Evidence of the Devine

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Information about Evidence of the Devine

Published on February 11, 2009

Author: ayassin

Source: authorstream.com

Evidence of the Divine : Evidence of the Divine Reflections on Nature & Beyond Human Curiosity! : Human Curiosity! What existed before the beginning of the universe? How did it begin, and why? Why did it take the form it did? Who are we? Where did we come from, and why? Where are we going? Faith and Reason : It is through reason that human justifies faith since rational justification leads to conviction. Rational argument is an intellectual need of every faithful; otherwise, he will not be able to stand firmly on his faith. It is reason, which transforms a blind faith into an intellectual choice through either knowledge or submission (appreciation of the limits of human reason). History shows that human has employed three ways of argument to find a rational ground in favour of faith. These three ways reflect different stages in intellectual development. Faith and Reason NATURAL ARGUMENT : The first way of argument is one, which is based on nature. That is, simple facts or common experiences. Some examples of this kind are found in the Holy Quran. There is one such argument related to Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him). The criterion in his quest for God was that God is the greatest and ever existing. NATURAL ARGUMENT NATURAL ARGUMENT : This is narrated in the Quran in these words: “And thus We gave Abraham insight into [God's] mighty dominion over the heavens and the earth - and [this] to the end that he might become one of those who are inwardly sure (about faith). So when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star; said he: this is my Lord.  So when it set, he said: I do not love the setting ones. Then when he saw the moon rising he said: this is my Lord?  So when it set, he said: If my Lord will not guided me I would certainly be of the erring people. NATURAL ARGUMENT NATURAL ARGUMENT : Then when he saw the sun rising, he said: this is my Lord?  this is greater.  So when it set, he said: O my people! Surely I am clear of what you associate (with God)” Behold, unto Him who brought into being the heavens and the earth have I turned my face, following my natural upright, and I am not of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside Him" (6:75-79). NATURAL ARGUMENT PHILOSOPHICAL ARGUMENT : This argument commonly known as First Cause may be summed up as follows: The world human observes with his senses must have been brought into being by God as the First Cause. The Philosophers have argued that the observable order of causation is not self-explanatory. It can only be accounted for by the existence of a First Cause. This First Cause, however, must not be considered simply as the First in a series of continuing causes, but rather as the First Cause in the sense of being the cause for the whole series of observable Causes. PHILOSOPHICAL ARGUMENT Quantum Indeterminacy!Boundaries of Science & Philosophy : Some critics object that quantum fluctuations or events of subatomic particles are uncaused; hence, why not also the universe as a whole? The whole science proceeds on the assumption that a reason can be found for why things are as they are, that it is the end of science if one finds an “uncaused” event, or one for which there is no reason at all. The Bohr/Heisenberg thesis that some quantum events occur without a cause seems to count against this claim. Quantum uncertainties are governed by statistical laws. There are rigorous laws of probability which describe quantum events. Quantum Indeterminacy!Boundaries of Science & Philosophy Quantum Indeterminacy!Boundaries of Science & Philosophy : At any moment in time, there is a definite and finite set of possible futures for elementary particles. What Heisenberg claims is that not every event, at the quantum level, is sufficiently caused. There is a certain indeterminacy about quantum processes. Yet the process as a whole is far from random. The laws of probability work so that most indeterminate and therefore unpredictable events cancel out at the macro-molecular level, and leave the highly predictable laws of mechanics intact. Quantum Indeterminacy!Boundaries of Science & Philosophy Limits of Human Understanding : Abstraction: Scientific comprehension is of basic relational elements of the physical structure of the universe, therefore it gives a generalised and abstract picture. Intellect works discursively; that is, it is incapable of intuiting things in one all-embracing experience. It has to consider things one after the other, making connections by inference and extrapolation, and moving from one element to another in succession. A fully comprehensive intellect, like that of God, will understand all things in one intuitive, non-discursive, act, i.e. God knows everything in its full particularity by immediate apprehension. Limits of Human Understanding Limits of Human Understanding : Limited access to knowledge: There is absolutely no way in which we could have Knowledge of worlds and realities other than those in this space-time, for by definition they would have no spatial or temporal relation to us, which rules out all forms of knowledge. And there is no way in which a finite mind can encompass an infinite set of data. Limits of Human Understanding SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT : Religion or faith is related to beliefs or concepts like the existence of God, something intangible and unobservable.  Whereas non-religious or physical entities like the sun has a tangible and observable existence.  Therefore, it came to be regarded that direct argument is possible for establishing non-religious or physical assumptions, only. Whereas, it is only indirect or inferential argument which can be employed to prove religious propositions. SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT : The discovery of, dark energy and dark matter, which have intangible existence, entailed that a scientist could see only the effect of a thing but not the thing itself. Here the scientist realised that direct argument could be applied to the tangible effect, but it was not possible at all to apply direct argument on the intangible cause.  The most important of all the changes brought about by this new development in the realm of science was that it was admitted in the scientific circles that inferential argument was as valid as direct argument.  That is, if a cause (e.g. God) shows continuous effect (e.g. order and complexity in nature), then the existence of this intangible cause will be accepted as a fact just as the existence of tangible effect is accepted as a proved fact. SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT : After reaching this extent of rational argument, no difference exists between religious argument and scientific argument. The Devine intervention is seen in the order and complexity in nature despite the laws of probability (statistical entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics (informational entropy). If the process is totally random, the degree of order that may be build in nature by chance would eventually be destroyed by spontaneous decay. SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT The Religious Scientific Argument : If God Almighty (Allah) is indeed the creator of the universe, the verses of the revelation to His messengers in which He described this creation are expected to be in harmony with the stable scientific facts about the origin or the universe and life on earth. Such facts are stable in the sense that they never exhibit radical changes with progress of science, rather, better understanding. Therefore, progress in science would always help better interpretation of the revelation, i.e. revelation from the Creator of nature and good scientific description of nature should always be in harmony. The Religious Scientific Argument The Religious Scientific Argument : This is exactly what God mentioned in the verses: “Have you (people) given thought: if this (Quran) be truly [a revelation] from God, while you deny its truth? Who could be more astray than one who places himself [so] deeply in the wrong? Soon We will show them Our Signs on the horizons (of nature), and in their own (creation), until it becomes manifest to them that it (Quran) is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is witnessed (via His signs) on all things?” [41:52-3] The Religious Scientific Argument God claimed in the Holy Quran: “Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure” [54/49] : The balance and precise strength of the fundamental gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear forces needs to be exactly what it is if conscious life is to exist. So Peter Atkins says: If nuclei were bound together slightly more weakly, or slightly more strongly, the universe would lack chemistry. If the electric force were slightly stronger than it is, evolution would not reach organisms before the sun went out. And if it were only slightly less, stars would not have planets, and life would be unknown. Peter Atkins, Creation Revisited, p. 23. God claimed in the Holy Quran: “Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure” [54/49] Slide 18: Behold, unto Him who brought into being the heavens and the earth have I turned my face, following my natural upright, and I am not of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside Him" (6:79).

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