Example of a responsibilities driven business architecture alignment effort

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Published on February 27, 2014

Author: adidierk

Source: slideshare.net

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This document uses the Microsoft Connected Health Framework (CHF) to illustrate a Responsibilities Driven Business Architecture Alignment effort conducted by a fictional Healthcare organization that wants to adopt the CHF.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 1 of 54 EBMM-TRIADS™ Responsibilities Driven Business Architecture Alignment Case Study: The Microsoft CHF

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 2 of 54 Table of Contents 1-Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5 2-The EBMM-TRIADS ........................................................................................................................................................... 5 3-EBMM-TRIADS Shared Relationships ............................................................................................................................... 7 4-Responsibilities-Driven Business Architecture Alignment ................................................................................................ 11 4.1-BUSINESS POLICIES ............................................................................................................................................. 14 4.2-CAPABILITY ROAD MAP ........................................................................................................................................ 14 4.3-CHF BUSINESS CAPABILITIES ............................................................................................................................. 15 4.4-CUSTOMERS’ DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS.................................................................................................. 16 4.5-MARKET SEGMENTS ............................................................................................................................................. 17 4.6-PRODUCTS and SERVICES................................................................................................................................... 18 4.7-REQUIRED COMPETENCIES ................................................................................................................................ 19 4.8-VALUE PROPOSITION ........................................................................................................................................... 19 4.9-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S ASSETS ........................................................................................................................ 20 4.10-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS INITIATIVES & PROGRAMS ................................................................... 21 4.11-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS STRATEGIES & OBJECTIVES ................................................................ 22 4.12-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS UNITS ...................................................................................................... 23 4.13-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S GOVERNANCE BODY................................................................................................ 24 4.14-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S STAKEHOLDERS ....................................................................................................... 25 4.15-WHO-LIKE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ELEMENT INSTANCES ...................................................................... 26 INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 26 ITU............................................................................................................................................................................ 26 MARKET SEGMENTS ................................................................................................................................................ 26 CARE PROFESSIONALS (D) .................................................................................................................................. 26 CARE PROVIDERS (P) ............................................................................................................................................ 27 FUNDING ORGANIZATION (F) ............................................................................................................................... 27 PERSONS (C) .......................................................................................................................................................... 27 POLICY MAKERS and LEGISLATORS (G) ............................................................................................................. 28 RESEARCHERS and ANALYSTS (R) ...................................................................................................................... 28 4.16-WHY-LIKE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ELEMENT INSTANCES ...................................................................... 28 BUSINESS POLICIES................................................................................................................................................. 28 Using Cloud Computing ............................................................................................................................................ 28

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 3 of 54 Using Portals ............................................................................................................................................................ 29 Using SOA ................................................................................................................................................................ 29 CAPABILITY ROADMAPS .......................................................................................................................................... 30 Maturity Model for e-Health and e-Care ................................................................................................................... 30 CUSTOMER DEMANDS AND RELATIONSHIPS ....................................................................................................... 30 C2C .......................................................................................................................................................................... 30 C2P .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31 D2C .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31 D2D .......................................................................................................................................................................... 32 F2C ........................................................................................................................................................................... 32 F2F ........................................................................................................................................................................... 33 F2P ........................................................................................................................................................................... 34 G2C .......................................................................................................................................................................... 34 G2D .......................................................................................................................................................................... 35 G2F .......................................................................................................................................................................... 35 G2G .......................................................................................................................................................................... 36 G2P .......................................................................................................................................................................... 36 P2D .......................................................................................................................................................................... 37 P2P........................................................................................................................................................................... 37 R2F ........................................................................................................................................................................... 38 R2G .......................................................................................................................................................................... 38 R2R .......................................................................................................................................................................... 39 VALUE PROPOSITIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 39 Microsoft Value Proposition for Health and Social Care ........................................................................................... 39 4.17-WHAT-LIKE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ELEMENT INSTANCES .................................................................... 40 BUSINESS CAPABILITIES ......................................................................................................................................... 41 ASSESSMENTS AND CARE PLANS ...................................................................................................................... 41 CARE FACILITIES AND SCHEDULES .................................................................................................................... 41 CARE PATHWAYS .................................................................................................................................................. 42 CARE PROFESSIONALS ........................................................................................................................................ 42 CLINICAL AND CARE DATA MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................... 42 CLINICAL CODING AND DATASETS ...................................................................................................................... 43 COSTS AND PRICES .............................................................................................................................................. 43

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 4 of 54 CURRENT CLIENTS, PATIENTS AND CARE RELATIONSHIPS ........................................................................... 43 HEALTH AND CARE CLASSIFICATIONS ............................................................................................................... 44 INVESTIGATIONS, ORDERS, TESTS AND RESULTS ........................................................................................... 44 MEDICATIONS AND TREATMENTS ....................................................................................................................... 45 ORGANIZATIONS, CARE PROVIDERS AND SERVICES ...................................................................................... 45 PATIENT AND CLIENT GROUPS............................................................................................................................ 46 PATIENT AND CLIENT JOURNEY .......................................................................................................................... 46 PATIENT AND CLIENT MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................. 47 PERSONAL AFFILIATIONS AND ENTITLEMENTS ................................................................................................ 47 PERSONAL CARE RECORDS ................................................................................................................................ 47 PERSONAL CONSENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 48 PERSONAL HEALTH AND CARE STATUS ............................................................................................................ 49 PERSONS AND IDENTITIES ................................................................................................................................... 49 PROCESSES AND PROTOCOLS ........................................................................................................................... 50 PROFESSIONAL ROLES AND TEAMS ................................................................................................................... 50 RULES ENGINE ....................................................................................................................................................... 50 SOCIAL CARE CODING AND DATASETS .............................................................................................................. 51 WAITING LISTS ....................................................................................................................................................... 51 PRODUCTS AND SERVICES .................................................................................................................................... 52 CARE PROFESSIONAL SERVICES ........................................................................................................................ 52 CARE PROVIDER SERVICES ................................................................................................................................. 52 FUNDING ORG SERVICES ..................................................................................................................................... 52 PERSON SERVICES ............................................................................................................................................... 52 POLICY MAKER SERVICES.................................................................................................................................... 53 RESEARCHER and ANALYST SERVICES ............................................................................................................. 53 REQUIRED COMPETENCIES .................................................................................................................................... 53 Connected – Interoperable by Design ...................................................................................................................... 53 Dependable – Proven and Robust............................................................................................................................ 53 Extensive Partner Ecosystem ................................................................................................................................... 53 Productive – Familiar Tools to Automate the Way Users Work ................................................................................ 53 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................................... 54

