is calculated on the basis of these conditions: PN 10, EN 1.0038/ St. 37-2 welding ends, thermal expansion -0/+ 50 mm. DN 400 Pipe loop Expansion joint *Extra space 4 m x 12,5 m 0 m Dimension of pipe loop (h x b) 3,65 m x 1,83 m - Extra pipe (406,4 x 6,3 mm) 2 x 3,65 m = 7,3 m 0 m Expansion joint 0 1 pcs. (length = 265 mm) Bends (3,6 mm thickness) 4 0 Time for welding 8 welds of approx. 1,5 hours 2 welds of approx. 2 hours *NDT (X-ray) 8 welds 2 welds *Pipe supports for pipe loop/ expansion joint stronger fix points 4 – 5 guides (Outer pipe) 1 guide + stronger fix points Price index 100 18 Please note! The price index is based on material and working hours. Areas marked with * are not part of this price index. Please note that both solutions will have extra costs such as extra costs for supports/guides for pipe loop and for stronger fix points for expansion joint respectively. THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT
12. 22 23 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT MOVEMENTS Axial movement Axial movement is movement of the bellows in the direction of the longitudinal axis. This movement can be compressive, where the bellows shortens in length, or extensive where the bellows extends in length. In the majority of applications, the expansion joint is deemed necessary because of the increasing tempera- ture of the pipe system. The expan- sion joint is fitted in pipe systems and installed between two fix points (anchors). The extension of the pipe is compen- sated by the compression of the bellows. In some cases, typically cryogenic and chilled water services, the pipe system contracts in service causing the expansion joint to extend in length. Thermal expansion of the pipe system results in an axial compression of the installed expansion joints. The specifications for expansion joints should always state the movements as they affect the expansion joints, and not those generated by the pipe system. Lateral movement Lateral movement is movement perpendicular to the bellow's longitudinal axis; it is a shearing movement of the bellows with one end offset from the other, usually with the ends of the bellows remaining parallel to each other. A single bellow expansion joint, working with a shearing action, can accept a relatively limited amount of lateral movement, especially when the flow characteristics of the system demand that an inner sleeve is necessary. For larger lateral move- ment capability, it is usual to utilise a twin bellows arrangement with an intermediate pipe between the bellows, the expansion joint lateral movement is taken up by an angular rotation of the bellows in opposite directions. The amount of lateral movement available depends on the rotational movement capacity of each bellows and the distance between them, increasing the distance between the bellows increases the lateral move- ment capability of the expansion joint proportionally. Lateral movement can be applied in more than one plane; in such cases it is important that the expansion joint designer is made aware of the total lateral movement to be applied. Angular movement Angular movement is the rotation of the bellow's longitudinal axis at one end relative to the other, the axis of rotation is taken at exactly the midpoint of the bellow and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. Expansion joints using angular movement to control pipe system expansion are almost always used in pairs, sometimes combined as part of a twin bellows unit and sometimes in sets of 2 or 3 in pinned restrained expansion joints. The intelligent use of the angular capability of the bellows can enable a large amount of movement to be absorbed. In particular, pinned units used in 2-pin or 3-pin arrangements can convert pipe growth into angular rotation and control the expansion from 2 directions and in 2 planes. It is important not to confuse angular rotation with torsion. Torsion is a twisting rotational movement around the longitudinal axis; it generates undesirable shear forces within the bellows and its influence on the bellows should always be avoided. Please refer to the section about torsion. Universal movement Universal expansion joints can be designed and built to absorb applied axial, lateral and angular movements simultaneously. Such units usually require a lot of flexibility to absorb significant amounts of movements in combination. However, this often leads to a limited pressure containing capacity due to considerations towards the bellows’ stability. Important It is important that the designer of expansion joint is fully informed of all the movements to that the expansion joint will encounter. Knowledge of the amount of movement, its direction and any combination of axial, lateral and angular movements occurring together is essential for the correct design of the expansion joints. See how movements are absorbed in the various types of expansion joints: visit our Belman Group channel on www.youtube.com ANIMATION OF MOVEMENTS AXIAL ANGULARLATERAL
13. 25 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT AXIAL EXPANSION JOINTS Application Having the ability to compensate for axial movements and with its simple and compact overall dimensions, axial expansion joints are very widely used within a range of applications. They are especially common in long pipe runs, examples of which would include exhaust systems, ventilation and flue gas systems, district heating, steam, oil and gas pipe systems. Axial movement Axial movement is considered as an elongation or compression of the pipe system in its longitudinal axis, meaning that in the process of absorbing the movements, the overall length of the expansion joint will either extend or compress. Axial expansion joints which are designed to absorb large movements, can contain one, two or several bellows in one unit, and larger move- ments can also be achieved by pre-tensioning or by installing several expansion joints on the pipe section. Depending on the nominal diameter and length, axial expansion joints have the ability to absorb minor lateral and angular deflections and installation tolerances. However, we recommend the utilisation should be limited to its main function, otherwise its service life may be negatively impaired. Where there is a need for absorption other than that of axial movements, we strongly recommend alternative options and Belman will be pleased to provide its professional advice. Definitions Axial movement is shown as AX and stated in mm. Compression and elongation is indicated as negative (-) and positive (+). Example Elongation +10 and compression -20 will be shown as: AX +10/-20 mm. Equal longitudinal movements are shown as: AX +/-20 mm (2δN). l Simple solution for compensation of temperature fluctuations l No change in the flow direction l Compact and space saving solution l Relatively low cost l Strong fix points and good guides are required l Large movements require utilisation of several axial expansion joints l Many fix points and guides are needed for long pipe sections l Higher costs for fix points and guides ADVANTAGES REQUIREMENTS Axial expansion joints are designed to absorb axial movements (extension and compression in its longitudinal axial direction). The thermal expansion of a straight pipe line section between two fix points can be absorbed by axial expansion joints with a relatively compact build-in length. This offers a simple and cost efficient solution in terms of movement compensation. Axial expansion joints can be equipped with all kinds of connectors, such as welding ends or welded or loose (rotatable) flanges.
