Examples of user research needed for optimal comfort design

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Information about Examples of user research needed for optimal comfort design
Design

Published on March 4, 2009

Author: pvink

Source: slideshare.net

Description

In this presentation various forms of research are described (e.g. setting priorities based on websites, measuring effects of alternatives) to support finding the optimum comfort environment. Cases are presented in improving a commuter train interior, a assembly line and aircraft interior

Examples of user research needed for optimal comfort design Prof dr P. Vink, editor of the book:

The famous Peter Vink >200 publications on comfort head dpt interior design TNO professor IO TU-Delft a big applause please

The famous Peter Vink

>200 publications on comfort

head dpt interior design TNO

professor IO TU-Delft

a big applause please

No research/design could be dramatic An armrest with the controls on the thigh

expec- tations comf. brochures, websites first sight good looking, spacious short term comfort: positive attention discomfort: no obstacles, no pressure points long term comfort: nice entertainment discomfort: posture variation good fit after care tell “ bad = coinci- dence” The comfort process in time

expec- tations first sight short term -Find main user demands -Test alternatives -Test final product long term -Find main user demands -Use biomechanics/ ergonomics -Test alternatives -Test final product after care Effects of treat- ments For each phase research Studying how users react on websites products

three cases LIRR Faber Aircraft interior 3 three

three cases

LIRR

Faber

Aircraft interior

Conclusions Research: observation is essential involve employees/management measure the effects Design: set priorities based on user demands test alternative designs in an early stage test detailed design too

Conclusions

Research:

observation is essential

involve employees/management

measure the effects

Design:

set priorities based on user demands

test alternative designs in an early stage

test detailed design too

Designers make nice office chairs

a cheap and simple chair: four controls

Vink et al., 2007 How often do you adjust the chair (n=100)?

thus, user research is needed in design

user research alone is useless 2193876345987630458796305760387562038746508374560283746508237456083746508374605837465209837456028374650823746058273460582735609827360528734650287345602873456q49067194869847692847698246941385608347065187340813705`7201834750`872340873509830658357601385765781698356138659814350823752873562823537650283745602387310380561873451983057173

this presentation three cases showing the benefits of the combination of research and design LIRR, design of a passenger seat Faber, design of a factory layout Comfortable aircraft interiors,

this presentation

three cases showing the benefits of the

combination of research and design

LIRR, design of a passenger seat

Faber, design of a factory layout

Comfortable aircraft interiors,

Case 1: Long Island RailRoad trainseat More info: Bronkhorst & Krause, 2005

2 designers + topexpert (Vink) idea: comfort in passenger seats could be better some experience in office seat design marketing: brochure, publication, presentation, visits (40 seat manufacturers) after a year two small projects and one for LIRR was acquired

some experience in office seat design

marketing:

brochure, publication, presentation, visits (40 seat manufacturers)

after a year two small projects and one for LIRR was acquired

Analysis: 1500 subjects observed Selection: most important tasks Test: effects in lab of best seats Design: ideas for improvement tested in ergomix Specific design (drawings and mockups) Again tests of a feasible selection Manufacturing LIRR: design process

Analysis: 1500 subjects observed

Selection: most important tasks

Test: effects in lab of best seats

Design: ideas for improvement tested in ergomix

Specific design (drawings and mockups)

Again tests of a feasible selection

Manufacturing

Results of the observations Anthropometric data + 4 main activities: -sleeping -reading -just sitting/talking -in- and egress really important

Study of the best benchmark (S1) against the now used chair (S0) to come up with ideas

Regular LPD measurements

Even improvements for the best chair back angle depth of the seat in- egress/arm rest back cushion angle arm rest hip to knee space wings stiff cushions no side head support styling 5 o

 

 

 

 

83% of 20 passengers experience more comfort sitting, reading, sleeping

Case 1 Research Observation Ergomix Several tests with real passengers Case 1 Design Ideas for improvement based on research Redesign based on user tests Detailed design

Case 1 Research

Observation

Ergomix

Several tests with real passengers

Case 1 Design

Ideas for improvement based on research

Redesign based on user tests

Detailed design

this presentation three cases showing the benefits of the combination of research and design LIRR, design of a passenger seat Faber, design of a factory layout Comfortable aircraft interiors,

this presentation

three cases showing the benefits of the

combination of research and design

LIRR, design of a passenger seat

Faber, design of a factory layout

Comfortable aircraft interiors,

Case 2: Faber work station design More information: Van Rhijn et al. (2005)