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 5 of 54 1-Introduction We present an approach that tackles the number one issue faced by most organizations: Aligning Business and IT. We do so by presenting a Business Architecture meta-model called the EBMM-TRIADS and its practical application to aligning an organization's Business Motivation, Business Strategy, Business Responsibilities, and Business Operation. Each one of the four EBMM-TRIADs shares three sets of relationships with the other TRIADs. The relationships contained in each one of those sets impose alignment constraints on the types of Business Architecture elements hosted by the TRIADs. So each set of constraints represents a dimension of alignment between two TRIADs. The number of relationships contained in each set indicates the strength of alignment between the two TRIADs that share the set. Therefore the EBMM-TRIADs can provide a solid reference for a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the alignment achieved by an organization through its existing and targeted Business Architectures. We illustrate our approach with a case study of a Business Architecture Alignment effort conducted by a healthcare organization that wants to adopt the Microsoft Connected Health Framework (CHF). 2-The EBMM-TRIADS The EBMM-TRIADs are a conceptual meta-model of a business architecture and as such they model the types of elements and their associated relationships involved in the definition of an actual business architecture. The four EBMM-TRIADs elegantly break down the complexity found in Nick Malik's initial EBMM [1] by showing how its business architecture elements participate in four very common views of any Business Architecture: Strategy, Motivation, Responsibilities, and Operation. Each TRIAD combines three fundamental interrogatives taken from the following set: WHY, WHAT, WHO, and HOW. Each interrogative group contains several types of Business model elements that

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 6 of 54 entertain relationships with each other (e.g Success Metrics and Measures [WHY] set Performance Criteria for Business Strategies and Objectives [WHY]). The EBMM-TRIADs are an attempt at integrating fundamental interrogatives similar to the purpose of the Zachman Framework’ s (ZF) Integration Relationships between any two cells of the same perspective (ZF Row) [2,3]. Each TRIAD lists relevant types of business model elements and their respective relationships. Those relationships are between elements that belong to different interrogative groups (e.g. Business Strategies and Objectives [WHY] drive changes to Business Capabilities [WHAT]). Figure 1 – The EBMM-TRIADS Figure 1 is a high level view of the EBMM-TRIADs. These are the interrogatives that define each

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 7 of 54 TRIAD:  Business Strategy TRIAD: HOW does WHAT fulfil WHY  Business Motivation TRIAD: HOW does WHO influence WHY  Business Responsibilities TRIAD: WHY does WHO do WHAT  Business Operation TRIAD: HOW does WHO do WHAT The EBMM-TRIADS have practical applications to Business Architecture Alignment. The approach that we present can be used to guide an organization through the steps required to achieve a strong alignment between Business Motivation, Business Strategy, Business Responsibilities, and Business Operation. Our approach is valuable because it tackles the number one issue faced by most organizations: Aligning Business and IT [4]. A practical definition of alignment is given by Henderson and Venkatraman as “Alignment between business and IT is the degree of fit and integration between business strategy, IT strategy, business infrastructure, and IT infrastructure”[5]. The EBMM-TRIADs allow a precise characterization, both qualitative and quantitative, of the degree of fit and integration between Business and IT. 3-EBMM-TRIADS Shared Relationships Each EBMM-TRIAD shares three sets of relationships with the other TRIADs as shown in Figure 2. The relationships contained in each one of those sets impose Alignment constraints on the types of Business Architecture elements hosted by the TRIADs. So each set of constraints represents a dimension of alignment between two TRIADs. The number of relationships contained in each set

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 8 of 54 indicates the strength of alignment between the two TRIADs that share the set. This provides a solid reference for a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the alignment achieved by an organization through its existing and targeted Business Architectures [6]. The sets of relationships shared between the TRIADS are as follows:  Business Strategy and Business Operation shared relationships: o HOW to WHAT  Business Processes and Activities properly manage Assets  Business Processes and Activities produce and consume proper Data Objects  Assessment Metrics evaluate Business Capabilities  System Interaction Points are described in Use Cases or User Stories  Applications properly impact Business Capabilities  Applications are involved in providing useful Products or Services o WHAT to HOW  Business Capabilities are implemented through Business Processes/Activities  Data Objects are created or used in Applications  Business Requirements describe Application Features  Business Strategy and Business Motivation shared relationships: o WHY to HOW  Directives govern Business Processes and Activities  Success Metrics and Measures track success of Business Processes and Activities  Value propositions are inputs to Finance and Revenue Models o HOW to WHY

