Evidences Against Evolution

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Information about Evidences Against Evolution

Published on December 9, 2008

Author: litlleboy2

Source: authorstream.com

Evidences Against Evolution : Evidences Against Evolution Order in the Chaos : If I were to blow up a car with a stick of dynamite, one would expect the resulting dispersion of wreckage to be in a random order. But what if we found that all four tires were spaced at 50 foot intervals out from the point of origin. That would be a miracle. The same thing is observed with the Big Bang. Besides the previously discussed red shift evidence of evenly spaced galaxies, the planets of our solar system are also ordered. It is called the Titius-Bode law. Order in the Chaos Titius-Bode Law(The Solar System, Ooparts) : Titius-Bode Law(The Solar System, Ooparts) This law has been known for 300 years. The orbits of the planets can be described by the formula a=0.4+0.3∙2n where a is the semimajor axis in astronomical units (AU) and the exponent, n, takes values -∞, 1, 2, 3, … The asteroid belt as well as known planets in other solar systems follow this formula. Anthropic Principle(Ross, Design) : “Human existence is possible because the constants of physics and the parameters for the universe and for planet Earth lie within certain highly restricted ranges.” There are identified 16 properties of the universe in general and 19 properties of the earth that if slightly different, would make life impossible or severely limited. Some have theorized the existence of multiple universes to explain the low probability of our universe being so well adjusted for life. We just happen to be in the right one. However, this is un-testable and therefore pseudoscience. Anthropic Principle(Ross, Design) Genes : Despite the recent advances, we still don’t know the whole story about genes. 97% of DNA has no known function: the junk DNA. Zipf’s Law (Precious Gems, Ooparts) Every human language follows Zipf’s Law. So does DNA, even the junk DNA. Zipf’s Law can be summed up as follows: If you take a book and look at the number of times each word appears, you can plot them on a graph with one coordinate being the rank of popularity and the other being the number of appearances. The data points will fall on a straight line. Genes Slide 6: Carpenter Genes (Pye, 1998) Genes contain blueprints for the organism that determine when a gene is activated, for how long, and to what extent. If this mechanism changes, the organism cannot survive. So what is built may change, but how it is built cannot. Evolution cannot work. Slide 7: Haldane’s Dilemma (DeWitt, 2005) It is often claimed that chimpanzees differ from humans by 2-4 percent of their DNA. Of this, 1.23% represent single base pair substitutions—about 35 million mutation events. Add in insertions and deletions and you get about 40 million mutation events. Supposedly man differentiated from the chimpanzee line 6 to 7 million years ago—300,000 generations. That means over a 130 mutations had to be fixed in the population every generation—an impossible feat even by evolutionary standards. Today, even one mutation at the right place causes a serious genetic disease. Universal Clocks : Supernova Remnants (Sarfati, 1997) When supernovas explode, they create an expanding cloud of debris called a supernova remnant (SNR). If the universe is 13.7 billion years old, then it is calculated that we should observe 7,262 SNRs. At 7,000 years old, we should observe 127. In fact the actual number is 205. Universal Clocks Crab Nebula (Riddle, Astronomy) Slide 9: The Oort Cloud and the Kuiper Belt(Faulkner, 1997) Comets are supposedly remnants from the big bang. They lose mass during each pass around the sun. In 13.7 billion years, why have all the comets not disintegrated? It is theorized that short period comets originate from the Kuiper belt and long period comets from the Oort cloud when gravitational interactions bump them our way. Both of these sources are theoretical with no observational support. Observation of the Oort cloud is thought to be impossible (pseudoscience), but the Kuiper belt is thought to be observable. Orbiting objects have been discovered that could belong to the theoretical Kuiper belt, but they are too large to explain the existence of comets. Furthermore, they are problematic in that their orbits do not fit with current theories of the origin of the solar system (Britt, 2005). (Riddle, Astronomy) Slide 10: Saturn’s Rings (Harris, 1990) Because of their composition, the rings cannot be more than 100 million years old. Saturn is supposed to be billions of years old. There is no proposed mechanism that adequately explains the origin of the rings after the planet was formed. Recession of the Moon (Lisle, 2006) The moon is moving away from the earth at 1.5 inches per year. In the past this rate would have been faster. 1.5 billion years ago, the moon would have been touching the earth. Slide 11: Helium (Malcolm, 1994) Helium is entering the atmosphere at a known rate. It is also escaping at a known rate. Using the amount of helium presently in the atmosphere, it has been calculated that the Earth could not be older than 2 million years. In addition, the helium that is created as uranium and thorium decay to lead in precambrian rock has only been shown to have been leeching out for 6,000 years, though there is 1.5 billion years worth of decay products (Humphreys, 2005. Earth’s Magnetic Field (Snelling, 1991) Measurements of the Earth’s magnetic field over the last 160 years show that it is shrinking at an exponential rate with a half life of 1400 years. Extrapolating back, the upper limit of the age of the magnetic field is 8,700 years. Slide 12: Mercury’s Magnetic Field Many of the planets, including Earth have magnetic fields. The only explanation for magnetic fields which does not necessitate a young age requires a molten core (the dynamo theory). Mercury is too small to have a molten core. Therefore, one of the explanations that require a young age is required (Psarris, 2004). Another example of evidence against the dynamo theory is that Jupiter’s moon, Europa, has a magnetic dipole tilted 80° away from its spin axis (Focus, Creation). Slide 13: More on the Dynamo Theory (Eglinton, 1979) It is generally agreed that the earth’s magnetic field is the result of electric