14. 27 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT LATERAL EXPANSION JOINTS number of end connections like welding ends, flanges and/or a combination thereof. Additionally, it can be equipped with accessories like: inner sleeves, covers, intermediate pipe and tie rods. The type of expansion joint selected depends on both its cost effectiveness and its suitability for the function to be fulfilled. The economic consideration should not only take into account the cost of the expansion joints, but also the required fix points, guides and structures. Application As lateral expansion joints absorb movements in lateral directions in one or more planes, and absorb adjusting forces, they are widely used in more complex pipe systems with many different directions and levels. Lateral expansion joints make possible the absorption of movements which are perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the pipeline, and are therefore ideal for installation in pipe systems with bends, Z shaped pipe systems and in 3 hinged systems. Lateral expansion joints can be used as tank settlement bellows, vibration absorbers and in all pipe systems with bends or a change in the pipe direction. Lateral movement Lateral movement is a sideways (lateral) displacement of the ends of the expansion joint in a direction perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. Lateral movement can be absorbed both in the horizontal and the vertical axis/direction according to the design of the pipe system. Lateral movement can, to a limited degree, be absorbed by one bellow. If larger movements are to be absorbed, we recommend a design with a universal expansion joint (two bellows with an intermedi- ate pipe) absorbing the movement and this also results in lower offset forces. Definitions Lateral movement is shown as LA and stated in mm. The parallel displacement is indicated as negative (-) and positive (+). Example The elongation of one side of the bellow is +10 and the compression of the other side of the bellow is -20. This will be shown as: LA +10/-20 mm. Equal parallel displacement is shown as: LA +/-20 mm (2λN). l Absorbs movements in all lateral directions l Absorption of large lateral movements with only one lateral expansion joint l Reduced loads on all fix points as the tie rods absorb the loads without transferring pressure thrust on to the fix points l For absorption of large expansions several lateral expansion joints are needed l Many fix points and guides are needed for long pipe sections ADVANTAGES REQUIREMENTS Lateral expansion joints are used to absorb lateral deflection. Lateral expansion joints can move in all lateral directions simultaneously for absorb- ing expansion from two pipe sections in different directions. The lateral expansion joint is normally equipped with fixtures such as external tie rods, which allow the unit to absorb movements in all lateral directions but also to absorb the pressure thrust (incl. full vacuum). The lateral expansion joints are available with one or two bellows (universal type) as well as with a
15. 29 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT ANGULAR EXPANSION JOINTS Angular expansion joints allow angular movements only, contrary to axial expansion joints which elongate and compress in the pipeline axis. The angular expansion joint moves in an angular rotation in one or several planes, controlled by a pair of hinges or a gimbal. The angular expansion joint is as standard delivered with either hinges or gimbals, and can be manufactured with any end connections such as welding ends, welded flanges, or loose flanges or combinations thereof, depending on client requirements. Hinged angular expansion joints Hinged angular expansion joints are equipped with hinges, to absorb angular movement/rotation in one plane only. The hinges are designed to resist the pressure thrust from the pipe system. Single hinged expansion joints are generally used in pairs or threes with a connecting pipe system between, and widely used in irregular and complex pipe systems. Gimbal angular expansion joints Gimbal angular expansion joints are designed to absorb angular movements in several planes without transferring pressure thrust on to the fixed points. A gimbal expansion joint is more flexible than a hinged expansion joint as the gimbal enables multiple angular rotations. Angular expansion joints in general Angular expansion joints offer a wide range of options, and when built into two or three pinned pipe systems, they can accommodate very large movements with very low reaction forces, without the need for fix points and structures. As angular expansion joints are fully restrained, they require only inexpensive guides or intermediate guides. This gives an economic advantage in large diameter, hot piping systems, even if the movements are complex and in several planes. Further, the hinges or gimbal can be designed to support the dead weight loads from the adjacent pipes and connected equipment, and to carry wind loads, snow loads, and any other external loads from the pipe system, minimizing the need for fix points and structures. The hinge can also be designed to eliminate torsion forces acting on the bellow. The bellow does not allow any torsion, and this should be Hinged Gimbal To b e co nti nued . . .