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 9 of 54      Assessment Metrics prioritize Capability Roadmaps  Key Performance Indicators track Success Metrics and Measures Business Strategy and Business Responsibilities shared relationships: o WHY to WHAT  Business Initiatives and Programs drive changes to Business Capabilities  Business Strategies and Objectives drive changes to Business Capabilities  Customer Demands and Relationships drive products and services  Value Propositions drive Required Competencies  Directives govern use of Assets  Capability Roadmaps describe changes to Business Capabilities Business Responsibilities and Business Operation shared relationships: o WHO to WHAT  Business Units are responsible for Assets  Business Units are responsible for Business Capabilities  Business Units consume Products and Services  Business Units provide Products and Services Business Responsibilities and Business Motivation shared relationships: o WHO to WHY  Governance Body enforces All Business Policies  Stakeholders are accountable for Business Strategies and Objectives  Stakeholders can be a type of Driver  Market Segments generate Customer Demands and Relationships  Influencing Organizations are sources of Influence Business Motivation and Business Operation shared relationships:

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 10 of 54 o WHO to HOW  Business Units perform Business Processes and Activities Figure: 2 There are 4 possible Alignment approaches, each defined by the TRIAD that triggers the alignment effort. We have demonstrated that a Responsibilities-Driven Business Architecture Alignment can be

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 11 of 54 significantly more efficient than its counterparts. The interested reader can refer to the following presentation for an overview of each approach and its efficiency: How to Use the EBMM-TRIADS to Conduct a Business Architecture Alignment Effort [7] 4-Responsibilities-Driven Business Architecture Alignment The remainder of this document uses the Microsoft Connected Health Framework (CHF) to illustrate a Responsibilities- Driven Business Architecture Alignment effort conducted by a fictional Healthcare organization that wants to adopt the CHF [8]. This is a link to the Microsoft CHF website: http://www.microsoft.com/health/ww/ict/Pages/Connected-Health-Framework.aspx We will identify key CHF Business Architecture actual elements and we will link them to their EBMM-TRIADS classifications. The fictional organization has specific Business Architecture elements not directly addressed by the CHF; we will highlight them and link them to CHF Business Architecture elements that influence or constrain them. When the Business Responsibilities TRIAD triggers the Business Architecture Alignment cycle, the following types of relationships are first examined: FOR BUSINESS MOTIVATION & RESPONSIBILITIES ALIGNMENT -WHO to WHY  Governance Body enforces All Business Policies  Stakeholders are accountable for Business Strategies and Objectives  Stakeholders can be a type of Driver  Market Segments generate Customer Demands and Relationships

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 12 of 54  Influencing Organizations are sources of Influence FOR BUSINESS STRATEGY & RESPONSIBILITIES ALIGNMENT -WHY to WHAT  Business Initiatives and Programs drive changes to Business Capabilities  Business Strategies and Objectives drive changes to Business Capabilities  Customer Demands and Relationships drive products and services  Value Propositions drive Required Competencies  Directives govern use of Assets  Capability Roadmaps describe changes to Business Capabilities FOR BUSINESS OPERATION & RESPONSIBILITIES ALIGNMENT -WHO to WHAT  Business Units are responsible for Assets  Business Units are responsible for Business Capabilities  Business Units consume Products and Services  Business Units provide Products and Services The fictional organization’s specific Business Architecture elements that are not directly addressed by the CHF are highlighted in Yellow in the previous relationship list. Figure 3 is an example of a healthcare organization’s Business Architecture model based on Business Architecture element types found in the Business Responsibilities TRIAD. Figure 3 incorporates CHF Business Architecture elements that are relevant to most healthcare organizations. Business Architecture elements that are specific to our fictional healthcare organization are symbolized by yellow boxes and would need to be detailed by that organization.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 13 of 54 obj ect Responsibilities-Driv en Business Architecture Alignment WHO WHY WHAT CUSTOMERS DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS MARKET SEGMENTS PERSONS (C) :MARKET SEGMENT YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS UNITS Prov ide C2C :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS D2D :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS P2P :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS G2G :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS R2R :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS F2F :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS C2P :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS D2C :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS G2C :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS F2C :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS P2D :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS G2D :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS R2G :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS G2F :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS R2F :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS F2P :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS CARE PROFESSIONALS (D) :MARKET SEGMENT CARE PROVIDERS (P) :MARKET SEGMENT WHO PRODUCTS and SERVICES G2P :CUSTOMER DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS PERSON SERVICES :PRODUCTS and SERVICES DRIVE CARE PROFESSIONAL SERVICES : PRODUCTS and SERVICES Consume Generate POLICY MAKERS and LEGISLATORS (G) :MARKET SEGMENT FUNDING ORGANIZATION (F) : MARKET SEGMENT RESEARCHERS and ANALYSTS (R) : MARKET SEGMENT CARE PROVIDER SERVICES : PRODUCTS and SERVICES POLICY MAKER SERVICES : PRODUCTS and SERVICES FUNDING ORG SERVICES : PRODUCTS and SERVICES RESEARCHER and ANALYST SERVICES :PRODUCTS and SERVICES BUSINESS POLICIES YOUR ORGANIZATION'S GOVERNANCE BODY Using Portals : BUSINESS POLICY Enforces Using Cloud Computing : BUSINESS POLICY Building Composite Applications : BUSINESS POLICY YOUR ORGANIZATION'S ASSETS Responsible for Gov ern use of Using SOA : BUSINESS POLICY REQUIRED COMPETENCIES INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONS Connected – Interoperable by Design :REQUIRED COMPETENCY ITU :INFLUENCING ORGANIZATION VALUE PROPOSITION Productiv e – Familiar Tools to Automate the Way Users Work : REQUIRED COMPETENCY Driv e Dependable – Prov en and Robust :REQUIRED COMPETENCY Microsoft Value Proposition for Health and Social Care :VALUE PROPOSITION Extensiv e Partner Ecosystem : REQUIRED COMPETENCY CHF BUSINESS CAPABILITIES CAPABILITY ROAD MAP Responsible for Describes changes to Maturity Model for e-Health and e-Care :CAPABILITY ROADMAP YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS STRATEGIES & OBJECTIVES Driv e changes to PERSONAL HEALTH AND CARE STATUS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY PERSONAL AFFILIATIONS AND ENTITLEMENTS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY PERSONAL CONSENTS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY PATIENT AND CLIENT JOURNEY : BUSINESS CAPABILITY PERSONAL CARE RECORDS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY PATIENT AND CLIENT MANAGEMENT : BUSINESS CAPABILITY ASSESSMENTS AND CARE PLANS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY HEALTH AND CARE CLASSIFICATIONS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY MEDICATIONS AND TREATMENTS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY INVESTIGATIONS, ORDERS, TESTS AND RESULTS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY CARE PATHWAYS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY PROCESSES AND PROTOCOLS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY ORGANIZATIONS, CARE PROVIDERS AND SERVICES : BUSINESS CAPABILITY WAITING LISTS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY CARE PROFESSIONALS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY PROFESSIONAL ROLES AND TEAMS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY COSTS AND PRICES : BUSINESS CAPABILITY Are Accountable for PATIENT AND CLIENT GROUPS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY CARE FACILITIES AND SCHEDULES : BUSINESS CAPABILITY YOUR ORGANIZATION'S STAKEHOLDERS PERSONS AND IDENTITIES : BUSINESS CAPABILITY CLINICAL AND CARE DATA MANAGEMENT : BUSINESS CAPABILITY YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS INITIATIVES & PROGRAMS Driv e changes to RULES ENGINE : BUSINESS CAPABILITY CLINICAL CODING AND DATASETS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY CURRENT CLIENTS, PATIENTS AND CARE RELATIONSHIPS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY SOCIAL CARE CODING AND DATASETS : BUSINESS CAPABILITY Figure 3: Responsibilities-Driven Business Architecture Model for Healthcare Organizations