2 designers + topexpert (again Vink): assembly work can be improved assembly improvement was done before Marketing: workshops with assembly companies on old cases + publication and appointments After a year 7 projects a year are done Participatory approach

assembly work can be improved

assembly improvement was done before

Marketing:

workshops with assembly companies on old cases + publication and appointments

After a year 7 projects a year are done

Participatory approach

Stepwise: from analysis to evaluation Involve employees, management, engineers and designers As direct participation as possible More info: Vink et al. 2008 Participatory approach

Stepwise: from analysis to evaluation

Involve employees, management, engineers and designers

As direct participation as possible

More info: Vink et al. 2008

the company a manufacturer of emergency light systems. tremendous increase in market, so production quantity must increase

a manufacturer of emergency

light systems.

tremendous increase in market,

so production quantity must increase

the question H elp us to build a new assembly line in a new production hall R educe the physical work load and increase productivity Comfortable for the employees

H elp us to build a new assembly line in a new production hall

R educe the physical work load and increase productivity

Comfortable for the employees

the design process (participatory) A work group leads Analysis of the assembly process Inventory of bottlenecks Target: more production volume Discussion/choice for assembly concept Definition of tasks and work places Lay out, delivery of parts and transport of products Work places design, tools, equipment

A work group leads

Analysis of the assembly process

Inventory of bottlenecks

Target: more production volume

Discussion/choice for assembly concept

Definition of tasks and work places

Lay out, delivery of parts and transport of products

Work places design, tools, equipment

from batch (old) to flow (new)

other result of the new design New assembly line is so small that it fits in the existing production hall: no new building is required!

New assembly line is so small that it fits in

the existing production hall: no new building

is required!

evaluation goals old vs new: Productivity Physical work load (+ LPD) Mental work load and job satisfaction Both assembly systems were in use at the same time, unique possibility

old vs new:

Productivity

Physical work load (+ LPD)

Mental work load and job satisfaction

Both assembly systems were in use at the same time, unique possibility

9 15 45 (3p) 134,7 3,6 min 1 hours 12 min (3p) New situation -25% 20 Required space/person (m ²) -44% 80,5 (4p) Required space (m ²) -46% 2 hours 35 min (2p) Lead time of a batch (60 products) -31% 5,2 min Time/person/product +96% 4,6 Products per person per day per m ² +44% 93,3 Products/person/day % Old situation

No diff. in bending of body (green*) No diff. in neck bending (green-yellow*) Arm elevation 20-60°: new (19,1% = yellow*) > old (7,5% = green*) No diff. in wrist bending (yellow*) No diff. in rotation of body or in bending sideward (green*) * Working postures evaluated with the traffic light system (time determines the permissability (green, yellow, red) Results Working postures

No diff. in bending of body (green*)

No diff. in neck bending (green-yellow*)

Arm elevation 20-60°: new (19,1% = yellow*) > old (7,5% = green*)

No diff. in wrist bending (yellow*)

No diff. in rotation of body or in bending sideward (green*)

* Working postures evaluated with the traffic light system (time determines the permissability (green, yellow, red)

Results Job satisfaction 6 Reduced walking with heavy boxes 3 Reduced work stress / time stress 2 Improved detection of faults 6 Improved use of work space 5 Improved tasks diversity 4 Improved job content 6 Improved experienced productivity 5 Improvement towards more pleasant work # yes (of 6) Job satisfaction in the new situation

Conclusion New situation: increased productivity New situation: hazards of lifting reduced Observed work load of straining postures over one working day hardly changed New situation: improved job satisfaction

Conclusion

New situation: increased productivity

New situation: hazards of lifting reduced

Observed work load of straining postures over one working day hardly changed

New situation: improved job satisfaction

Recommendation Present the board that no new building is needed, but investment in the new layout (10% of old budget) Improve the storage of relatively heavy parts (e.g. batteries), use for instance height adjustable shelves Increased intensity of work requires: -Job rotation and sufficient moving -Attention for working methods

Recommendation

Present the board that no new building is needed, but investment in the new layout (10% of old budget)