16. 30 www.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints ANGULAR EXPANSION JOINTS l Absorbs angular movements in single or multi plane l Use of normal guides l Reduced loads on all fix points l Changes in flow direction/pipe direction is required l More space consuming than axial expansion joints l Two or three expansion joints are required for a system ADVANTAGES REQUIREMENTS counteracted against in all cases. When the angular expansion joints are installed in two hinged or three hinged systems, the distance/intermediate pipe between each unit should be as large as possible, as this allow maximum lateral deflection or movement to be absorbed. If the thermal growth of the intermediate pipe is significant, a three hinged system is required. Angular movement Angular movement is an angular/ rotational displacement of the expansion joint where its longitudinal axis is displaced as an arc from its initial position. This is to be under- stood as an angulation of the expansion joints two end planes relative to each other, which results in the longitudinal centreline becoming an arc, like a pipe bend. The convolutions are uniformly compressed along the inside of the bellows longitudinal centreline, and uniformly elongated along the outer radius of the arc. Torsion or twisting of one end with respect to the other end about its longitudinal axis, and is not to be understood as angular rotation. Definitions Angular movement is shown as AN and stated in degrees. Angular rotation is indicated as negative (-) and positive (+) respectively. Example Angular movement positive +5 and negative -10 will be stated as: AN +5/-10°. An equal angular rotation over the bellows longitudinal centre- line are stated as AN +/-10° (2αN). Continued...
17. 33 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINTS l Absorbs movements in all directions l Absorption of large axial movements and lateral move- ments in one expansion joint l Can be modified to suit existing installation gap l Only for low pressure applications l Fix points and good guides are required l Many fix points and guides are needed for long pipe sections ADVANTAGES REQUIREMENTS Universal expansion joints consist of two multi-convoluted bellows connected with an intermediate pipe into one assembly. Belman has developed a series of universal expansion joints that allows all three movements: axial, lateral and angular simultaneously. The universal expansion joints can be equipped with all kinds of end connections, like welding ends, welded or loose flanges, and an endless number of accessories such as inner sleeves, cover and movement controls. Universal expansion joints featured in this catalogue are restricted to the maximum design pressure of 2,5 BarG, but as customised solution they can be designed for higher pressure. The universal expansion joints allow a large amount of lateral offset in multiple planes, and the lateral deflection can be increased or decreased by changing the length of the intermediate pipe. Universal expansion joints do not use tie rods, and are therefore suitable only for low pressure applications. Fix points and guides must be sufficiently designed to withstand the full pressure thrust forces and other loads. An universal expansion joint is not to be confused with a lateral expansion joint. Application Universal expansion joints can absorb movements in all directions, and are used in uncritical, low pressure installations like ventilation ducts, exhaust gas systems, fresh air ventilation and process equipment. Definitions Movement is shown as AX (axial), LA (lateral), AN (angular) mm + deg. The parallel displacement is indicated as negative (-) and positive (+) respectively. It is very important to notice if the movements is stated in combination (universal), or as an alternatively combination of the different directions. Example The elongation of the bellow is +10 and the compression of the bellow is -20. This will be shown as: +10/-20 mm. Equal parallel displacement is shown as: +/-20 mm.
18. 35 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints THE E XPA NS I ON JOI NT EXHAUST EXPANSION JOINTS Exhaust expansion joints are designed to absorb heat induced expansion and contraction of pipe systems and exhaust systems. Belman has developed a wide range of exhaust expansion joints, which are designed to give high movement absorption with low spring rates for best overall performance. The typical pressure rating for exhaust expansion joints, temperature depending is 1.0 BarG. These units are available with many end fitting options including welding ends, flanges (welded and loose). For smaller sizes, it is often possible to slide the bellows tangent over the l Gas-tight and resistant to corrosion and temperature l Absorb vibrations and oscillations l Light weight, reducing loads on hangers and pipe supports l Very low spring rates, and high flexible performance reduces loads on hangers and pipe supports l Economical l High flow velocity often requires an inner sleeve l Exhaust bellows exposed to vibration should be designed to ensure that the natural frequency and any harmonics do not coincide with the frequencies of the exhaust system ADVANTAGES REQUIREMENTS exhaust pipe and secure using band clamps or worm-drive clips. Exhaust expansion joints can absorb axial and lateral movements alone or in combination, and it is usually the required movement capacity which determines the selected configuration. A single bellow is normally selected to accept mainly axial movement although some lateral movement is usually possible. Where the amount of axial movement is outside of the capacity of a single bellows, a double expansion joint may be necessary. When the unit is required to accept a significant amount of lateral movement, including applications where axial movement is applied simultaneously, a double bellows is usually the preferred option. A double bellows unit has a interme- diate pipe between the bellows and sometimes this is an integral part of the bellows tube reducing the need for welded joints. Belman exhaust expansion joints are designed to be as light as practically possible to give minimum loads on hangers and pipe supports. Further, the bellows technology, often incorporates multi layers, giving maximum movement and flexibility (for minimum deflection forces and good fatigue properties) with good performance in conditions where vibration prevails. Exhaust expansion joints are generally unrestrained so the pressure force (generated by the bellows when pressurised), together with the deflection forces resulting from movement, must be contained by the system fix points and guides. At high temperatures or where the flow velocity is high, Belman always recommends an inner sleeve in the bellows. The inner sleeve protects the bellows against abrasion from any particulate matter in the flow medium and helps to smooth the gas flow over the convolutions which helps in the reduction of turbulence. It can also help to reduce the temperature of the bellows in the expansion joint. Application Exhaust expansion joints are used in a wide range of applications including gas turbine exhausts, power units, generator sets, marine propulsion systems, OEM engines and auxiliary systems. Customised expansion joints can be designed and built for any specific requirement and application.