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 14 of 54 The various types or classifications of Business Architecture elements belonging to the Business Responsibilities TRIAD are presented next. 4.1-BUSINESS POLICIES Formally documented management expectations and intentions. Policies are used to direct decisions, and to ensure consistent and appropriate development and implementation of Processes, Standards, Roles, Activities, IT Infrastructure etc. Connections Connector Source Target Notes Dependency Enforces YOUR BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' POLICIES S GOVERNANCE BODY Dependency Govern use of BUSINESS Source -> Destination POLICIES YOUR ORGANIZATION' S ASSETS 4.2-CAPABILITY ROAD MAP A Capability Roadmap is produced as the result of a maturity assessment. A maturity assessment is an element that describes a process that takes place at a specific point in time, and which does not question if the business is doing the right thing, but rather evaluates if the business is doing things

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 15 of 54 right. (The former is the scope of a business model assessment). Once a capability roadmap is generated, it becomes a driver in its own right. In order to make a change to the business, based on any driver, the business would charter a business program. Connections Connector Source Dependency Describes changes to CAPABILITY Source -> Destination ROAD MAP Target Notes CHF BUSINESS CAPABILITIES 4.3-CHF BUSINESS CAPABILITIES A business capability is a conceptual "element" of a business. In many ways, a capability is the basic building block of a business in the same way that atoms and molecules are the building blocks of matter. A business capability is a stable component of the business architecture describing "what" a company does, whereupon a business process describes "how" it does it. It is important, when creating a business architectural model, to keep these interrogatives independent of one another. A business capability is implemented by process, people, technology and information. Business capabilities provide a stable anchor point as process re-engineering, sourcing and technology optimization occur. Linking business capabilities to strategies drives prioritization and focus enabling efficient and effective execution. Connections Connector Source Dependency Describes changes to CAPABILITY Target CHF BUSINESS Notes

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 16 of 54 Connector Source Source -> Destination ROAD MAP Target CAPABILITIES Notes Dependency Drive changes to YOUR CHF BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' CAPABILITIES S BUSINESS STRATEGIES & OBJECTIVES Dependency Drive changes to YOUR CHF BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' CAPABILITIES S BUSINESS INITIATIVES & PROGRAMS Dependency Responsible for YOUR CHF BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' CAPABILITIES S BUSINESS UNITS 4.4-CUSTOMERS’ DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS The customers’ demands and relationships element of the business model describes in precise terms, the motivations that lead customers to buy products and services from the business, and how the business nurtures those motivations through marketing and support activities.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 17 of 54 The most important relationship any business can have is the one with their customers, and a failure to precisely describe the motivations that lead a customer to connect with the business can lead to errors in judgment that can ultimately cause the business to fail. Connections Connector Source Target Dependency DRIVE CUSTOMERS PRODUCTS and Source -> Destination DEMANDS and SERVICES RELATIONSHIPS Dependency Generate MARKET Source -> Destination SEGMENTS Notes CUSTOMERS DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS 4.5-MARKET SEGMENTS The customers’ demands and relationships element can be further broken down into market segments, with a detailed analysis of the buying habits or expectations of various types of customer within a particular segment. Connections Connector Source Dependency Generate MARKET Source -> Destination SEGMENTS Target CUSTOMERS DEMANDS and RELATIONSHIPS Notes

