Examining workplace & housing discrimination experienced by YMSM

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Information about Examining workplace & housing discrimination experienced by YMSM
Health & Medicine

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: UMSexLab

Source: slideshare.net

Sexuality-based discrimination and sexual minority young men’s health in the Detroit Metro Area   José  Bauermeister,  MPH,  PhD     Andrew  Hickok,  MPH     Emily  Pingel,  MPH     Jimena  Loveluck,  MSW   William  VanHemert   Wil  Bowen   Anthony  O'Rourke-­‐Quintana   Jorge  Soler,  MPH    

Conflict of Interests   —  No  conflicts  to  disclose  or  report    

Learning Objectives   —  Discuss  goals  &  objecNves  of  UHIP     —  IdenNfy  mulNple  levels  of  workplace  discriminaNon   —  IdenNfy  ways  in  which  workplace  discriminaNon   among  YMSM  is  associated  with  negaNve  health   outcomes   —  Understand  how  the  intersecNon  of  race  and  class   further  influence  workplace  discriminaNon  in  the   Detroit  context  

Detroit  Context     —  —  —  —  80%  African  American   20%  between  ages  18-­‐29   1/3  live  under  poverty  line   15.3%  unemployment  rate       Michigan  state  law  does  not  protect  against  workplace  or  housing   discriminaNon  .   •  Several  ciNes  in  Detroit  Metro  have  ordinances  protecNng  against   employment  &  employment  discriminaNon  on  the  basis  of  sexual   orientaNon,  gender  idenNty,  and  gender  expression   •  In  pracNce,  these  laws  are  nearly  unenforceable     • 

Sexuality-­‐related  discriminaNon   •  Systemic     •  Lack  of  federal  non-­‐discriminaNon  laws   •  State-­‐  or  local-­‐level  laws  or  policies   •  Only  21  states  and  the  District  of  Columbia  have  employment   protecNon  based  on  sexual  orientaNon  (of  which  16  +  D.C.  also   protect  against  gender  idenNty/expression)              (Equality  Michigan)     •  Interpersonal   •  Sexual  Prejudice  and  vicNmizaNon  

UHIP  Study   —  N=  397   —  Age:  M  =  23.09  (SD  =  2.83)   —  Race:   —  Black/African  American:  49%   —  White/Caucasian:  27%   —  LaNno:15%   —  Other  race:  9%   —  90.2%  had  at  least  a  high  school  diploma  or  GED    

UHIP  Study  cont.     —  2/3  employed  full-­‐  (38.5%)  or  part-­‐Nme  (30.5%)   —  Median  income  $12,000     —  45%  lived  under  FPL   —  7%  residenNally  unstable  in  last  month   —  Over  half  had  some  form  of  health  insurance    

Health  Status   M(SD)/N(%)   Self-­‐Reported  Health   2.93  (.92)            Poor   4  (1.0%)            Fair   26  (6.5%)            Good   80  (20.2%)            Very  Good   168  (42.3%)            Excellent   119  (30.0%)   Number  of  days  (past  30  days)  when  physical  health  was  not  good   1.24  (3.53)   Number  of  days  (past  30)  when  mental  health  was  not  good   3.57  (6.68)   Number  of  days  (past  30)  when  physical  or  mental  health  kept  you  from  usual  acJviJes   1.55  (4.15)   Limited  funcJonality  due  to  impairment  or  health  problem   36  (9.1%)  

Sexuality-­‐related    work  discriminaNon   —  15%  of  parNcipants  reported  at  least  one  experience  with   sexuality-­‐based  work  discriminaNon  in  past  year   —  Being  denied/fired  from  a  job  (10.6%)   —  Denial  of  promoNon  or  raise  (3.5%)   —  Unfair  work  evaluaNon  (6.0%)   Total  number  of  events  in  prior  year:   —  10.1%  experienced  at  least  1  type  of  discriminaNon   —  2.8%  experienced  at  least  2  types  of  discriminaNon   —  1.5%  experienced  all  3  forms  of  discriminaNon    

         Intercept   Self-­‐Rated  Health   b   2.61   SE   .13    Sexual  IdenJty1   β       ***              Bisexual   -­‐.12   .16   -­‐.03              Other  Sexuality   -­‐.26   .16   -­‐.07     *   Race/Ethnicity2                Black   .24   .11   .13              LaJno   .15   .14   .06              Other  Race   .13   .13   .04      Employment  Status3                  Part-­‐Time   .08   .11   .04              Not  Working   .04   .12   .02              Disability   -­‐.14   .24   -­‐.03   Has  Health  Insurance   .43   .09   .23   ***                  HIV  Unknown   .11   .13   .04            HIV  PosiJve   -­‐.40   .15   -­‐.13   **   ResidenJally  Unstable   -­‐.41   .18   -­‐.12   **   Work  DiscriminaJon   -­‐.16   .08   -­‐.09   *   HIV  Status   ***  p  ≤  .001;  **  p  ≤  .01;  *  p  ≤  .05      

    Limited  FuncJonality       OR   95%  CI   Sig.    Intercept   .027     ***    Sexual  IdenJty3              Bisexual   2.72   .80,  9.20              Other  Sexuality   2.27   .65,  7.88     Race/Ethnicity4                Black   .29   .11,  .81              LaJno   .953   .31,  2.90              Other  Race   1.29   .39,  4.23    Employment  Status5                      Part-­‐Time   2.51   .90,  6.93              Not  Working   2.85   .99,  8.26   *            On  Disability   14.00   3.18,  61.63   ***   Has  Health  Insurance   1.87   .82,  4.30                    HIV  Unknown   1.47   .55,  3.91              HIV  PosiJve   2.82   .99,  8.04   *    ResidenJally  Unstable   1.89   .57,  6.16     Work  DiscriminaJon   1.64   .98,  2.73   *   HIV  Status   ***  p  ≤  .001;  **  p  ≤  .01;  *  p  ≤  .05  

RecommendaNons     The  need  for  a  mul9sectoral  approach   —  ImplementaNon  of  the  Employment  Non-­‐DiscriminaNon  Act   (ENDA)  to  prevent  hiring  discriminaNon  of  sexual  minoriNes   among  businesses  with  at  least  15  employee   —  Inclusion  of  sexual  orientaNon  in  state  employment  protecNons   —  Workplace-­‐specific  policies  and  cultural  sensiNvity/humilty   trainings  that    promote  non-­‐discriminaNon  with  regard  to   sexual  orientaNon  and  gender  idenNty/expression   —  Future  research  about  how  structural  condiNons  influence   exposure  to  sexuality-­‐related  work  discriminaNon  and  its   effects  on  health  is  warranted  

Acknowledgements  

QuesNons  or  Comments?       Jose  Bauermeister,  PhD:  jbauerme@umich.edu      

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