19. 37 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints HIGH QUALITY EXPANSION JOINTS Belman is a recognised designer and manufacturer of metallic expansion joints with solutions being installed throughout the world. Belman A/S was established in 1994, with the main facility situated in Esbjerg, Denmark. Over the years, we have been able to build up a strong technical base with an extensive range of references across the industries, proving our abilities as committed, problem-solving, innovative and rapidly developing solution provider. We strive constantly to deliver excellent solutions by applying the latest available technolo- gies and maximum efficiency throughout the entire design and manufacturing process. Since 2008, Belman has been a member of the Euro-Qualiflex® association. This ensures our commitment to a high level of product quality, with a focus on safe, reliable and fully documented products. We provide high quality metallic expansion joints in sizes varying from DN 25 to more than DN 12.000 in all design variations, materials and according to all national & international standards. We supply expansion joints for a wide range of applications and f or many different users of expansion joints such as: plant operators, piping engineers, plant designers, EPC contractors, trading companies, OEM manufacturers etc. Every day, we expertly assist our clients with customised expansion joint solutions tailored for their applica- tion and project. The customised solutions designed for the client are usually metallic expansion joint solutions, but for applications where metallic expansion joints are not the optimum solution, we also expertly assist on solutions like rubber expansion joints, fabric expan- sion joints, metallic flexible hoses etc. If you require further assistance or wish to discuss the expansion joints we can offer you, please do not hesitate to contact us. WHY CHOOSE BELMAN Clients choose Belman because of: l High quality l Short and accurate delivery times l Flexibility l Responsiveness l Documentation l Customer-oriented approach E NGI NE E R I NG & QA
20. 38 39 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints QUALITY ASSURANCE WELDING & MATERIAL CONTROL The delivery of high quality products and services has always been an integrated part of what we stand for. We strive to provide expansion joints and services of a consistently high quality which fully meet the expectations of our customers. The implementation and adherence to recognised quality assurance systems ensures that all processes are performed accurately. The project starts with the initial review of the submitted specifications, followed by the design, manufacture, testing and documentation, all in accordance with the customer’s requirements. The accreditations and certificates we possess enable us to shorten and optimise each project by performing tests and inspection in-house. The Belman expansion joint design and production process makes use of state-of-the-art technologies. Accredited authorities perform regular controls and tests to confirm the efficient and professional continuity of Belman process management. Company approvals l EN ISO 9001:2008 l EN ISO 3834-2 l Pressure Equipment Directive PED 2014/68/EU (PED 97/23/EC) l AD2000 Merkblatt HP0 l TR CU 032/2013 (GOST-R) l Declaration of conformity (Russian Rostechnadzor) l Mark transfer approval within EN 10204 3.1 PED/AD-M W l DNV-GL type approval l Bureau Veritas type approval l LNG/LPG standard type approvals for LR, BV, DNV-GL, ABS and KRS l EHEDG Our latest approvals can be seen from our website. E NGI NE E R I NG & QA OUR ACCREDITATIONS Welding Our focus on quality assurance includes also welding and within this area, we follow both client requests, project requests, our own procedures, our own quality objectives and the requirements of the design codes. A natural step for Belman has been to automise the process of welding as much as possible to ensure that we have the right qualified welding procedure (WPS) for the project and also that we are using the right certi- fied welders for the project. We hold a database with more than 200 different qualified WPS. Database of qualified WPS Clamp meters Penetrant inspection Visual inspection Weld measuring gauge All welding activity is carefully inspected under supervision of our own inspectors (IWS and IWIS). As well as we have 100% trace- ability on all materials, we also have full traceability on all filler materials. 3.1 certificate can be provided for all of them. All documentation are kept in our files for minimum 10 years, which means that we can always find the needed documentation for the client in case it is required. Sliding gauge Caliper gauge Material control To ensure a short and accurate delivery time, we have an extensive stock of raw materials. For the bellow material, we stock various steel types in both sheets and coil. These are qualities such as different types of common stainless steel, all 300 series and special alloys being Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy, titanium, nickel etc. As quality is important to us and to our customers, we have compre- hensive control at goods reception. We check all incoming raw materials according to our QA procedures and policies and that means, among others, that we check the material thickness, certificates, marking of the steel, if the goods are as ordered etc. We have a quarantine stock for goods not approved by the inspector. To ensure a consistent quality on our subsupplies and raw materials, we audit our suppliers and we set also high demands for them in terms of having the same approvals, proce- dures and experience as we do. 3.1 certificates is a must and we are certified to mark transfer when the sheet and coil are used for several orders. Selection of the suitable material for the expansion joint that suits the project/application is crucial. To ensure this with considerations of all applicable norms and standards, we have build an extensive material database. Material database