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 18 of 54 Connector Source Target Notes 4.6-PRODUCTS and SERVICES This element of the business model describes the specific products and/or services offered by the business. It is important to recognize that the specific products or services developed must derive from customer demands in order to effectively provide revenue. This relationship, between customers’ demands and the products offered, is the central focus of marketing in many organizations. Connections Connector Source Target Dependency Consume YOUR PRODUCTS and Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' SERVICES S BUSINESS UNITS Dependency Drive Source -> Destination CUSTOMERS PRODUCTS and DEMANDS and SERVICES RELATIONSHIPS Dependency Provide YOUR PRODUCTS and Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' SERVICES S BUSINESS UNITS Notes

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 19 of 54 4.7-REQUIRED COMPETENCIES An area or group of business capabilities where the business must excel in order for the business model to be successful. This is a general concept, not a specific grouping of business capabilities. This part of the business model drives the need for specific business unit capabilities to perform at higher-than-average levels of effectiveness and efficiency. Connections Connector Source Dependency Drive Source -> Destination VALUE PROPOSITION Target Notes REQUIRED COMPETENCIES 4.8-VALUE PROPOSITION The central notion of a business model, the value proposition describes how the business, through its activities, adds value to the consumer or marketplace. The Value proposition binds together the notions of customer demands, required competencies, revenue models and business partnerships. It is a statement from the viewpoint of the target customers that informs everyone "why" the business' products and services are valuable. Assessments of a business model often focus on this element. Many businesses make the mistake of “chasing money” by offering products and services that are ill-suited to develop, support, or make money from. By focusing on the value proposition, many businesses can clarify their objectives and focus their energies on those opportunities that are most likely to deliver value to their customers and

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 20 of 54 themselves. Connections Connector Source Dependency Drive Source -> Destination VALUE PROPOSITION Target Notes REQUIRED COMPETENCIES 4.9-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S ASSETS In the context of this model, an asset is any property controlled by a business unit through a business process. The management of that asset is subject to the constraints created by business directives (policies). A resource can represent anything that the business must employ, possess, or control in order to deliver on a required competency. Examples of a resource may be: - a person or group of people able to fulfill a particular role or mission - a building, office, suite, or store in which some activities are performed - a physical asset used in the process of fulfilling a capability - materials or inputs to manufacturing - inventory of goods to be sold or distributed - inventory of services ready to be provisioned or provided - cash or equities - Intellectual Property

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 21 of 54 Connections Connector Source Dependency Govern use of BUSINESS Source -> Destination POLICIES Target Notes YOUR ORGANIZATION' S ASSETS Dependency Responsible for YOUR YOUR Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' ORGANIZATION' S BUSINESS S ASSETS UNITS 4.10-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS INITIATIVES & PROGRAMS Initiatives are chartered (or proposed) project designed to change the ongoing structure, capabilities, or performance of the overall business. Typically, initiatives are chartered to create a measurable improvement in a business capability, often through process improvement, technology improvement, structural change (reorganization, insourcing / outsourcing, etc.), or accountability changes (governance, reporting, scorecarding, incentives). Initiatives are intentional effort chartered to make a change to the manner, approach, products, structure, and/or contractual relationships that make up the various functions of the business. A business program is defined as:  A group of related business projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside the scope of the discrete projects in the program.  An ongoing set of capabilities within a business unit aligned to organizational commitments.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 22 of 54 Connections Connector Source Target Dependency Drive changes to YOUR CHF BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' CAPABILITIES S BUSINESS INITIATIVES & PROGRAMS Notes 4.11-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS STRATEGIES & OBJECTIVES Strategy is a complex set of related statements used to motivate the creation of projects, the setting of goals, and the achievement of objectives by employees and partners of an enterprise in support of a business goal. It is not a course of action in itself, but instead it provides the general outlines of a course of action sufficient to drive specific changes in business operations. Strategies are defined in terms of objectives. Objectives are measurable milestones that support a strategy and measure the achievement of a business goal. Objectives must be measurable and must have a target date. In the EBMM, strategies and objectives are described by the same element because the statement of a strategy is often broken down into measurable objectives which then inspire lower level strategies for attaining them. As such, neither of the concepts is complete without the other to complement it. Connections Connector Dependency Are Source Target Notes

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 23 of 54 Connector Source Accountable for YOUR Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' S STAKEHOLDERS Target Notes YOUR ORGANIZATION' S BUSINESS STRATEGIES & OBJECTIVES Dependency Drive changes to YOUR CHF BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' CAPABILITIES S BUSINESS STRATEGIES & OBJECTIVES 4.12-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S BUSINESS UNITS A group of people that employ tools, processes, and information to perform their responsibilities. Usually organized in a hierarchy (which means that one business unit can include a number of sub-units, and so on). Business units perform business processes. A business unit is composed of business units, all the way down to the department and team level. The role of a business unit is to provide resources (money, staff, infrastructure, governance) to enable business processes to occur. Any use of one business unit by another takes place through a business service. The business units that offer the service are said to “provide” it while the business units that rely upon that service are said to “consume” it. In smaller organizations, it is uncommon to see a single business service provided by more than one business unit.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 24 of 54 Connections Connector Source Target Dependency Consume YOUR PRODUCTS and Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' SERVICES S BUSINESS UNITS Notes Dependency Provide YOUR PRODUCTS and Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' SERVICES S BUSINESS UNITS Dependency Are responsible for YOUR YOUR Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' ORGANIZATION' S BUSINESS S ASSETS UNITS Dependency Are responsible for YOUR CHF BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' CAPABILITIES S BUSINESS UNITS 4.13-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S GOVERNANCE BODY A group of individuals with the right to create and enforce business policies applicable across business

