Published on March 6, 2014
Exercise 6 Analyzing land use and sustainability in Brazil In this exercise, you will use a public domain spatial data portal from a national government agency to assess the spatial pattern of land use and deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. You will combine the data with Landsat imagery from an international portal to more fully understand the situation from a temporal and geographic perspective. Some of the data you will interrogate to investigate land use in Brazil Exercises for The GIS Guide to Public Domain Data
Context Approximately 30 percent of the world’s tropical forests lie within the country of Brazil. These forests are one of the world’s great natural resources and help to regulate the global carbon cycle, climate, as well as provide habitat for thousands of animals, plants, and native human populations. Due to growing population and demand for land and other natural resources, the Brazilian rainforest, like other major ecoregions of the world, faces development pressure. Indeed, the deforestation resulting from the spread of agriculture and conversion of forest areas to urban use has been one of the most widely discussed and publicized land use change phenomena of recent times. The estimated average deforestation rate from 1978 to 1988 alone was 15,000 square kilometers per year. Systematic deforestation begins as roadways are built, and fans out from there to create a pattern that looks like a feather, or a fishbone. As the pattern of land use change at both the regional and local levels is geographic in nature, GIS is a suitable tool to help understand the impacts of deforestation and to plan for the future.
Problem After reading for years about development and deforestation in Brazil, you decide to use your newfound GIS skills to investigate the situation for yourself and look at the problem spatially. Your goal is assess the pattern and reasons for development in one of the most widely known part of the rainforest, the state of Rondônia, Brazil. You will consider the following in your assessment of land use and deforestation in Rondônia: Vegetation Biomes General land characteristics, including transportation and physical features Soils Potential agriculture Administrative political divisions
Skills Required Resources Downloading and formatting data from a federal national public domain data source and an international data source for use in a GIS TIME This exercise contains fifty-two questions and will require two to four hours to complete. Downloading and formatting Landsat satellite imagery data for use in a GIS SOFTWARE ArcGIS 10.0 or later, from Esri. Analyzing spatial data in a problem-solving environment Integrating multiple sources into GIS-based analysis
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data Steps 1 - 6 Create a folder on your computer or network to store data. Make sure the folder has a descriptive name (so you can easily recall its contents) and choose a name without spaces to avoid problems in ArcGIS. 1) Access IBGE Access the Brazil Institute for Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistíca [IBGE]) site at http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/. If you prefer to examine the front page in English, see http://www.ibge.gov.br/english/. 1.1) What is the IBGE? 1.2) Which government agencies in the United States serve similar functions to the IBGE? 2) Locate Rondônia On the left side, under Database, select Estadoes@ (States@). On the viewer that will appear (http://www.ibge.gov.br/estadosat/). Using your mouse, hover over the various states until you find RO–Rondônia. States in Brazil as shown on the IBGE data portal.
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data 2) Locate Rondônia (contd.) Steps 1 - 6 2.1) In what part of Brazil is Rondônia located? Click Rondônia to access statistics for this state. 2.2) What is the 2010 estimated population for Rondônia? Now that you know where this state is, you are ready to retrieve the data you need for the study. 3) Select Interactive Maps Return to the main IBGE page, and under Channels, Database, select Mapas (Interactive Maps) as follows: IBGE portal.
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data 4) Select Generalized Map of Brazil Click Rondônia to access statistics for this state. Choosing an interactive map. Steps 1 - 6
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data 4) Select Generalized Map of Brazil (contd.) Steps 1 - 6 The interactive map that appears after you select OK should look similar to the following: Generalized map of Brazil on the IBGE website. Create a separate folder for each of the zip files, named biomes, general, agric_potential, soils, territories, and vegetation (or similar names that you will be able to keep organized). Note: You may have to enable your browser to allow pop-ups from this site.
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data 5) Download data Steps 1 - 6 Select and download the six categories of spatial data, one at a time. Download each dataset into its appropriate folder. For each of the six sets, you will need to first select the desired theme in the pull down menu in the upper right under Ver mapa. Selecting the required datasets.
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data 5) Download data (contd.) Steps 1 - 6  Vegetation (Mapa de vegetacao).  Biomes (Mapa de biomas).  General Characteristics (Mapa de caracterizacao geral do Brasil)–make certain that you have checked (on the left side, in the list of map layers) all of the Transportes (transportation), the Outros (Other), the Imagem, and the Meio Fisico (Physical Environment) so that when you extract, you obtain all of the following layers: List of datasets to extract.  Soils (Mapa de solos).  Potential Agriculture (Mapa de potencial Agricola).  Territorial Divisions (Mapa de Divisoes Territoriais). Select all of the 2005 layers, as shown next:
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data Steps 1 - 6 5) Download data (contd.) Selecting the 2005 layers for the Territorial Divisions. For each layer required, select the extract (Extrair) button:
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data Steps 1 - 6 5) Download data (contd.) Extracting selected layers. Select Extract (Extrair). After a short time, you will see a download screen, as shown next. Downloading the Rondonia data. Select Download and save your file to a folder on your computer.