21. 41 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints DOCUMENTATION Not only does Belman concentrate on the quality and finish of its products, the same careful attention is also applied to the associated documentation. Belman has developed its own special software which manages the material traceability on each project. It is also integrated with our design software to ensure the integrity of all materials used against the design code. Documentation is provided with every project. As we are able to execute tests and inspections in-house, our documentation is generated quickly and depending on the client's request, documentation can be supplied with the goods or sent separately. This ability to quickly generate documents ensures that no time is lost when our products arrive at the destination, allowing the instal- lation to be immediately executed with the absolute minimum of downtime. Due to our strength in document management, we are repeatedly chosen by clients. For the expansion joints specified in this catalogue and for our customised solutions, we can provide the complete documentation packages needed. Documentary requirements are determined by the project specifications, the applica- tion and the customer, industry and design code. Some projects require just a few certificates while other projects, such as those for e.g. the nuclear power industry, require thousands of pages of documentation. No matter what the requirements may be, Belman has the experience to ensure compliance. Typically, we offer our customers the following documentation: Calculations l Bellow calculations l Flange calculations l Finite Element Analysis (FEA) l Tie rods calculations l Pipe calculations l Hinge calculations l Lug and lifting lugs calculations l Natural frequency calculations l Inner sleeve calculations l Bolt torque calculations l Seismic calculations l Pressure drop calculations l External hardware calculations Welding documentation l WPS (15600 series (PED), AD2000, ASME IX) l WPQR (15600 series (PED), AD2000, ASME IX) l Welders certificates (EN/ISO 9606, EN/ISO 14732, AD2000, ASME IX) l Welding lists (Belman layout, custom layout) l Weld drawings l Filler material certificates (minimum 2.2, EN 10204) l Welding inspection reports (before, during and after) l Production tests according to AD 2000 l Tests according to NORSOK l As-build drawing Other documentation l Inspection certificate E NGI NE E R I NG & QA l Material certificates according to EN 10204 3.1 l DoC – Declaration of Conformity l CoC – Certificate of Conformity l VT, PT, TP, RT, UT, MPI, PMI reports l NDT operator certificate (EN 473/ISO 9712) l Pressure- and tightness test report and procedure l Pressure gauge calibration certificate l ITP – Inspection and Test Plan l Measuring report l Paint report incl. datasheets l ISO certificates (EN ISO 9001, EN ISO 3834-2) l Type approval certificate l Cleaning certificate and procedure l Supplier EN ISO 9001 certificate l Installation instruction 3rd party documents l Witness pressure test l Calculation approval l Design approval l Final inspection l According to type approval l Destructive testing Other related documents l According to nuclear specifications l According to NORSOK specifications l According to Oil/energy specifications l According to special customer specifications/requirements
22. 42 43 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints E NGI NE E R I NG & QA TEST Our expansion joints can be subject to any kind of tests and inspections. The scope of tests meets the requirements of the design code or the customer’s specification. Some tests are performed by Belman and some are performed by 3rd parties. Concerning testing, we differentiate between two different test types: non-destructive testing (NDT) and destructive testing, also called destructive physical analysis (DPA). By testing, we verify that our expansion joints are suitable for the intended use. Non-destructive testing is most commonly used, as it does not permanently alter the tested subject. Non-destructive tests l Visual test l Leak tightness test l Dye penetrant test l Radiographic examination l Hydrostatic pressure testing l Magnetic particle examination l Ultrasonic testing l Positive material identification (PMI) l Helium leak testing l Eddy current test l Dimensional check Destructive tests l Fatigue life testing l Squirm testing l Movement test l Vibration test l Burst test l Metallurgy inspections l Cupping test (Erichsen test) l Hardness test DESCRIPTION OF TESTS Visual test A visual inspection of the bellow convolutions for any cracks and irregularities, weld imperfections, surface finish and paint imperfections. Leak tightness test Leak testing is used to verify conformity of expansion joins. There are several ways to execute a leak test; generally the expansion joints are pressurised with air and then the inspected area is sprayed with a soap-water solution. The subsequent formation of soap bubbles would indicate the presence of a leak. Other types of media used for testing could involve gas, with the use of sensors for the detection of gases such as helium. Dye penetrant test Dye penetrant test is a widely used non-destructive test method to locate cracks in a welded surface, lack of welding fusion, leaks and fatigue cracks. The tested surface is cleaned and then the liquid penetrant is applied. The penetrant liquid is allowed 30 minutes developing time in which to soak into any pores, flaws, cracks and pin holes. After the devel- oping time, any excessive penetrant liquid is removed from the inspected area and then a white penetrant developer is applied that draws the original penetrant out from defects to form a visible indication. The indication will appear as a red spot on the tested surface. The dye penetrant test is the perfect way to render a defect, such as a visible crack. Belman has certified dye penetrant technicians and procedures. Dye penetrant liquid is a rapid and cost effective method of testing. Radiographic examination Radiographic examination is a non-destructive test method, also called X-ray. The test generates an image by using electromagnetic gamma rays to penetrate through an object. The X-rays that pass through