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 25 of 54 processes. Connections Connector Source Target Dependency Enforces YOUR BUSINESS Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' POLICIES S GOVERNANCE BODY Notes 4.14-YOUR ORGANIZATION'S STAKEHOLDERS A "driving stakeholder" is a person within an organization that owns accountability for a business strategy or objective. This person is a stakeholder to a business strategy but may also be the source of that strategy and is clearly a driving force in insuring that it comes about. To be an effective driver, a stakeholder must not only be accountable for an objective, but must have some kind of formal relationship with the person or team that is responsible for delivering on that objective. Connections Connector Source Dependency Are Accountable for YOUR Source -> Destination ORGANIZATION' S STAKEHOLDERS Target YOUR ORGANIZATION' S BUSINESS STRATEGIES & OBJECTIVES Notes

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 26 of 54 4.15-WHO-LIKE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ELEMENT INSTANCES INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONS ITU International Telecommunications Union, an agency of the UN, indicating that at least 50 percent of the global population now pays to use a mobile phone. Much of this growth is in Africa. Further, the ITU estimates that nearly a quarter of the world’s population now has access to the Internet. MARKET SEGMENTS CARE PROFESSIONALS (D) Care Professionals, in a medical context, include doctors, nurses, and allied care professionals. Doctors would include general practitioners, physicians and surgeons, and mental health specialists. Nurses would include hospital, community, and specialized nurses, such as cancer care nurses. Allied care professionals, who usually need formal training and accreditation before they are employed, would include medical assistants, dental hygienists, physio- and occupational therapists, laboratory technicians, medical equipment technicians, radiographers, medical secretaries, medical coders, care assistants, caterers, porters, and drivers. In a social care context, care professionals would include social workers, counselors, community care

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 27 of 54 workers, and many accredited volunteers and private sector careers. In certain, clearly defined circumstances, they might include special needs teachers, home care assistants, personal financial and legal assessors and councilors, police and probation officers, and addiction treatment and prevention specialists. CARE PROVIDERS (P) Care Providers include hospitals, clinics, care and residential homes, medical practices, laboratories, and other organizations that accommodate and treat patients or clients. They provide physical premises and facilities and operate medical and other equipment. They operate administrative and clinical systems and employ care professionals. FUNDING ORGANIZATION (F) Funding Organizations are those bodies—public or private—that provide the funding for e-Health and e-Care. They include national and local government departments like Ministries of Health or Social Work departments, official agencies like National Health Services, insurance companies, and charities and philanthropic organizations. PERSONS (C) Persons are national citizens; resident aliens; short-term visitors; and tourists in need of or receiving medical attention, social care, or allied treatments. When health care is involved they are called

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 28 of 54 “Patients,” if social care then “Clients,” and in commercial situations “Customers.” POLICY MAKERS and LEGISLATORS (G) Policy Makers and Legislators are government departments, quasi-government organizations, and professional bodies responsible for the organization and regulation of care services on a national or regional basis. This would include the enactment of legislation, the provision and control of funding, and the setting and governance of professional standards of care and process. RESEARCHERS and ANALYSTS (R) Researchers and Analysts are scientific, medical, statistical, and other professionals, institutes, and bodies interested in the analysis of trends, treatments, procedures, medications, facilities, screening programs, care initiatives, and many other aspects of Health and Social Care. Typically their interest lies in the experiences of groups of patients or clients rather than individuals, and patient information should be anonymized before use. 4.16-WHY-LIKE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ELEMENT INSTANCES BUSINESS POLICIES Using Cloud Computing

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 29 of 54 The concept incorporates Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent technology trends that have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users. SaaS vendors provide common business applications online that are accessed from a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers “in the cloud”. Using Portals The portal is a vital piece of technology. It enables the assembly of relevant data from multiple sources, which can be presented to the user in a coordinated, task-oriented manner. It provides comprehensive content management and search capabilities, enables participation in shared business processes, and facilitates enterprise-wide information sharing across organizational boundaries. Portals must provide reliable means of establishing identity and ensuring privacy and confidentiality. Using SOA Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) provides the principles and guidance to transform an organization’s array of heterogeneous, distributed, complex, and inflexible systems into integrated, simplified, and highly flexible resources that can be changed and composed to more directly support business goals. SOA ultimately enables the delivery of a new generation of dynamic applications (sometimes called composite applications). These applications provide end users with more accurate and comprehensive information and insight into processes, as well as the flexibility to access it in the most suitable form and presentation factor, whether through the Web or through a rich client or mobile device. Service orientation uses standard protocols and conventional interfaces—usually Web

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 30 of 54 services—to facilitate access to business logic and information among diverse services. CAPABILITY ROADMAPS Maturity Model for e-Health and e-Care Our (Microsoft) impression is that many current implementations are concerned with moving from the Baseline, Level 0, towards Integration, Level 1, rather than from an integrated platform through the Trigger Point to Transformation, Level 2, and eventual Revolution. In other words, Transaction might be happening, but Transformation and the Trigger Point most definitely are not. The main thrust of the CHF Architecture and Design guidance is to help bridge the gap between Level 0 (the Baseline) and Level 2 (Health 2.0) by ensuring that Level 1 (Integration) is effectively and efficiently implemented. In this part of the CHF ADB we present a Business Pattern that can be regarded as a template for Levels 1 and 2. CUSTOMER DEMANDS AND RELATIONSHIPS C2C PERSONS to PERSONS: -Community Care -Self-help Groups