Work package 1: Managing and accessing your data 6) Extract data Steps 1 - 6 Unzip each zip file into its appropriate folder. Data category Biomes Vegetation General Soils Agricultural Potential Territories Shapefiles stored locally after downloading and unzipping Bioma, uf Veg, agua, capital, uf bacia, hidro, ferrovia, rodovia, extremos, culminantes, porto, usina, aerop_inter, capital, uf Solos, capital, uf Potencial, agua, capital, uf 0, 1, 2, 3 6.1) Which shapefiles are duplicated among the different themes and folders? End of work package
Work package 2: Analyzing your data 7) Add data to ArcMap 8) Set coordinate system Steps 7 - 12 Start ArcMap and a new empty map. Under the general folder, add all layers. 7.1) Do the datasets have a projection attached to them? Set the coordinate system of the data frame to the WGS 1984 (under Data Frame Properties, Predefined, Geographic Coordinate Systems, World). 8.1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of this coordinate system for analysis? 8.2) What is the east-west distance in kilometers across Brazil at its widest point? 8.3) Can you determine the difference between the Culminantes and Extremos layers? 8.4) Can you determine the difference between the Ferrovia and Rodovia layers? 8.5) What is the relationship between the layers bacia and hidro? 9) Name the states Map the UF layer as unique values on the names of the states. 9.1) What is the field that names each state?
Work package 2: Analyzing your data 10) Add biome data 11) Save Steps 7 - 12 Under the biomes folder, add the layer bioma. Map the biome types as unique value. 10.1) What biome type occupies a tiny portion of east-southeastern Rondônia? What biome type occupies most of the rest of Rondônia? Save your map document. The Amazonian rainforest isn’t the only biome under pressure from human use in Brazil. In fact, according to one source, 35 percent of the cerrado (savannah) biome (695,000 km2) has been converted to agriculture, cities, or grazing, compared to 13 percent of the area of the rainforest biome, and only 1 to 6 percent of the cerrado is under protected status. Chief land pressures are for soya, maize, rice, wheat, cattle, charcoal production for the steel industry, and urbanization. 12) Add shapefiles Under the territories folder, add the shapefiles 0, 1, 2, and 3. 12.1) Which of these four map layers contains polygons for the smallest geographic unit? Examine map layer 0.shp’s attributes to answer the following. 12.2) Place the following names in the order of geographic area, from smallest to largest: mesoregiao, microregia, nome, and regiao. End of work package
Work package 3: Analyzing data II - Clipping 13) Add vegetation Steps 13 - 20 From the vegetation folder, add the veg map layer, and make a unique value map on the field TIPO. The vegetation layer is the current vegetation cover of the area, rather than the natural vegetation as untouched by human impact. The densest forest (floresta ombrofila densa) once occupied up to half of Rondônia. 13.1) How much of floresta ombrofila densa would you say occupies Rondônia today? Next, you will determine exactly how much of each type of vegetation exists within Rondônia. 14) Clip vegetation layer to states layer Select the state of Rondônia from the UF layer. Then, open the Systems Toolboxes and go to Analysis Tools > Extract > Clip in order to clip the veg layer to the UF layer with Rondônia selected, as shown next: Clipping the vegetation layer to the extent of Rondônia. 14.1) Did you receive an error during the clip operation OR has the clipped shapefile, veg_clip, not been created?
Work package 3: Analyzing data II - Clipping 15) Run Check Geometry Steps 13 - 20 Sometimes, data downloaded from public domain portals contain errors. Here, a few of the polygons may have topology errors. To investigate the vegetation layer so that the clip will work, in the Systems Toolboxes, use Data Management > Features > Check Geometry on your veg layer. This operation will create a DBF file listing any errors encountered; the dbf file will be added automatically to your ArcMap document. (If not, add it manually.) Once the DBF file is added to your ArcMap, open the file and investigate the problem. 15.1) What is the problem with the veg layer? 16) Run Repair Geometry To resolve the issue, use Data Management > Features > Repair Geometry on the veg layer to fix the problem. Re-run the clip tool to clip the veg layer to the state of Rondônia. 16.1) Do you now have a veg_clip layer? The Area Antropizada is the area most affected by human impact as it has been converted to agricultural use through the planting of crops or as pastureland. 16.2) Briefly describe the spatial pattern of development in Rondônia.
