Evidence for Macroevolution

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Information about Evidence for Macroevolution

Published on December 10, 2008

Author: litlleboy2

Source: authorstream.com

Evidence for Macroevolution : Evidence for Macroevolution The Precambrian Era(Precambrian, Wikipedia) : The Precambrian Era(Precambrian, Wikipedia) Soft bodied creatures evolve 700 million years ago. Very little is known about this time period. The fossils assigned to this era are categorized into three periods. Archean (2.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) Proterozoic (2500 to 600 million years ago) Neoproterozoic (600 to 542 million years ago) Archean Period(Archean, Wikipedia) : Archean Period(Archean, Wikipedia) Cyanobacteria Bacteria Archaebacteria Living examples of these life forms can be found today. There is disagreement as to which evolved first. As of now, there is no evidence lending it self to an explanation of how the Archean life forms evolved Slide 4: It is thought that eukaryotes, a more complex form of life (humans are composed of eukaryotic cells), evolved from the archean life forms. Eukaryotes contain many complex structures like flagella, golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, etc. for which there are no prokaryotic precursors and no intermediate cell types (Purdom, 2006). Cyanobacteria : Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria use photosynthesis to make oxygen. This is evidence that the early earth did have oxygen present. The immediate appearance of photosynthesis, a complex process requiring no less than 100 highly ordered proteins, with no precursors, is an enigma for evolutionary theorists (Purdom, 2007). Archaebacteria : Archaebacteria The name arises from the fact that these microorganisms live in extreme environments, similar to what the early Earth may have been like. Study of these bacteria show that their lipids are more stable, and their ATP production more complex than that of mammalian cells. To go from these bacteria to mammalian cells would actually be devolution (Kramer, 2003). Proterozoic Period : Proterozoic Period It is during this time that Eukaryotes and multicellular life forms evolved. The question of how one celled organisms formed colonies for mutual benefit and then formed a reproductive system to reproduce another whole colony is not understood and fully lacking in evidence. It is therefore ignored (Patterson, 2007). Mitochondria and Chloroplasts are incorporated via endosymbiosis into more complex life forms. Endosymbiosis is the only theory explaining the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts and arises from the observed similarity of their structures with those of independent organisms. This observed similarity is the only evidence for this process. This theoretical process is plagued by many problems that have so far been ignored (Batten, 2000). Neoproterozoic Period : Neoproterozoic Period There is an explosion of varieties of soft shelled creatures without any proceeding intermediates. They are surprisingly absent from higher layers. It is supposed that competition from the cambrian organisms caused their extinction, but then at least some specimens should survive a ways into the upper layers, but these are absent. The specimens from the Doushantuo Formation contain cambrian creatures and embryos from more complex animals, which supposedly had not evolved yet. (Ediacara Biota, Wikipedia) Cells of ferns, mosses, and fungi, and the pollen of seed bearing plants have been found in Precambrian rock. They supposedly would not have evolved for another 200 million years (Wieland, 1989). Cambrian Era(Cambrian, Wikipedia) : Cambrian Era(Cambrian, Wikipedia) There is an explosion of varieties, including representatives of every phylum but the bryozoans (coral), without any intermediates. There are even vertebrate eels; the conodonts. Authors disagree on dates by as much as 20 million years. There were supposedly no land plants. Tracks of animals on land have been found in Cambrian rock. Trilobite Eye(Stammers, 1998) : Trilobite Eye(Stammers, 1998) Some trilobites have aggregate eyes. These eyes utilize a system of lenses to correct the distortion of light under water. This is something our human eyes cannot do. Trilobite eyes solve a problem that we would not have been able to until the last century through the discovery of certain principles of physics. There are no intermediates. Where are the intermediates? : Where are the intermediates? No Intermediates Precambrian Organisms Cambrian Trilobite Evolution of Mammals(Woodmorappe, 2001) : Evolution of Mammals(Woodmorappe, 2001) Evolutionists use several reptilian fossils with mammal like traits (the cynodonts and therapsids) to show a progressive evolution from reptiles to mammals. Gaps in the chain of progression are larger than the identified lineages. In the chain, many mammal-like traits do not consistently progress. Instead, there are many reversals. Of 165 mammalian traits identified in the chain, 77 show reversals. Members of the chain are not found one on top of the other in the strata. They are found on different continents and the strata is correlated using index fossils. The Extinction of the Dinosaurs : The