Existential Theory pp with narration

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Information about Existential Theory pp with narration

Published on September 24, 2017

Author: Lillychild

Source: authorstream.com

Existential Therapy: Existential Therapy By l buchheit Historical Background and Introduction: Historical Background and Introduction A way of thinking, a philosophical approach to psychotherapy 1940s-1950s Post WWII era, brought to U.S. from Europe by V.Frankl as a visiting professor People had feelings of isolation, alienation and meaninglessness Pertaining to “Exist” or “Existence” in the world as humans Existential Ideology Application in Counseling: Existential Ideology Application in Counseling This counseling assists clients in exploring the meaning of life, the nature of the human being, the “givens” in life, mortality, meaning, freedom, responsibility, anxiety, aloneness, despair, grief, creativity, love Clients may reflect on life and alternative options to their current situation and removing roadblocks for meaningful living Clients explore that we control our reactions and responses to the deterministic elements of life which we have no control over W e are free to choose how we respond to external forces When we are able to realize our true freedom, we also realize responsibility for our choices and actions Authors of own lives, designers of the paths we follow Key Figures: Key Figures Viktor Frankl (1905-1997) Concentration camp prisoner at Auschwitz and Dachau, parents, brother, wife and children all died but maintained love for life, had been working on existential theory prior to his capture and experiences at the camps confirmed his work, everything can be taken from a human EXCEPT the choice of attitude, all life has meaning Rollo May (1909-1994) Unhappy home life, studied with Adler, 2 year sanitarium stay due to illness, Humanistic approach to psychotherapy, choices determine identity, dependence/growth Irvin Yalom (1931-) group psychotherapy, therapy tailored for each client, transparent relationship with client, how we deal with “givens” or themes of life comes from our life design and quality Key Figures Cont’d: Key Figures Cont’d Soren Kierkegaard (1913-1855) “angst”-Existential anxiety drives basic life decisions, tasked with becoming human as we create ourselves - Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)-authentic living/experiences, constructing our lives around the expectations of others Martin Buber (1878-1965)- “I” and “it/thou” as a way to interact with others, “presence” with the functions of 1)true I/Thou relationship 2) allows meaning to exist 3) enables here and now responsibility Ludwid Binswanger (1881-1966)- holistic model of self, the person/ environment relationship, “thrown into world with responsibility for our choices and planning for future, Existential analysis, sig. fig. in ex. psychotherapy Key Figures Cont’d: Key Figures Cont’d Menard Boss (1903-1991)- sig. fig. in development of existential psychotherapy, “ dasein ” or “being in the world-reflection of life events and attributing meaning to them, integrated Freud’s methods with Heidegger’s concepts Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)- free to choose what we will, “bad faith” free to make a new/better choice/action regardless of past conditioning, existence is never fixed or finished James Bugental (1915-2008)- “existential-humanistic” psychotherapy, moved away from “diagnosis” used “presence and searching” for clients to make new discoveries, “resistance” to being fully present The New School for Psychotherapy and Counseling- London,England Human Nature: Human Nature What it means to be human, respect for the person Existential tradition- balance between limits/possibility and tragedy/opportunity “No relationship can eliminate existential isolation but aloneness can be shared and love can compensate for it’s pain” Yalom & Josselson Constant evolution and transition in human life “who am I ?” “what can I know?”, “what can I hope for?”, “what should I do?”, “where am I going?” 6 dimensions of the human condition Proposition 1: Capacity of Self-Awareness: Proposition 1: Capacity of Self-Awareness freedom, choice and responsibility, we are free (willful/creative/expressive) and limited (environmental/social constraints) We have finite time in life to do what we want Can choose action/inaction Living creatively in a world we are “thrown” into Increased awareness=increased responsibility for consequences of choices , difficult to “go home again” Alone but have opportunity to relate to others Clients learn-origin of identity, new choices/decisions can be made, can learn from the past, can choose how to respond, appreciation for authentic living, to accept limitations, imperfection is ok, preoccupation with past, planning for future, doing too many things at once steals away the present or their “presence” Proposition 2: Freedom and Responsibility: Proposition 2: Freedom and Responsibility 1) The freedom to “become”-natural and self-imposed limitations 2) Capacity to “reflect” -on the meaning of choices 3) Capacity to “act "on -the choices we make and new actions will change the situation “Bad Faith”- “Since that’s the way I’m made, I can’t help what I did” Inauthenticity-Avoidance of reality by making excuses Authenticity- living to be who we are Counselor helps client discover how they are avoiding freedom Counselor helps client see how they allow others to decide and encourages them to choose for themselves Proposition 3: Identity and Relationships: Proposition 3: Identity and Relationships Early childhood identity behavior patterns Identity and “being” can become based on the expectations of others, a fear that under the superimposed identity there will be nothing to which the counselor can help create a client chosen self Must be able to be alone before we can be with others Must be able to form healthy attachments Frightening for client to realize others