Evidence for Organic Evolution

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Information about Evidence for Organic Evolution
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Published on December 8, 2008

Author: litlleboy2

Source: authorstream.com

Evidence for Organic Evolution : Evidence for Organic Evolution The Origin of Life (Abiogenesis) : The Origin of Life (Abiogenesis) Garbage (Organic Matter) Rat (A Life Form) The Pathway to Life(Abiogenesis, Wikipedia) : The Pathway to Life(Abiogenesis, Wikipedia) Oxygen (O2 and O3) is absent Prebiotic molecules form (amino acids, methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), water (H2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide(CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), phosphate (PO43-)) Phospholipids spontaneously form lipid bilayers for cell membranes Slide 4: Polymerization of nucleotides results in self replicating ribozymes. Natural selection results in ribozymes which catalyse peptidyl transfer, hense ribosomes and proteins appear. Proteins become more common than nucleotides, which only remain in the genomic pathway. The first cell appears. No Oxygen(Parker, 2006) : No Oxygen(Parker, 2006) Oxygen oxidizes everything, like rust on a car. Therefore the origin of life could not have happened in the presence of oxygen. The problem is, oxidized rocks can be found as deep as we can dig. And if the deeper we dig, the older the rocks are, then oxygen was around from the beginning. No evidence has been found that an oxygen-free atmosphere has existed at any time (Snelling, 1980). Abiogenisis must have happened in water or some other environment without exposure to oxygen. However, water acts against the ordered concentrations of molecules needed for life through dispersion and mixing. Prebiotic Molecules(Abiogenesis, Wikipedia) : Prebiotic Molecules(Abiogenesis, Wikipedia) There are three possible sources: UV light or lightning Destroys as much as builds the molecules Delivery by frozen meteors Must still explain the origin of the molecules Impacts from meteors Destroys as much as builds the molecules (Parker, 2006) : (Parker, 2006) In order for life to develop, the organic molecules must be available in sufficient quantities. This means a lot. The ammonia would be dissolved in our oceans. It is not there. The methane would be stuck in sedimentary rock. It is not there. Phospholipid Bilayers : Phospholipid Bilayers Cell membranes are made of primarily of phospholipid bilayers with proteins embedded for structure, gateways, and markers. If phospholipids are added to water, they form monolayers and sometimes bilayers under agitation. If a bilayer did form, the prebiotic molecules would not be able to get inside without the protein gates that exist in living cells. If it somehow formed with the molecules inside, it would not form around enough of a variety of them. Some amino acids are water soluble and some are fat soluble, which would separate their ending locations. Scientists have yet to explain how the phosopholipids formed. Formation of Ribozymes(Ribozyme, Wikipedia) : Formation of Ribozymes(Ribozyme, Wikipedia) A ribozyme is a piece of folded RNA that can function like a protein. RNA is made using the base pairs adenine-guanine and uracil-cytosine. Usually cells need both genes and proteins to reproduce. The debate over which came first in abiogenesis found a compromise in the ribozyme. RNA functions similar to DNA and ribozymes function like proteins. They are at the heart of the machinery of the ribosome, which is the RNA unit that builds proteins. Slide 10: Self replicating ribozymes have been synthesized. The problem is that preexisting RNA had to be utilzed: RNA polymerase ribozyme, and an RNA template. The reaction dissolved in water after a maximum of 20 nucleotide editions. At 3 nucleotides per amino acid, that could theoretically lead to a hexpeptide. However, this polynucleotide could not have contained the information necessary for a working protein. The smallest protein ever made is a decapeptide (National, 2004). Slide 11: Another problem is the temperature at which the RNA formed. Adenine and guanine require freezing temperatures to synthesize. Cytosine and uracil require boiling temperatures to form. (Abiogenesis, Wikipedia) First Proteins(Parker, 2006) : First Proteins(Parker, 2006) Proteins are made of Amino Acids that are short (alpha) and left handed in orientation. The Miller-Uray experiment demonstrated that given specific starting molecules, a specific energy source, and specific lab equipment, a mix of right and left handed alpha, beta, gamma, and delta amino acids could be created. Just one amino acid inserted into a peptide chain that was the wrong size or orientation would render the protein useless. Slide 13: Though the size issue remains to be tackled by evolutionary theorists, the handedness of amino acids has two postulated solutions: Amino acids found on frozen meteors contain mixtures that are not 50/50 of left and right handed molecules. Therefore, the first proteins may have developed in space. However there is no evidence that proteins can be synthesized in the cold vacuum of space. In some cases, polarized light can change the ratio from 50/50. Hypothetically, amino acids may have piggy backed on polarizing crystals to gain the needed structure. There is no evidence that this can happen. (Abiogenesis, Wikipedia) More on Protein Formation(Sarfati, 1998) : More on Protein Formation(Sarfati, 1998) In chemical reactions, there is a balance between the reactants and products. When there is a lot of reactants and no products, the balance is in favor of the products, and vise versa. Chemists commonly draw off the products of their reactions to keep the balance favorable. Miller did this in his experiment, though in nature, it would not happen. A chain of 100 polypeptides represents 100 peptide bonds, a product, which tips the balance the other way. Polypeptides commonly break down in water. Polypeptide break down is even more certain under the lengthy periods of time required by evolutionst for proteins to evolve. Heat, another requirement of evolutionists, also drives the break down of polypeptides. The Wächterhäuser Experiment(Sarfati, 1998) : The Wächterhäuser Experiment(Sarfati, 1998) Gunter Wächterhäuser theorizes that instead of being dissolved in water, amino acids rode on the back of pyrite (FeS2). He did an experiment based on his theory using high concentrations of left handed amino acids—a condition not found in nature. All he got was a small percentage of tripeptides and slightly more dipeptides, which disintegrated rapidly, creating right handed amino acids. They also created acetic acid, which would have prevented long peptide chains from forming. Protein – What Are the Chances? : Protein – What Are the Chances? The chances of a single protein developing through random processes are 1 in 10191 (Riddle, Origin). Is 3.8 billion years enough time for even one protein to evolve by random selection? 3,800,000,000 years x 365 days x 24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds = 119,836,800,000,000,000 seconds. 10191 possible combinations/119,836,800,000,000,000 = 834468210099068065902961360784 x 10143 combinations per second. Clearly, Evolution’s claims about protein formation are unsupported. The First Cell : The First Cell As of now, nobody has a thought of a mechanism to get from proteins to the first cell. The chances of a cell arising through random processes is 1 in 1040,000 (Riddle, Origin). Some people look at space and wonder if life could have evolved on other planets. However, they cannot help but realize that there is no known location more favorable to life than our own planet Earth. Therefore, new forms of life should be arising on Earth all the time. This has never been observed, despite intense search efforts. The Complex Cell : The Complex Cell (Riddle, Origin) Do your own origin of life experiment at home. : Do your own origin of life experiment at home. Ingredients needed for life. Simulation of early earth substrate Energy source Life Non-life OR + + Time

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