Extinction of the Dinosaurs Though there are many theories as to how it came about, the only evidence for the mass extinction of the dinosaurs is the fact that in higher layers, their fossils seldom appear, despite their abundance in lower layers. The dinosaurs that do appear higher up are explained away as reworked: fossils already formed are taken from their original beds and reburied via natural processes. The extinction of the dinosaurs is one of many mass extinctions used to explain all of the many mass disappearances of varieties between higher and lower layers. Fossils of creatures supposedly extinct by such catastrophes are used to determine that their surrounding rock is older than the date set for that particular extinction. These are index fossils. Index fossils have been found alive today, such as the coelacanth, ginkgo tree, Laotian rock rat, neopilina mollusk, and wollemi pine. If there is evidence for the existence of fossil creatures after their supposed extinction, or before their supposed inception then the layers are not chronological. In fact, there are over 200 such cases (Woodmorappe, 1982). This will be investigated later. Human Ancestors : Human Ancestors Pierolapithecus A single skeleton with many monkey and ape traits Sahelanthropus (Toumai Man) A cranium, five pieces of jaw, and some teeth Evolutionists debate whether it is a human ancestor or just a female gorilla. (Riddle, Fossil) Slide 15: Orrorin tugenensis (Millennium Man) 13 fossil fragments of femurs, jaws and teeth from five individuals. It is included in the lineage because this ape walked upright. The upright posture is debated. The evidence comes from the resemblance of the thigh bone with that of Australopithecus (Handwerk, 2008). Ardipithecus ramidus An ape included in the lineage because teeth resemble those of Australopithecus. The specimen was composed of bits of bone found over about a mile of ground, which may not have been from the same creature at all (Up from apes). This was the case with Piltdown Man and Java Man, which are no longer considered valid by anybody. The subspecies A. ramidus kadabba, also constructed from an assortment of spread out fragments created speculation of uprightness, arising from an inch long toe bone. The toe bone was dated 1.1 million years apart from the rest and found 10 miles away (Sarfati, 2001). Slide 16: Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) (Riddle, Facts) Anatomy was similar to a modern chimpanzee. Included in the lineage because of bipedalism. Theory of bipedalism arises solely from the examination of the knee joint. Lucy has a 15° carrying angle. Humans and orangutans have 9°. Chimps and gorillas have 0°. If she did walk, it was not the same way humans do. She has the wrist bones of a knuckle walker. It is supposed that Australopithicus made this footprint because she was the only hominid species around at the time it is dated to. Slide 17: Kenyanthropus platyops (Wieland, 2001) Consists of several skull fragments and a cranium. It is badly distorted, making features hard to confirm. Brain size was similar to that of a chimp. It appears to be very different from Lucy, spurring conjecture that either one or the other or neither is a human ancestor, but not both. Homo erectus (Mehlert, 1994) The majority of early human finds are classified as either Homo erectus or Neanderthal. Used tools and had knowledge of sea farring. The range of skull capacities is within the range of modern humans. Some regard Homo Erectus as fully human, along with Neanderthals (genetic testing shows that Neanderthals share 99.9% of their genes with that of a modern human, and that is within the normal genetic variation of modern humans (Riddle, Facts)). There is disagreement as to whether Homo ergaster is the same as Homo erectus (Lubenow, 2001). Slide 18: Homo antecessor and Homo Heidelbergensis There is disagreement as to whether these are separate species, or whether they are the same as Homo ergaster or Homo erectus, or whether they are the same as modern man (Woodmorappe, 1999). The existing taxons of hominids are more a reflection of the debate among paleontologists than the actual biology involved. As Darwin observed, even in his time, scientists are divided among the lumpers and the splitters; those that argue for variations among a species and those that argue for entirely new species. The genus of Homo is even more complicated by the tendency of paleontologists to assign every new find to a new taxon because hominid fossils are so rare, and of course, they hope to enjoy the fame of having found the real ancestor to modern man. A Summary of Traits for Various Missing Links(Woodmorappe, 1999) : A Summary of Traits for Various Missing Links(Woodmorappe, 1999) Summary of the results of analyses of characteristics of fossil Homo species [After Table 7 in Wood and Collard]. 1) body size, 2) body shape, 3) locomotion, 4) jaws and teeth, 5) development and 6) brain size. H = like modern humans, A = australopith-like, I = intermediate ? = data unavailable. H. Habilis has been dismissed as not a valid taxon. Some of the specimens were relabeled as H. rudolfensis and some as australopithecines (Lubenow, 2001).

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