Published on February 24, 2014
The Evolution of Rice,Wheat and Cotton Parichay S.Rao
History • Various species of plants arose through less evolved form to more evolved form • The progenitors of the present day crop plants wild, How long it has taken the wild species to become cultivated one is a matter of guess. • Russian Scientist N.I Vavilov and his colleagues collected a wealth of materials from across the world and studied them over a period of 10 years • He found that the entire variability of crop plants collected by his team is centered in Eight regions of world, he named these regions as centre of origin of crop plants.
Centers of origin 1) Chinese origin: variations are from central and western China. Important center for crop plants like Soyabean, Radish, Apricot, Peach, Litchi, Citrus etc. It is a secondary centre for waxy maize and turnips also.
2) Hindustan origin: Parts of India excluding Punjab but including Burma. Important centre for crop plants like Rice, Sugarcane, Pigeon pea, Chickpea, Mung bean, Brinjal, Herbarium cottons, Hemp, Indigo, Mango.
3) Central Asiatic Origin: This includes Punjab, Kashmir, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and south western USSR. Important centre for crop plants like Bread wheat, Pea, Lentils, Sesame, Spinach, and Apple.
4)Near-Eastern Centre:This centre includes countries like Middle Turkey, Iran. Important centre for crop plants like Barley, Inkorn Wheat etc.
5) Mediterranean centre: Located in countries around the Mediterranean. Important centre for crop plants like Barley, Beans, Durum Wheat etc.
6) Abyssinian centre: Located in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Important centre for crop plants like Coffee, lady’s finger, and Sesame.
7) Central American Centre: Located in countries: South Mexico and its neighbouring countries. Important centre for crop plants like Barley.
8) South American origin: This includes countries like Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and neighbouring islands. Important centre for crop plants like Egyptian cotton, Tomato, Tobacco, Sweet potato, Papaya and Cashewnut.
Domestication It can be defined as Taming and training of plants to suit the human needs and putting them under human cultivation. The early civilizations of Icans in South America and Mayas in Mexico and of Babylonians and Egyptians around wheat and Barley were involved in Domesticating the crops Domestication must also passed through the periods of Proto agriculture and incipient agriculture to effective agriculture.
Domestication of Rice.(Oryza sativa.sp) It started in South east Asia. The rough area may be marked in the north bordering Himalaya, in the south up to Deccan plateau and in the east touching parts of Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. The progenitor of Rice was originated in the tropical swamp and shade loving, Cultivated forms arose out of some wild species resembling Oryza perrenis But some believed that Rice (2n=24) is a balanced polyploid with basic chromosome no of 5 and this no got duplicated and two additional chromosomes get added.
From India Rice moved to China where for the first time it got domesticated, from China it moved to Japan Via Korea. From India Rice moved to Africa And America through Arab countries , during this process of domestication Oryza sativa got differentiated into 3 forms: Indica, Japonica and Javanica
Domestication of Wheat(Triticum aestivum.sp Originated in the mountains of Afghanistan and south western Himalaya, it moved with man westwards and eastwards. It has been in cultivation since over 6000 years. Four species of wheat are cultivated in India a) Triticum aestivum is cultivated maximum and used in chapathi making. b)Triticum durum is cultivated in limited dry areas of Maharashtra, MP and Gujarath. c)Triticum diococcum is grown in very limited black rust affected areas like mysore, AP and Maharashtra.
d)Triticum turgidum its cultivation is negligible The major change that has gone under domestication was the non-brittle rachis, the plant type has been changed by breeders which was more management responsive.
Domestication of Cotton(Gossypium.sp) Chiefly four species of cotton are under cultivation, two of them are diploids and two other are tetraploids. Out of these Gossypium arboreum l and G.herbarium are diploids are originated in India and domesticated here. The Indus valley civilization which collapsed in 2000 BC had played an important role in domestication. From India 2 species moved to Africa via Arabian countries G.barbadense(tetraploid) originated in tropical south america from there it moved to North america and Africa.
G.hirsutum(tetraploid) originated in Guatemala in South mexico, it was domesticated there and then moved to North america and other countries The major change that took during domestication was increase in length of coboluted link and its spinnabability.
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