# Excel 2003 Training for Business Analysts

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Published on July 1, 2009

Author: timward

Source: slideshare.net

## Description

An excel couse designed to introduce analysts to useful functions and their combination

Introduction • Excel 2003 • Needs to be interactive or will be “Death by Powerpoint” • Many levels of knowledge – no question is stupid © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Suggested Agenda • Spreadsheet Design • Visual Basic • Think before you build • Introduction • Simple Functions • Recording Macros • Named Ranges • Editing Macros • Navigation • Custom Functions • Toolbars • Formatting • Objects (Pictures etc) • Data Handling • Text Functions • Lookup &Reference Functions • If statements • Nesting Formulae • Error Handling • Pivot Tables © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design “Think before you build” • Questions you should be able to answer • What is the purpose of my spreadsheet? • Who is going to use it? • What are the inputs? • What are the outputs? • Who is the audience for the output? © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design “Think before you build” • Simple rules for good design • Never change imported data • Never link workbooks • create an output sheet and copy it instead • Always have a worksheet for constants • Use named ranges • Try to place input cells on a separate page • Apply consistent formatting always • Develop a team style and be anal about applying it © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design Simple functions • Simplest Function • =A1 • Refers to the value in cell A1 • When copied the reference will change • Fixed references • Use Named range • Use “\$” to fix row or column or both • {F4} cycles between the options • =\$A\$1 – both row and column fixed • =\$A1 – just column fixed • =A\$1 – just row fixed • Try it now © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design Simple functions • Other simple functions: • =SUM() • adds up a range • =COUNT() • counts the number of numbers in a range • =COUNTA() • counts the number of non blank cells in a range • =SUMIF(lookup_range, criteria, sum_range) • Adds up values in a range matching a criteria © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design Named Ranges • Refers to a cell or cells • Can be fixed or relative • Makes formulae easier to read understand • Insert a single name by: • Insert > Name > Define • Insert Multiple Names • Insert > Name > Create • Examples © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design Navigation & Shortcuts • Using the Keyboard is much more efficient than clicking with the mouse, but it is a personal choice… • {Ctrl}+{Space} – select the whole column • {Shift}+{Space} – select the whole row • {Ctrl}+{Arrow Down} – move to last cell in current range in the current column • {Ctrl}+{End}- move to last cell in worksheet • {Ctrl}+{Page Up} – move to worksheet next on right • {Ctrl}+{Page Down} – move to worksheet next on left • {Ctrl}+{Tab} – Cycle through open workbooks • Right Click Button • {Alt}+{Underlined Letters} – Use menu items with keyboard © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design Formatting • How something is presented is at least as important as what is being presented • Formatting may be different for different media • Decide on and use standard formats for: • Font • Borders & Shading • Numbers • Colour Schema • Headings, Details, Totals etc • Never Hide a column or row use Outline Symbols instead • Aim for professional but do not be too “bold” © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Spreadsheet Design Objects Pictures • Almost any “object” can be embedded • Pictures (JPEG, GIF, BMP etc) • VISIO • Other Excel ranges • Excerpts from Word (and vica versa) • Video • Sounds • IMPORTANT: Make sure the Aspect Ratio is maintained • Try it now… © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Data Handling • Very rare to input all data into a spreadsheet • Important to be able to manipulate data and represent it as required • Pivot Tables • Powerful for ad-hoc analysis • Not great for standard reporting • Many categories of function – covering today • TEXT • LOOKUP • INFORMATION • LOGICAL © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions • Broadly 2 categories • Formatting • Extracting and Searching • Often used in combination with other formulae • First lets cover the most useful functions © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions - Formatting • Data extracted from systems has often been inconsistently input with different cases and spacing. • This looks unprofessional • Can lead to incorrect lookup results • 6 Functions • =PROPER() • =UPPER() • =LOWER() • =TEXT() • =VALUE() • =TRIM() © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions - Formatting • Go to the TEXT - Formatting Worksheet • Example text in cell A6 “thE qUicK bRown FOX JumPs Over tHe lAZy dog” • Hard to read and looks