are captured by a detector (film or digital) that generates a superimposed image of the tested specimen’s internal structures. Radiographic test is used to inspect discontinuities and imperfection of butt welds such as: interpass cold lap, porosity, slag inclusion, incom- plete penetration, incomplete fusion, root undercut, external undercut, offset or misalignment and cracks. Hydrostatic pressure test A hydrostatic pressure tests verifies expansion joint for its strength and leak resistance. The test pressure is always higher than the operating pressure to give a factor of safety. The safety factor used is depending on the regulations that apply. Belman has large scale testing equipment to perform pressure testing up to DN 3000 and 500 tons. Belman can pressure test in accordance with any applicable code. Magnetic particle examination Magnetic particle inspection is a non-destructive testing for detecting discontinuities in surfaces and sub surfaces in ferromagnetic materials and alloys. Magnetic particle inspec- tion (MPI) can also be used to show indications of stress corrosion cracking in pipe systems. Belman offers magnetic particle examination as an economical alternative to radiographic testing. Ultrasonic testing Ultrasonic test is used to transmit sound waves into the test material. With a probe that sends sound waves into the material, there are two indications on the oscilloscope. One is from the initial pulse of the probe and the second comes from the back wall echo. If there is an imperfection in the tested welds, this is displayed as reduced amplitude; the depth of the defect can also be determined. This non-de- structive test method can be used on carbon steel, stainless steel, alloys and other materials. This test method can also be used to measure the thickness of a subject, for example in order to determine the level of corrosion on pipework. Positive material identification (PMI) Belman offers positive material identification on all materials used. PMI is rapidly increasing in its use as a non-destructive test method. By exposing X-rays into materials, each chemical element reflects the radia- tion of X-rays by generating energy in a different way. XRF analysers can then measure the intensity and characteristic of the emitted energy, from which the analyser can thereby determine the qualitative and quantitative composi- tion of the material being tested. Helium leak testing For optimal safety and as a more accurate way of leak testing, Belman offers a non-destructive helium leak test of our products. Where a normal leak test such as hydrostatic or soap solution leak test offers only a limited leak detection rate, a leak test using helium as tracer gas, passes through any leak due to its small atomic size. With a mass spectrometer leak detector, it’s possible to locate and measure the size of leaks. Eddy Current test Belman offers also Eddy Current inspections. Eddy current testing is one of the latest non-destructive test methods, which uses electromagnetic induction to detect imperfections in conductive materials. Eddy Current test can detect very small cracks in the surface of the material or near its surface. Destructive testing In order to understand and prove structural and material performance under load, destructive testing can be performed. Belman has in-house test equipment to carry out: burst test, cupping test (Erichsen test), movement tests and fatigue tests. Destructive testing is suitable when expansion joints are being manufactured in large quantities or when a possible failure would have a serious impact. ADDED VALUES Testing of the expansion joints are always done according to the project requirements and the relevant standards. These are then recorded in a complete manufacturing data record book. Our expansion joints are made of high quality materials, from state-of-the-art manufacturing process and qualified and dedicated personnel. We treat the tests and quality procedures as an important process which adds value to our products, but most importantly, it delivers a guaran- tee of quality and product confidence for our customers.
23. 45 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints E NGI NE E R I NG & QA ENGINEERING & MANUFACTURING State-of-the-art engineering To meet the expectations of high safety, engineering must be supported by reliable and verified calculations. We calculate therefore according to the latest design codes, recognised by international classification associations. We are able to offer steel expansion joints calculated and designed according to following design codes: Design codes: l EN 14917 - European Standard specifies the requirements for design, manufacture and installation of metal bellows and expansion joints for pressure applications. l EN 13445 - European Standard for Unfired Pressure Vessels. EN 13445 is a standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of pressure vessels. l EN 13480 - A European Standard that specifies the requirements for: industrial piping systems and supports, including safety systems, made of metallic materials. EN 13480 is applicable to metallic piping above ground, ducted or underground. l AD2000 - German Code of practice for pressure vessel design and manufacture, which was prepared by a working group of multiple associations who together formed the “Arbeitsge- meinschaft Druckbehalter”. l ASME B31.1 - An American National Standard, a Power Piping Code. It prescribes minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, inspection, operation, and maintenance of power piping systems. l ASME B31.3 – An American National Standard, Process Piping Code provides a minimum set of rules concerning design, materials, fabrication, testing and examina- tion practices used in the construction of process piping systems. l ASME VIII Div. I – An American National Standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. l EJMA – A design code made by the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, an organization established in 1955. The standard provides rules for design, manu- facture and safe installation of metallic expansion joints.