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 31 of 54 -Charities -Social Services -Insurers Typically concerned with self-help groups and community-based activities, including social services. In this group we would include charitable groups and activities such as hospices, elderly care, and other tertiary-care initiatives. We would include insurers in this set of interactions in so far as they trade with citizens and may represent patients in the arrangement of suitable care and treatment. C2P PERSONS to CARE PROVIDERS: -Appointments -Admissions -Discharges Typically concerned with administrative transactions such as the making of appointments, attendance at outpatient clinics, and hospital admissions and discharges. D2C CARE PROFESSIONALS to PERSONS: -Patient Doctor Relationships

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 32 of 54 -Episodes of Care Typically concerned with episodes of patient care or treatment. These interactions are subject to stringent confidentiality requirements, including the observance of specific professional and ethical relationships. D2D CARE PROFESSIONALS to CARE PROFESSIONALS: -Care and Clinical Roles -Groups and Teams -Triage -Delegation of Care -Client/Patient Referrals Typically concerned with the referral of patients for further examination and treatment; case reviews and triage; peer knowledge and information sharing; and the delegation of care as well as the organization and management of clinical groups and specialist teams. F2C FUNDING ORGs to PERSONS: -Registrations

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 33 of 54 -Contracts -Community Care -Screening Programs Typically include the transactions involved in the registration and enrollment of persons for various services; the calculation and collection of premiums, contributions, and payments for care services and programs; and the operation of health assurance activities such as screening and risk assessment sessions. F2F FUNDING ORG to FUNDING ORG: -Strategic and Business Planning -Marketing and Product Planning -Administration -Funds Management -Records Management -Programs and Plans -Targets and Budgets Typically include a full range of business management activities such as strategic and business planning activities, marketing and health and care product planning, financial planning and management, business improvement programs, and the setting and monitoring of financial and organizational targets.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 34 of 54 F2P FUNDING ORGs to CARE PROVIDERS: -Standards of Care -Direct Funding -Performance -Audit Typically concerned with funding and audit, measuring and improving performance, and monitoring of standards of care. G2C POLICY MAKER to PERSONS: -Registration -Awareness Programs -Screening Programs Typically concerned with registration for national and regional services and initiatives such as screening programs and community-based care activities. Citizens often will pay for their health service either as part of general taxation or through a specific, homologated charge.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 35 of 54 G2D POLICY MAKERS to CARE PROFESSIONALS: -Registrations -Standards of Care -Professional Bodies -On-going Education Under the term “Policy Makers and Legislators” we include not only national governments and state and regional authorities but also professional bodies concerned with registration of care professionals and the setting and observance of professional standards of care. G2F POLICY MAKERS to FUNDING ORGs: -Standards of Care -Indirect Funding -Performance -Audit Typically concerned with the setting and monitoring of budgets, levels of expenditure, and the audit and appraisal of performance.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 36 of 54 G2G POLICY MAKERS to POLICY MAKERS: -Strategic Planning -National Administration -National Programs -Targets and Budgets -Coding Standards -Service Frameworks Typically include the overall definition, planning, and execution of national policy; the administration of the national service including the setting and monitoring of national targets and budgets; the definition and management of national programs; and the definition and monitoring of disease-specific service frameworks and guidelines. G2P POLICY MAKERS to CARE PROVIDERS: -Standards of Care -Performance -Audit Typically concerned with the setting and monitoring of standards of care and audit and performance measurement activities. Depending on the national business model in use, these interactions may take

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 37 of 54 place either directly or via the appropriate funding organization. P2D CARE PROVIDERS to CARE PROFESSIONALS: -Engagements -Assignments -Schedules -Test and Assessment Requests and Results -Administration Typically falling into two types: administrative activities around engagement and assignment to particular roles and responsibilities, and clinical activities associated with patient care and treatment, such as requests for tests and imaging and the use of specialized facilities and equipment. P2P CARE PROVIDERS TO CARE PROVIDERS: -Client/Patient Administration -Clinical and Social Care Systems -Monitoring Systems -Laboratory systems -Imaging Systems

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 38 of 54 -Pharmacies -Care Management -Facilities Management These are many and varied, covering patient administration and clinical care; the management of facilities; and the provision of specialist services such as laboratories, imaging systems, and specialist diagnostic equipment. Independent services such as dentists, opticians, and pharmacies may also be included in this grouping. R2F RESEARCHERS to FUNDING ORGs: -Projects -Results Typically concerned with requests for, formulation of, and financing of research studies, statistical analyses, surveys, opinion polls, and so on, as well as the reporting of results. R2G RESEARCHERS to POLICY MAKERS: -Projects

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 39 of 54 -Results Typically concerned with requests for, formulation of, and financing of research studies, statistical analyses, surveys, opinion polls, and so on, as well as the reporting of results. R2R RESEARCHERS to RESEARCHERS: -Collaborative Projects -Anonimized Data Access -Data sharing and Publication -Methods and Procedure Research -Treatment Analysis -Drug Trials Typically concerned with the organization and conduct of research and evaluation projects including collaborative projects, data collection and sharing, trials and evaluation of drugs and treatment procedures, and so on. VALUE PROPOSITIONS Microsoft Value Proposition for Health and Social Care The key features of the proposition, realized using the Connected Health Framework, are as follows:

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 40 of 54 Connected – Interoperable by design  Open architectures built on industry standards that facilitate the flow of patient information and clinical knowledge seamlessly through the care continuum and across agencies  Leverage legacy application and infrastructure investment Productive – Familiar tools to automate the way you work  Let clinicians be clinicians: improve adoption  Enable delivery of public health services in a standardized, replicable manner Dependable – Proven and Robust  Applications that support 24/7/365 Health and Social Care operations  Financially stable Extensive partner ecosystem gives decision-makers a choice Best Economics – Driving down the cost of Health and Social Care technology  Create ROI faster than traditional investments  An integrated platform that lowers TCO overall  Local delivery model  Scalable from single providers to county-wide programs 4.17-WHAT-LIKE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ELEMENT INSTANCES