have designed their life Proposition 4: Search for Meaning : Proposition 4: Search for Meaning It is distinctly human to struggle for a sense of purpose in life Existence Questions: “Why am I here?”, “What do I want from life?”, “What gives my life purpose?”, “what does my life mean?”, “will I be forgotten when I am gone?”, “what is the point, I will eventually die” Counselor Questions: “Do you like the direction of your life?”, “Are you pleased with what you are now becoming?”, “If you are confused about who you are and what you want, what will you do to gain clarity?” Creation of a new value system, people must create own meaning Proposition 5: Anxiety as Condition of Living: Proposition 5: Anxiety as Condition of Living Existential Anxiety- the “givens of existence”, death, freedom, choice, isolation, meaninglessness, to face this involves seeing life as an adventure rather than hiding behind imagined securities for protection Normal Anxiety - appropriate type in motivation for growth when faced with an event, *we do not attempt to erase this Neurotic Anxiety - disproportionate to the situation, immobilizes the person, we want as little of this type as possible for psychological health Proposition 6: Awareness of Death and Nonbeing: Proposition 6: Awareness of Death and Nonbeing Death is viewed as giving meaning to life Death is not a threat nor is it negative Death is a reality that enables us to live authentically If we ignore death, the message is that death is too overwhelming Exploration of the degree the client do things they value Death is motivation to decide how well life is being lived Those who fear death also fear life Therapeutic Goals: Therapeutic Goals 1) Increased Awareness and Decrease Restricted Existence 2)Help clients be more present with themselves and others 3 ) Help clients identify ways they block themselves from potential 4 ) Challenge clients to assume responsibility for design of present life 5 ) Encourage clients to choose more expanded ways of “being” No particular set of techniques are essential, techniques may be used from diverse theories in a creative way, tailored to the client’s needs Increased awareness is coupled with client experimentation and practice between sessions Counselor-Client Relationship: Counselor-Client Relationship Counselor attitude toward and relationship with the client must be positive and genuine in order to foster change The counselor and client journey together deeply into the world of the client as is perceived and experienced by the client, their reality Counselor strives to create a caring relationship with client through Counselor models authentic behavior Counselor models presence Counselor is a “fellow traveler” Counselor uses appropriate self-disclosure Counselor has previously clarified personal values in own life as to not become lost When deepest selves meet, the process is at its best Phases of Existential Counseling: Phases of Existential Counseling This therapy works well for clients that are at a crossroads and are questioning meaning in their lives Initial - identify and clarify world assumptions Middle - examine the source and authority of current value system Final - put into action between sessions what has been learned about self during sessions Application : Application Brief Therapy Time-limited approach as a catalyst for active involvement in sessions Time-limited therapy mirrors the reality of human existence Requires more structure and clearly defined goals If short work is beneficial, evaluate later needs Group Therapy Enables members to be honest with themselves and widens perspectives on themselves and world Clarify what gives meaning in present/future life The group provides mirror and practice which is likely to happen in real world interaction with others, view of other’s perspectives Multicultural Perspective: Multicultural Perspective Effective in multicultural counseling because it focuses on themes such as love, anxiety, suffering and death which transcend cultures Focuses on commonalities with the client first Enlightens us to the degree of which behavior is influenced by cultural conditioning Freedom can increase when the social limitation is recognized Frustration can occur when individual change is overpowered by lack of social change If the idea that a client can always change their situation is given quickly, and they have a choice when in reality they may not, can cause the client to feel patronized or misunderstood Some people who have been oppressed may not have developed self-determination Contributions and Criticisms of Existential Approach: Contributions and Criticisms of Existential Approach Contributions The human quality of therapeutic relationship Brought person into focus, emphasis on freedom and responsibility New view of death New dimension of understanding of anxiety, guilt, frustration, loneliness and alienation Limitations Lacks systematic practices of psychotherapy Vague language makes research difficult No specific set of techniques High level of maturity, life experience, intensive training and wisdom of the counselor is needed for success Class Engagement Activity : Class Engagement Activity Many of us will work with children at some point, either during our development into counselors or after this program in a school setting or mental health organization. My interactive challenge to you, is to begin to build a collection of children’s books which relate themselves to character education or social skills. These books will serve as a valuable resource in building a lesson or perhaps utilized in home education post session. Here are a few from my collection. I recently purchased the title “What Does it Mean to Be Present?” from Scholastic Books due to its relatedness to Existential Therapy . Credits: Credits Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Gerald Corey 9 th Edition pp. 136-168 All Photo Credits- Bing Image Search

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