24. 47 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints E NGI NE E R I NG & QA ENGINEERING & MANUFACTURING application, locations in the pipe system and installation requirements l Calculation software: BelMaker®, OMTECH and ANSYS State-of-the-art manufacturing l Several bellow manufacturing methods are available: punch formed, roll formed and hydraulic formed in both single-ply and multi-ply l Extensive stock of materials for both connection ends and raw sheet materials for bellows. Our sheet stock includes: austenitic stainless steels (300 series), duplex, aluminium, titanium and high-nickel alloys such as Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy, Monel, Nickel, etc. l In-house painting facility l In total 7700 m2 production and stock facility l Lifting capacity: up to 40 tonnes l Advanced welding equipment to ensure high quality and efficient welding l Automated and semi-automated welding equipment l Test and inspection equipment (in-house) l Various pressure test equipment (among others a DN 3500 test rig) The required solutions can be supplied with CE-marking in compliance with the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC). Belman is a member of the Euro- Qualiflex Association, and participates actively in writing the European Standard for expansion joints, EN 14917. The expansion joint solutions we offer are developed in accordance with the submitted specifications and in the close interaction with our clients, producing results that offer the optimal balance between performance and cost. We pride ourselves on the fast response to customer requests, especially in critical situations that call for the urgent replacement of expansion joints. Our design process includes the following: l Design codes: EN 13445, EN 13480, EN 14917, ASME VIII, Div.I, ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3, AD 2000 or EJMA l CAD Drawings l 3D Modelling l Finite Element Analysis (FEA) l Technical consulting on optimal solutions in regards to design,
25. 49 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints E NGI NE E R I NG & QA VALIDATION OF DESIGN In certain situations, it is not immedi- ately possible to validate the pressurised integrity of a construction by means of the analytical formulas specified in the applied design standards. For example, the geome- trical complexity of the construction or the need for a further optimisation of the design could mean that the analytical formulas cannot be applied. In such situations, Belman can verify the integrity of the construction by means of complex Finite Element Analyses. For this purpose, we use ANSYS® and the validation is carried out according to the terms of the specified design standard. The results of the analysis are often used internally for optimisation of the construction, but as an additional service Belman can prepare an evaluation report as part of the technical documentation package. Belman has further invested in a market-leading analytical calculation tool, which in addition to the stress analysis, enables us to offer design validation in connection with pres- surised equipment in accordance with the design code EN 13445. This tool can validate flange joints, pipe joints, spigots, supports and lifting lugs as well as can carry out more complex analyses, such as Tall Tower Analysis. The software used by Belman is tested and validated through close co-operation with reputable institu- tions such as DNV-GL and TÜV who also use this software regionally.
26. 51 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints MATE R I A LS Our selected material combinations for standard expansion joints are suitable for the majority of applications. The selection of the bellow material is generally based on the following aspects: l Formability (Ductility) l Weld ability l Thermal stability l Strength l Corrosion resistance l Corrosion properties such as process media, surrounding environment, internal cleaning agents l Mechanical properties: high temperature service, cryogenic service, operating stresses l Manufacturing properties: forming and cold working capabilities, cost and material availability. EXPANSION JOINT MATERIALS In particularly aggressive conditions, special materials with high corrosion resistance should be used. The corrosion resistance should be at least equal to that of the adjoining pipe. The demand for highly flexible expansion joints focuses on the use of multi-ply bellows, where very thin-walled convolutions prevent corrosion. Whenever in doubt, it is recommended to choose a material with a higher corrosion resistance for the bellows, at least for the inner ply. In many cases, nickel-based alloys like Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Incoloy 825 are suitable. Belman has significant experience in working with these materials. The resistance tables provided in this catalogue can be helpful in material selection. However, the choice of a suitable corrosion resistant material should be based on the experience of the user, who is most familiar with the particular features of the system and the operating medium. The expansion joints in this catalogue are supplied with documentation as per customer request. The following documentation can be provided upon request: For expansion joints according to EN 14917 and EN 13445 (PED): MATERIAL CERTIFICATES l Material certificates 3.1 l Inspection certificate l Certificate of conformity l CE marking For expansion joints according to EJMA: l Material certificate 3.1 l Inspection certificate