currents in the molten iron of the earth’s core. One of the first scientists to tackle this problem, Horace Lamb, in 1883 theorized that an original event created the field and its subsequent decay created electric currents in the core which slowed the decay rate. Only, he didn’t have enough data to know the decay rate. Now we do, and since it is so fast, this theory has been rejected by evolutionists in favor of the dynamo theory. Slide 14: The dynamo theory requires that there be ever changing, asymmetrical movements of the magma in the core. This movement gives some of its energy to sustaining the electric currents responsible for the magnetic field. The observed decline of the magnetic field is part of a cycle, whereby the field will eventually cease for a while, followed by a reversal of the poles and begin the cycle over. Slide 15: Problems with the Dynamo Theory This theory has not been proven in the laboratory and may not ever be because electromagnetic systems do not scale down well. Therefore, it is totally theoretical. All the various proposed mechanisms for the movements are complex and require extreme, highly improbable assumptions. “As of now, there is no physical evidence, seismic or otherwise, that there is any motion within the core.” Slide 16: Titan’s Missing Oceans (Coppedge, 2006) Titan, a moon of Saturn, produces ethane in its atmosphere, which would fall to the surface as liquid. Over billions of years this should turn into oceans, or at least a few lakes. A probe landed in 2005 and found a frozen desert. Changing Sun The sun is becoming brighter. At 3.8 billion years ago (the origin of life in Evolution), the sun would have been so dim that the earth would have been frozen (Faulkner, 2001). (Riddle, Astronomy) Slide 17: Polonium Radio Halos in Granite (Helder, 1988). Supposedly, granite crystallizes from magma over long ages. Radioactive elements in the magma become trapped in the granite. As they decay, they create colored rings around the particle of the original element. Polonium214 has a half life of 164 microseconds. Therefore, it would have disappeared long before the granite formed. Yet halos of this element have been found in granite. There are two explanations: Half lives of radioactive elements were radically different in the past, which would invalidate radiometric dating, removing the vast majority of evidence for dates on the evolutionary timeline. The granite was created almost instantaneously, which would remove the need for billions of years to explain it—another slam to evolution. This research has not been refuted. Also of note is the presence of helium in granite from a mile underground. Over the millions of years assumed for the formation of granite, all the helium should have been gone (DeYoung, 2006). Slide 18: Cooling of the Earth (Woodmorappe, 1999) The inside of the earth is molten. Evolutionary scientists assume that it has remained hot from the release of energy from the decay of radioactive elements. These sources do not account for the present earths temperature. The earth must have cooled from a warmer state in the past. Extrapolating back, the earth would have been a molten mass far less than the 4.5 billion years that is assumed. Slide 19: Carbon 14 in “Old” Rocks (DeYoung, 2006) C14 has a half life of 5,730 years. Samples that are supposedly millions of years old or older should contain no C14. These would include Diamonds and Coal.\ C14 has been found in both diamonds and coal. Recent Formation of Sedimentary Rock (The Clock, Creation) A rock was found in 1975 on the beach in Washington state. It contained sea shells and part of a man made clock. The clock was clearly the remains of one of the many ship wrecks in the area and not millions of years old, as it is usually assumed is needed for the formation of sedimentary rock. Slide 20: Carbon Dating and an Index Fossil (Snelling, 2000) Fossil wood was found lying on top of a 189 million year old index fossil, Dactylioceras tenuicostatum, embedded in limestone. It would be impossible for C14 to remain in the wood for 189 million years, given current assumptions, but there it was. C14 dating gave an age of 23,000 years. Rapid Petrification (Snelling, 1995) The rapid petrification of wood has been observed in both the laboratory and in nature. This means that millions of years are not needed. Slide 21: The Petrifying Well Arguably, the UK’s oldest tourist attraction, the petrifying well in Knaresborough can petrify any object in a matter of months. A pressurized aquifer sends water up through the earth, collecting a variety of minerals on the way. When it comes out, it’s ready to petrify. Circled are a top hat and bonnet from 1853. Slide 22: Rapid Fossil Formation (Mactachlan, 1995) In 1886 the volcano Mt Tarawera buried a New Zealand village. After 60 years, some of the buildings were excavated, revealing many fossilized objects: a ham, bowler hat, bag of flower, etc. Missing Sea Salt (Austin et al., 1990) There are known and conjectured processes for delivery and removal of sea salt. The rate of delivery is higher than the rate of removal, so the ocean is getting saltier. Given the current saltiness and conservative extrapolation, the ocean could be no more than 62 million years old—far younger than is required by evolution. Slide 23: (Humphreys, 2005) Missing Ocean Sediment (Humphreys, 2005) The continents are eroding onto the lava rock of the ocean floor at a rate of 20 billion tons per year. It is removed by tectonic subduction at a rate of 1 billion tons per year. The current amount of ocean sediment would have accumulated in less than 12 million years at this rate. However, evolutionists claim that this process has been going on for over 3 billion years. On the other hand, creationists theorize that the majority of the sediment was deposited quickly by the flood, and the rest has been deposited at the current rate. Slide 24: Bent Strata Many mountainous areas have strata thousands of feet thick that have been tightly bent or folded. The folding happened without any cracking. This implies that it happened while the strata was still wet. This means that the time from the first deposition of the first layer to the final twisting of the formation happened in less than a few thousand years, not the millions claimed by evolutionists.

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