Work package 3: Analyzing data II - Clipping 17) Examine roadways layer 18) Generate statistics Steps 13 - 20 Turn on the roadways (rodovia) layer. 17.1) Name the roadway that is responsible for bringing the rainforest developers into the most impacted area of Rondônia. Access your veg_clip layer’s attribute table. Select the Area Antropizada polygons. Right-click shape_area and select Statistics. 18.1) How much of the land in Rondônia is included in Area Antropizada? 18.2) Are these figures in square miles, square kilometers, or in some other units? If the area is reported in some other units, what units are they? 18.3) Are these units a convenient or accurate set of units to use for spatial analysis? Why or why not? 19) Projections Consider the map projection. 19.1) How could you work with your data so that they would be in a more convenient and accurate unit? Don’t perform these steps, just indicate how you would go about changing the data to fix this unit problem. 20) Save Save your map document. End of work package
Work package 4: Analyzing data III - Summarizing and analyzing Steps 21 - 28 21) Quantify area of impact To get a better assessment of the amount of land impacted in Rondônia, right-click the Shape_area field and select Summarize. Summarize on this field using TIPO First, as shown in the Summarize dialog box. Be sure to uncheck the box “Summarize on the selected rows only” because you want a summary of all of the rows (alternatively, clear any selected rows before running Summarize). Summarizing the amount of affected land in Rondônia.
Work package 4: Analyzing data III - Summarizing and analyzing Steps 21 - 28 22) Select by vegetation type Open your summary table. Select all of the Area Antropizada rows in the table using Select by Attributes, as shown in the Select by Attributes dialog box. Selecting by vegetation type. Notice that each polygon of Area Antropizada is listed separately. This makes it cumbersome to determine how much of Rondônia is covered by Area Antropizada.
Work package 4: Analyzing data III - Summarizing and analyzing Steps 21 - 28 23) Summarize by vegetation type In your summary table, right-click shape_area > Statistics. You will see a histogram of data that summarize all of the Area Antropizada. Generating vegetation cover statistics. 23.1) What is the difference between the Statistics and Summarize functions? 23.2) What percentage of Rondônia (the Sum listed in the Selection Statistics of Sum_Output dialog box) is covered by Area Antropizada? 24) Identify capital Label the capital layer on the field Nomemun. 24.1) What is the capital of Rondônia, what river is it on, and what is the vegetation type in the area of the city?
Work package 4: Analyzing data III - Summarizing and analyzing Steps 21 - 28 25) Assess municipalities Turn on the 0.shp municipalities again and label. The Nome field that you examined earlier in 0.shp corresponds to the municipalities, but it is more like a city-state, with a city and its surrounding area. 25.1) Which three municipalities around the capital would you say are under the most pressure of land development, and why? 25.2) Describe the directions that the rivers flow in Rondônia (hidro). 25.3) What rivers would you say would likely be most affected by increased sedimentation from development in this region? 26) Assess soil types Under the soils folder, add the layer solos (soils). You may need to turn it on or make vegetation semi-transparent (under the Effects toolbar or Display tab in Layer Properties) to answer the following question. 26.1) What soil type(s) (TIPO and DESC_) underlie most of the area under intense development in Rondônia? 26.2) Name at least two problems associated with developing land that is underlain by tropical soils for urban land use. 26.3) Name at least two problems associated with developing land that is underlain by tropical soils for agriculture.
Work package 4: Analyzing data III - Summarizing and analyzing Steps 21 - 28 27) Assess soil fertility Under the potential agriculture folder, add the potencial map layer (potential for soils to support agricultural development). Map the potencial layer on the attribute FERTILIDAD (soil fertility). 27.1) What do you notice about the pattern of soil fertility (alta=high; media=medium; baixa=low; muito baixa=very low) related to the development in Rondônia? 27.2) Why do you think that soil fertility is related to land development? 27.3) Remembering the nome field that you examined earlier in 0.shp, which three municipalities would you say have the lowest fertility and yet have seen the most development? 27.4) How does the fertility of the soil encourage ongoing development of the rainforest into farmland and ranch land? 27.5) Do you consider the fertility ratings to be short-term or long-term ratings? Why? 28) Save Save your map document. End of work package
Work package 5: Analyzing satellite imagery 29) Access satellite imagery Steps 29 - 38 Next, you decide that you need a satellite image to see the fishbone pattern of roads branching off the main road into the rainforest. An excellent source for satellite imagery is the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF). Access it at: http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/index.shtml Global Land Cover Facility website. 29.1) What is the GLCF, and who operates it?