Improve the storage of relatively heavy parts (e.g. batteries), use for instance height adjustable shelves

Increased intensity of work requires:

-Job rotation and sufficient moving

-Attention for working methods

Case 2 Research Several tests with employees Evaluation of productivity and health effects Case 2 Design Good participatory planning/design of the new layout based on research Work station participatory designed Redesign based on user tests

Case 2 Research

Several tests with employees

Evaluation of productivity and health effects

Case 2 Design

Good participatory planning/design of the new layout based on research

Work station participatory designed

Redesign based on user tests

this presentation three cases showing the benefits of the combination of research and design LIRR, design of a passenger seat Faber, design of a factory layout Comfortable aircraft interiors,

this presentation

three cases showing the benefits of the

combination of research and design

LIRR, design of a passenger seat

Faber, design of a factory layout

Comfortable aircraft interiors,

Case 3: Aircraft interior More information: Blok et al. (2007), Vink et al. (2007)

20 – 30 years of difference: can you see it?

of course there are changes More flying More companies More comfort More differentiation More possibilities by technology (lighting, entertainment (life TV)) More transparancy (pitch and comfort scores on internet) ……

More flying

More companies

More comfort

More differentiation

More possibilities by technology

(lighting, entertainment (life TV))

More transparancy (pitch and

comfort scores on internet)

……

Main problems in 11,000 trip reports

% of comfort aspects that 153 participants rated “very poor/poor” on a five point scale: 1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=moderate, 4=good, 5=very good.

main problems Knee space Seat width Personal space However, in case of delay/cancellation/ lost luggage, comfort is also rated low + cramped muscles/tired/stiff

Possibility 1 stimulating movement Design: I. Kamp

Possibility 2 more kneespace for the same nr passengers Design: I. Kamp

Possibility 3 personal space Design: I. Kamp

What do passengers like? 28%, laptop, short trips, cheap tickets, walking for shop/bar 42%, cheap tickets, more knee space 30%, ideal for sleep, music, noise absorption

28%, laptop, short trips, cheap tickets, walking for shop/bar

42%, cheap tickets, more knee space

30%, ideal for sleep, music, noise absorption

Case 3 Research Three ways of user research: Internet reports Structured interviews Opinions on sketches Case 3 Design Priorities in design Ideas for improvement based on research

Case 3 Research

Three ways of user research:

Internet reports

Structured interviews

Opinions on sketches

Case 3 Design

Priorities in design

Ideas for improvement based on research

this presentation three cases showing the benefits of the combination of research and design LIRR, design of a passenger seat Faber, design of a factory layout Comfortable aircraft interiors,

this presentation

three cases showing the benefits of the

combination of research and design

LIRR, design of a passenger seat

Faber, design of a factory layout

Comfortable aircraft interiors,

Conclusions Research: observation is essential: focus on activities involve employees/management measure the effects: clear input for design Design: set priorities based on user demands test alternative designs in an early stage test detailed design too

Conclusions

Research:

observation is essential: focus on activities

involve employees/management

measure the effects: clear input for design

Design:

set priorities based on user demands

test alternative designs in an early stage

test detailed design too

Conclusion: guru Vink says: Better design thought research or design through research or … should be practiced by you!!!

References Blok M, Vink P, Kamp I. Comfortabel vliegen: comfort van het vliegtuiginterieur door de ogen van de gebruiker. Tijdschrift voor Ergonomie 2007;32(4):4-11. Bronkhorst RE, Krause F, Designing Comfortable Passenger Seats, In: Vink P, ed. Comfort and Design: Principles and Good Practice. Boca Raton (etc.): CRC Press, 2005:155-168 Rhijn JW van, Looze MP de, Tuinzaad GH, Groenesteijn L, Groot MD de, Vink P. Changing from batch to flow assembly in the production of emergency lighting devices. International Journal for Production Research 2005;43:3687-3701 Vink P., Porcar-Seder R., Page de Poso A., Krause F. Office chairs are often not adjusted by end-users. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 51st Annual Meeting, Baltimore, October 1-5, 2007. CD-ROM. Vink P. I. Kamp, M. Blok, A description of the aircraft interiors study can be found at http://www.io.tudelft.nl/live/pagina.jsp?id=2241219a-ddeb-405c-a2dd-57f54b89cdb4&lang=en

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