scrappy • Type =PROPER(A6) into Cell B6 • This capitalizes the first letter of each word and makes all other letters lower case © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions - Formatting • Type =UPPER(A6) into Cell B7 • This capitalizes all letters in the text • Type =LOWER(A6) into Cell B7 • This changes all letters in the text to lower case © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions - Formatting • Excel has a “code” for number formats. • dd-mmm-yyyy formats dates to read “16-Jun-2001” • Or dd-mm-yy = 16-06-01 • #,##0 would format the number 1234 to 1,234 • #,##0.00 would format the number 1234 to 1,234.00 • 00000 would format the number 1234 to 01234 • Q00 C000 would format the number 1234 to Q01 C234 • Etc… • This syntax can be used to define your own custom formats • Everyone happy? © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions - Formatting • =TEXT(Cell,Format) • Converts a number into text • Format is per the previous slide • Type =TEXT(A11,”#,##0.00“ in to cell B11 • =VALUE() • Converts text into a number • Type =VALUE(B11) into cell B12 © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions - Formatting • Finally the TRIM() function • Text strings can have inconsistent spacing • This makes it hard to manipulate the data • It can make it hard to read • TRIM() removes all spaces and replaces them with a single space between each “word” © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Extracting and Searching • Selecting Part of a text string • LEFT(), RIGHT() and MID() • Useful when: • Text has structure • Want to display only part of the text • Want to extract a number from a text string • Often combined with lookup & other functions • Searching within a text string • FIND() © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Extracting and Searching • =LEFT(Cell,NoChar) • Returns a text string “NoChar” long starting from the far left of the “Cell” • Type =LEFT(A19,3) into cell B19 • This returns “thE” • Now try typing =UPPER(LEFT(A19,3)) in cell B20 - What do you think the result will be? © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Extracting and Searching • =RIGHT(Cell,NoChar) • Returns a text string “NoChar” long starting from the far right of the “Cell” • Type =RIGHT (A19,3) into cell B21 • This returns “dog” • =MID(Cell,Start,NoChar) • Returns a text string “NoChar” long starting “Start” letters into the “Cell” • Type =MID(A19,5,5) in cell B22 • This returns “qUicK” • Try writing your own formula to convert this to read “Quick” in cell B23 © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Extracting and Searching • Selecting Part of a text string • LEFT(), RIGHT() and MID() • =LEFT(Cell,NoChar) • Returns a text string “NoChar” long starting from the far left of the “Cell” • Type =LEFT(A19,3) into cell B19 • This returns “thE” • Now try typing =UPPER(LEFT(A19,3)) in cell B20 - What do you think the result will be? © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Extracting and Searching • Left, Right and Mid are useful but what if you don’t know: • How long the text string should be • Where the text string starts • The “FIND” function becomes important • =FIND(String,Cell,Start) • String - the text you want to search for (case sensitive) • Cell - The cell containing the text you want to search • Start - Where in the cell to start searching © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Extracting and Searching • Try typing =FIND(“o”,A19) in cell B24 • This gives the result 13 • i.e. the first LOWER case “o” in cell A19 is at position 13 • Try typing =FIND(“O”,A19) in cell B24 • This gives the result 18 • i.e. the first UPPER case “O” in cell A19 is at position 18 © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Exercise Data has been extracted from a system which contains values which are structured as follows: a variable length code followed by a container number followed by the delivery point and the Vessel Name The container number and delivery point need to be extracted into Columns B and C as Headed - Switch to the “TEXT - Exercise” Worksheet - Using the LEFT, RIGHT, MID, and FIND functions 1. write a formulae to extract the container number 2. write a formulae to extract the Delivery Point © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Exercise Review • To extract the container number from column A we would use the MID function. • =MID(Cell,Start,NoChar) • Cell is easy • Container numbers are always the same length so we know that NoChar is 11 • How do we work out where the container number starts? © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Exercise Review • If we look at the data container number is always proceeded by a space • We can use the find function to work out which position the space is in • =FIND(“ “,Cell) • And we know that the container number starts 1 character after the space • So the formula would be • =MID(Cell,FIND(“ “,Cell)+1,11) © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