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 41 of 54 BUSINESS CAPABILITIES ASSESSMENTS AND CARE PLANS Assessments are structured analyses of a patient’s or client’s condition or situation. They are made using an agreed, applicable common protocol by one, or usually more, care professionals and perhaps, professionals from other disciplines. The result of an assessment is a plan for the patient’s or client’s care and hopefully recovery. The Assessments and Care Plans component provides capabilities and services to aid the conduct of the assessment, the production of the care plan and its subsequent execution. CARE FACILITIES AND SCHEDULES The Care Facilities and Schedules Component contains basic details of facilities operated or used by an organization unit (e.g. of hospitals, clinics, etc.) which includes accommodation to bed level, schedulable equipment such as scanners and major diagnostic devices and treatment facilities such as theatres. Facility and Team schedules are maintained. It also provides details of team schedules so that the joint availability of a physical facility and its operating and supporting personnel can be ensured. No capability for workload leveling or schedule optimization is provided at this stage.

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 42 of 54 CARE PATHWAYS The Care Pathways Component provides services in support of standard programs of treatment and care for defined diseases and medical and social conditions. Such programs are often applicable at a national level and include target timings for the provision of treatment. A Care Pathway is lengthy and may last for some months or even years. Although standard programs are specific, an individual care pathway for a particular patient or client can be constructed to suit individual circumstances and may be modified, in flight, to respond to changes in the patient’s or client’s condition. Thus the Care Pathway is built from “phases” which lie between major decision points on the pathway. Segments contain “activities” which specify actions to be taken in the course of treatment. In terms of granularity, these planned events correspond to Patient Events. CARE PROFESSIONALS The Care Professionals’ Component records details of individuals employed contracted or assigned to professional work within the Health and Social Care domain, their specific roles and effective dates. CLINICAL AND CARE DATA MANAGEMENT A Patient Encounter might involve taking measurements, readings, and so on. For a particular medical condition of procedure there is a defined set of items that should be recorded. The Clinical Data Management Component provides facilities to define the items required for each encounter type. Optionally, data may be structured using archetypes as used in the OpenEHR methodology

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 43 of 54 CLINICAL CODING AND DATASETS This component manages the data capture and maintenance of Clinical datasets, the items of information that should be recorded for a medical condition or procedure. Mechanisms are provided to anonymize such that the specific patient is not identifiable COSTS AND PRICES The Costs and Prices Component provides means of recording the prices and costs of Health and Social care activities and billing the appropriate “payer”. Means are available to record standard unit costs for the elements of care activity e.g. Facility usage, Professional Time, Prescription Item, Test and Images, etc. and the billing tariff for defined care activities. Actual usage of the billable elements is recorded and thus margins and Price variances can be calculated. CURRENT CLIENTS, PATIENTS AND CARE RELATIONSHIPS Patients and Clients are formally assigned to Care Professionals. Each Professional has established “care relationships” in which they are charged with specific aspects of individual patient’s care. The Current Clients, Patients and Care Relationships Component maintains these care relationships. Care Professionals have a formal range of permissions to access “their” patient or client data derived from their roles, specialties and team memberships or by specific wish of the patient or client. This component maintains and communicates a record of accesses made to patient related data by each

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 44 of 54 Care Professional. This includes information on the use of clinical overrides. HEALTH AND CARE CLASSIFICATIONS The Health and Care Classifications Component maintains and applies a categorization scheme for summarizing the disease, medical or social condition or procedures involved in patient or social care client care. A Health Subject may comprise smaller, more detailed Health Subjects and in turn may be a sub-division of a more general Health Subject. A Health Classification may align with a medical “Specialty” – such as “geriatrics” or “cardiology” or “gastroenterology”, etc. or the Social care equivalents such as “care of the elderly” or “visual impairment”, etc. A Health Subject qualifies Patient Events, Consents, Permissions and Roles of Care Professionals. Health Subjects provide a common denominator between schemes and the component provides a translation service between a code value in a particular scheme and the corresponding code in another. INVESTIGATIONS, ORDERS, TESTS AND RESULTS Orders are created in order to perform tests or to carry out various imaging or diagnostic examinations. Orders are raised as a result of a Patient Encounter and are sent to the appropriate laboratory or facility. Coordinated sets of orders can be specified to carry out a detailed investigation. Tests involving samples are usually carried out anonymously as far as the patient is concerned; the test being identified by a sample number with is related back to the patient by the requestor. Tests and examinations carried out on the person are clearly not anonymous. Some orders are not patient-related and others are for

Copyright © 2013-2014 Pragmatic Cohesion Consulting, LLC Page 45 of 54 non-clinical purposes (e.g. catering). Orders may be grouped in sets for one patient or be for a group of patients. Tests and examinations are carried out using standard processes and may involve automated or manual activity. The Investigations, Orders, Tests and Results component provides capabilities to manage and conduct order processing and results production. MEDICATIONS AND TREATMENTS The Medication Component offers basic information on medication items, their recommended usages and dosages and information about their use in conjunction with other medications. It provides only a quick reference and is not intended as a full prescribing system or pharmacopeia. ORGANIZATIONS, CARE PROVIDERS AND SERVICES This component is concerned with the provision of Organizational information about official bodies, private companies and any enterprise active in the broad health and social care domains in response to a request from any approved consuming process. Organizational Information includes data about organizational units, their structure (both hierarchical and matrix), and their inter-relationships. An important sub-set is that of Care and Service Providers who provide diverse Health a

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