Work package 5: Analyzing satellite imagery 30) Access Data and Products Steps 29 - 38 Select the Data and Products link. On the next screen, select Landsat (under Satellite Imagery). 30.1) What is Landsat data? Who is responsible for operating Landsat and providing data from it? 30.2) What spectral bands does ETM+imagery occupy, and what is its spatial resolution? 31) Select Landsat data Select the ESDI link (on the right hand side). Note: If this tool is not running when you need it, select the Download via FTP Server under Data Access instead and complete the following: Select directory WRS2. Select directory P231. Select directory r068. You should be at the following URL: ftp://ftp.glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/glcf/Landsat/WRS2/p231/r068/ Select directory p231r068_7x20010811.ETM-EarthSat-Orthorectified. Select file “p231r068_7t20010811_z20_nn70.tif.gz.” Save and unzip this file (28 MB zipped [gz format]).
Work package 5: Analyzing satellite imagery Steps 29 - 38 31) Select Landsat data (contd.) On the next screen, select: Map Search. On the left panel, select Landsat Imagery ETM+. This is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper imagery. Zoom in to southern Rondônia (or type in Rondonia in the Place tab). 32) Identify image path and row Search for path and row WRS-2, Path 231, Row 068 as follows. The path refers to the Northeast-Southwest tracks that the Landsat takes in its orbit, and the rows refer to the segments along the orbit: Identifying the correct Landsat imagery.
Work package 5: Analyzing satellite imagery 32) Identify image path and row (contd.) Steps 29 - 38 Select Preview and Download. You will see a list of images; select ID 035–088. Landsat sensors are sensitive to seven bands in the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to mid-infrared. For this exercise, you will download only a file in one band, although for a more rigorous study, you would probably need to download all bands for multispectral analysis. Land cover facility portal. 33) Access technical guide Select Info to access the page http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/landsat/ and from there select Technical Guide (from list of options on right hand side). Link to GLCF technical guide.
Work package 5: Analyzing satellite imagery 33) Access technical guide (contd.) 34) Access images Steps 29 - 38 You should be looking at the following document at: http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/library/guide/techguide_landsat.pdf Notice that the document states that “Bands 4, 5, or 7 from ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper) are used to demonstrate vegetation conditions. Choose the band. 34.1) What band will you need for a Mid-Infrared 2.080 – 2.25 micrometer image? 35) Access metadata Go back to your list of images and select download (make sure you still have file 035–088 selected). You will next see a list of files; select the metadata file (last one in the list), named with a .met extension. You will see from this list that the file you need that corresponds to Band 7 in the electromagnetic spectrum has the following name: BAND7_FILE_NAME = "p231r068_7t20010811_z20_nn70.tif 36) Download data Exit your metadata file and download (save target as) and unzip the above nn70.tif file.
Work package 5: Analyzing satellite imagery 37) Add imagery to ArcMap Steps 29 - 38 Add your Landsat image to your ArcMap session. Choose Yes to create pyramids to make your zoom and pan draw speeds faster. 37.1) Using the Landsat image as your background image, make at least two observations about the pattern of development in this section of Rondônia. Try symbolizing the data using a classified method and experiment with other symbolization and classification methods. Landsat image imported into ArcMap with roads and hydro vector data 38) Save Save your map document. End of work package
Work package 6: Synthesizing results Steps 39 - 40 39) Communicate your results Create a layout and paste it into this exercise document that includes your satellite image base, your vegetation, roads, and hydro data. 39.1) What other information do you think you will need to communicate the extent of the issues you have been examining in Rondônia? 40) Analyze results Analyze the results of your investigation. 40.1) What have you learned about development in Rondônia, Brazil, during historic times up to the present day? 40.2) What area do you think will be targeted next for development? Why? 40.3) If you were going to study this region in a more rigorous way, what additional data—spatial or otherwise—might you need for this study? 40.4) Summarize in a few sentences what you have learned about using the GLCF as an image portal. What were its strengths and weaknesses portal? 40.5) Summarize in a few sentences what you have learned about using the IBGE. What were its strengths and weaknesses? 40.6) Is your use of IBGE or your use of GIS hampered if Portuguese is not your native language? 40.7) Do you think it is important for spatial data portals to be offered in more than one language? Who should fund such a translation effort? End of work package
Chapter 6 quiz 1) What is a spatial data infrastructure? 2) Which component of a spatial data infrastructure is most important, and why? 3) Name three difficulties in setting up an international spatial data infrastructure. Which one do you think is the most challenging to its success, and why? 4) Name two advantages that the INSPIRE initiative will offer the spatial data community of users. 5) Name two concerns that have been voiced about the INSPIRE initiative and why they are of concern. 6) What is the difference between an international spatial data infrastructure and an international data portal? 7) Name three international data portals and indicate the advantages of each in terms of data themes, formats, and download options. 8) Compare and contrast the Helsinki Commission’s Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) and the Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (ASDI). 9) Which datasets did you examine from the Brazilian mapping, environment, and statistics agency in your study of Rondônia? 10)Name the types of satellite imagery hosted on the Global Land Cover Facility. Which type did you use?
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