TEXT Functions Exercise Review • For the Whiz Kids • The elements of the formula are: • Cell - as before • Start - FIND(" ",A3,FIND(" ",A3,12)+1)+1 • The character after the second space • NoChar - FIND(" ",A3,FIND(" ",A3,FIND(" ",A3)+1)+1)-(FIND(" ",A3,FIND(" ",A3,12)+1)) • The number of characters between the third space and the second space We can go through this later if anyone wants to :-) © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Summary - TEXT Functions • You have learnt how to: • Change the case and data type of a cell with LOWER, UPPER, PROPER, TEXT, VALUE and TRIM functions • Extract parts of a text string with LEFT, RIGHT and MID functions • Search for stings within a cell with the FIND function • Combine the FIND and MID functions to increase their flexibility © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup & Reference Functions • There are many of these functions. This section will cover: • VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP • MATCH & INDEX • ROW • COLUMN • OFFSET © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup & Reference Functions • Lookup functions quite inefficient • Character by character match • Very slow • Need error trapping • Sorting important • If lot of similar lookups or error trapping • Use Match and Index instead of HVLOOKUP © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup and Reference Functions VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP • These lookup functions search for a value in the first row or column of a range and return the value x rows or columns away from the match. • These functions have the same syntax but perform their searches in different directions • “V” = Vertical and this function works by searching down columns • “H” = Horizontal and this function works by searching across rows © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup and Reference Functions VLOOKUP • Data must be arranged in columns • =VLOOKUP(What,Where,Return,Match_Type) • Where = the range containing the data • The values for “What” must be in the first Column • What = the value to be looked up in the first column of “Where” • Return = the column in the “Where” range that contains the values to be returned • Match_Type = the type of match required • 0 = an exact match (not case sensitive), Returns “#N/A” if no match is found • 1 = the closest match that is less than or equal to the What value (1st column of “Where” must be in ascending order) © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup and Reference Functions HLOOKUP • Data must be arranged in Rows • =HLOOKUP(What,Where,Return,Match_Type) • Where = the range containing the data • The values for “What” must be in the first Row • What = the value to be looked up in the first row of “Where” • Return = the row in the “Where” range that contains the values to be returned • Match_Type = the type of match required • 0 = an exact match (not case sensitive), Returns “#N/A” if no match is found • 1 = the closest match that is less than or equal to the What value (1st column of “Where” must be in ascending order) © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup and Reference Functions • =MATCH(What,Where,Match_Type) • Use on single row or column • Returns the number of the row or column where the match is found • What = the value to be looked up • Where = the range to do the lookup in • Match_Type = the type of match required • -1 - finds the smallest value that is greater than or equal to “What”. “Where” must be placed in descending order • 0 - finds the first value that is exactly equal to “What”. “Where” can be in any order. Returns “#N/A” if no match is found • 1 - finds the largest value that is less than or equal to “What”. “Where” must be placed in ascending order © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup and Reference Functions • =INDEX(RANGE,Row_No,Column_No) • Returns the value at the intersection of the Row_No and Column_No in the RANGE • Like coordinates in Maths • Much faster than lookup as no searching • Combine with “Match” – error trapped lookups, efficient multi column return • Combine with SUM to allow formula to cope with increasing periods etc © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup and Reference Functions • =ROW() • Returns the number of the row the cell is in • =COLUMN() • Returns the number of the column the cell is in • Sometimes useful in calculations • e.g. January is in column E (or 5), Feb in F etc. • If you need to use the month in the formula in a column then COLUMN()-4 gives this. © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Lookup and Reference Functions • =OFFSET(Reference,Row_Down,Column_Across) • Returns the value in the cell x Row_Down and y Column_Across from the Reference • Useful alternative to index if selecting values from a table where you need both rows and columns to be variable © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