27. 53 www.belman.comB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints MATERIAL Source: EN 14917:2009 TYPE Number Steel name TEMPERATURE °C MaximumMinimum DOCUMENT a = Minimum temperature according to EN 13445-2/Annex B or EN 13480-2/Annex B. b = Minimum temperature according to CERN . c = Minimum temperature for cold-rolled strip up to 6 mm and hot rolled sheet up to 12 mm thickness . d = Special care should be exercised due to the risk of embrittlement when using the materials at elevated temperatures above 550°C. e = Minimum temperature is possible when the specified minimum impact energy (normally 27 J) can be proved. MATE R I A LS TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR BELLOW MATERIALS 1.4301 X5CrNi18-10 -196a 550 1.4306 X2CrNi19-11 -270a 550 1.4401 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 -196a 550 1.4404 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 -270b 550 1.4435 X2CrNiMo18-14-3 -270a 550 1.4539 X1CrNiMoCuN25-20-5 -196a 550 1.4541 X6CrNiTi18-10 -270c 550 1.4550 X6CrNiNb18-10 -196a 550 1.4571 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 -270c 550 1.4828 X15CrNiSi20-12 -196 900d Annex B, Position 1 X10NiCrAITi32-21 -196 600 Annex B, Position 2.1 X10NiCrAITi32-21 (H) 900d Annex B, Position 2.2 2.4610 NiMo16Cr16Ti -196 400 EAM-0526-28 EAM-0526-43-1, 2.4819 NiMo16Cr15W -196 400 EAM-0526-18 -196 450 EAM-0526-40 (-270) (900)d (, ) 2.4360 NiCu30Fe -196 425 Annex B, Position 3 2.4858 NiCr21Mo -270 540 Annex B, Position 4 1.0345 P235GH -20 400 1.0425 P265GH -20 400 1.5415 16Mo3 -20e 500 1.7335 13CrMo4-5 -20e 500 1.0565 P355NH -20 400 1.8935 P460NH -20 400 Stainless austenitic steels Heat resistant austenitic steels EN 10028-7:2007 Ferritic steels EN 10028-2:2009 EN 10028-3:2009 Nickel alloys 1.4876 2.4816 2.4856 NiCr22Mo9Nb NiCr15Fe -10 450 (-270) (900)d (. ) EAM-0526-43-2
28. 54 55 www.belman.comwww.belman.com B022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprintsB022016-1 – Subject to alterations and eventual misprints For pressurised applications according to EN 14917, the temperature range can be seen from the previous page. For lower pressure applications and/or other design codes, higher/other temperature ranges apply. Stainless steel Type 300 austenitic series 1.4301 (EN 10028-7) / AISI 304 (ASTM A240 – 304) Services a wide range of applications. It resists organic chemicals, dyes and a wide range of inorganic chemicals. The alloy resists nitric and sulphuric acids at moderate temperatures and concentration. It is used extensively in piping systems conveying petroleum products, compressed air, steam, flue gas, and liquefied gases at cryogenic temperatures. 1.4306 / 1.4307 (EN 10028-7) / AISI 304L (ASTM A240 – 304L) This alloy is an extra low-carbon varia- tion of 1.4301 with a 0,03% maximum carbon content that eliminates chromium carbide precipitation from the welding process. As a result, this alloy can be used in more severe corrosive environments than alloy 1.4301. It is preferred over 1.4301 for nitric acid service. 1.4401 (EN 10028-7) / AISI 316 (ASTM A240 – 316) This alloy has higher nickel content than the 1.4301/304. The addition of 2-3% molybdenum gives it improved corrosion resistance when compared to 1.4301/304, especially in chloride environments that tend to cause pitting. Typical applications are flue gas ducts, marine service, crude oil systems, heat exchangers and other critical applications in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1.4404 (EN 10028-7) / AISI 316L (ASTM A240 – 316L) This alloy is an extra low-carbon variation of 1.4401 with a 0,03% maximum carbon. It is commonly used for highly corrosive applications, where intergranular corrosion is a hazard. 1.4571 (EN 10028-7) / AISI 316Ti (ASTM A240 – 316Ti) With the addition/stabilising of titanium and molybdenum, this alloy shows very good resistance against carbide
Metallic and fabric expansion joint catalog for U.S. Bellows.
Section 4: Rubber Expansion Joints . Download PDF. Table of content: ... RED BAND Expansion Joints, Page 407‑408 (prev. catalogue page 4‑21) Type ERV-R;
When selecting the link below, the catalog will open in a new browser window. Download the Metallic Expansion Joint Catalog (PDF, 11 MB) Download the ...
EagleBurgmann Expansion Joint Solutions is a recognized world leader in the design and manufacture of engineered fabric and metal expansion joints.
Jord Bellows Contents page 2 The Company 3Metal Expansion Joints 4 Selection and ordering procedure 5Specifications and codes 6Axial Expansion Joints
THERMAL PAK m EXPANSION JOINTS Standard and Custom Designs for PACKING INJECTION UNDER FULL LINE PRESSURE Field Proven Designsfor High Pressure ...
2 METAL Expansion Joints UNAFLEX® Metal Expansion Joints and Flexible Connectors Call Toll Free: 1.800.327.1286 A Leader in METAL EXPANSION JOINT
EXPANSION JOINT & FLEXIBLE PRODUCT Expansion Joints Fabrication procedure ... expansion joints, we are competitive and specialized on the know-how on the
eccentric reducer expansion joints ... Please call Goodyear Rubber Products to order products from this catalog 1-866 ... Expansion. EXPANSION JOINTS ...
FABRIC EXPANSION JOINTS ... All the technical data contained in this catalogue is based on many ... Comdiflex - Fabric Expansion Joints