IF Statements • If statements let a formula return different values or perform different calculations depending on the result of a logical test • A logical test is any expression that can be evaluated as TRUE or FALSE • Black = White is a logical test and would return FALSE • Age >= 21 is a logical test which would return true if the value for Age was greater than or equal to 21 © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

IF Statements • =IF(Expr,Value_If_True,Value_If_False) • Expr is the logical test • Value_If_True is the result if Expr evaluates to true • Value_If_False is the result if Expr evaluates to false © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

IF Statements • Sometimes the result of an IF statement depends on more than one Logical Test • OR and AND Expressions can be used to add this functionality to an IF statement • AND(Expr1, Expr2, …, Expr30) • If all of the Expr’s evaluate to TRUE then the AND statement evaluates to TRUE otherwise it evaluates to FALSE © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

IF Statements • OR(Expr1, Expr2, …, Expr30) • If ANY of the Expr’s evaluate to TRUE then the OR statement evaluates to TRUE © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Error Handling • Errors make totalling difficult and look unprofessional • Need to trap errors • Use if statement combined with: • ISERROR • ISNUMBER • ISLOGICAL • ISNA • IS… © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Error Handling • All “IS…” functions have the same format • Most common is “ISERROR” • =ISERROR(EXPRESSION) • Tests the value to see if it is an Excel error • #N/A, #REF, #VALUE etc • If it is an error then the formula evaluates to TRUE • If not an error then the formula evaluates to FALSE © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Pivot Tables • Very powerful tool – revolutionised analysis • Not great for standard reporting • Can change size and shape • Tricks for forcing standard size and shape • Data sources • External • Worksheet • Another Pivot Table • Formatting © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Visual Basic for Applications • Language Structure • Recording Macros • Editing Macros • Custom Functions © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Visual Basic for Applications • Can be used for: • Automating repetitive tasks • Guiding users with messages and dialog boxes • Restricting functionality • Designing custom menus and toolbars • Custom Functions • Structure is the same between office applications • Objects may vary © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Visual Basic for Applications • Language Structure • VBA is an Object Orientated Language • Almost everything in Excel is an Object • Workbooks, Worksheets, Cells • An object is a thing that you want to do something to • Objects are grouped in collections • Objects have PROPERTIES • The font size, value in a cell etc • You do things towith OBJECTS using a METHOD • Copy, Paste, Delete • The best way to start learning is to record a Macro © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Visual Basic For Applications • Look at the macro we just recorded • Tools > Macro > Visual Basic Editor • Make sure the project explorer is showing on the left – if not click {Ctrl}+R or go to the View menu • Look for VBA Project (My Name.xls) • Click the + sign next to it to expand the container • VBA Code is stored in a Module • Click the + sign next to the Modules folder • There should be a “Module 1” • Double Click this module © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Visual Basic for Applications • All macros start with the word sub followed by the macro name followed by brackets • The macro we recorded starts Sub Macro1() • All macros end with the words End Sub() • Lets look at the detail.. © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Visual Basic for Applications • Macro’s can be edited once you understand their structure • Reading our macro is there anything that is superfluous? • Other common edits • add a loop • Repeats the same action for a number of Worksheets or Ranges etc • Do WhileUntil… Loop • For…Next • For Each xxx in xxx … Next xxx © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

Visual Basic for Applications • Other common edits • add a loop • Repeats the same action for a number of Worksheets or Ranges etc • Do WhileUntil… Loop • For…Next • For Each xxx in xxx … Next xxx • with xxxx • Allows many properties to be set for the same object • If ... Then … Else … End if © Tim Ward 2009 – all rights reserved

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