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Published on February 6, 2008

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Landscapes changes in Everest region,Nepal:  Landscapes changes in Everest region,Nepal Presentation by Bikram Lama 23rd jan 08 outline:  outline Background of Nepal and Everest region Features of Everest region(flora, fauna, climate etc.) DPSIR model Causes of Landscape change in Everest region Analysis of different time period of Everest landscape with the help of photographs Impact of the different causes on landscape Recommendation and conclusion References Background Of Nepal:  Background Of Nepal Nepal, home to Mount Everest relatively small area Nepal can be divided into three geographical regions Background of Everest region:  Background of Everest region north-eastern region of Nepal the upper catchment's of the Dudh Koshi river system northern boundary extends to the Tibet and the south to Monjo on the Dudh Koshi altitude from 2,845m to 8,848m agro-pastoralism broadly divided into three vegetation zones features of Everest region:  features of Everest region geologically young mountains and glaciers Evidence indicates that the uplift of Everest is still 80% of the annual precipitation occurs in the monsoon season comprises 69% barren land above 5,000m, 28% grazing land and nearly 3% forest DPSIR model:  DPSIR model DPSIR contd…:  DPSIR contd… Causes of landscapes changes :  Causes of landscapes changes Tourism Global warming Poverty increasing human population and pasture expansion National park unsustainable farming practices Military actions imposition of nationalized forest policies in 1957 Tourism:  Tourism No. of tourist in Sagarmatha National Park Slide12:  Change in cultural landscape Namche Bazaar in 1974 Namche Bazaar in 1995 Abies roofing shingles replaced by corrugated metal sheets growth in infrastructure Tourism growth leads to deforestation:  Tourism growth leads to deforestation The two regional uses of forests played the greatest roles in forest change Slide14:  Hillslopes above Dingboche 1961 Hillslopes above Dingboche in 1995 dramatic decrease in shrub juniper cover Tourism: deforestation:  Tourism: deforestation One trekker alone consumes five to ten times more fuel-wood than one Nepali The number of lodges has increased from seven in 1973 to 17 in 1980, 74 in 1990 and 224 by the end of 1997 The lodges and teahouses use "up to four times as much fuel wood a day" as does a local's household Influences of tourism :  Influences of tourism soil loss was found to be 40 times higher in the alpine zone hill slope degradation by increases of mountaineering and tourism activities depletion of Arenaria species and the destruction of some species including the rare red panda trail erosion Influences of tourism: garbage:  Influences of tourism: garbage estimated over the past forty years, eighteen tons of garbage garbage trail and toilet paper trail disposal of human waste seems to have remained a problem Influences of present practices:  Influences of present practices Increased number of sheep's, goats and yaks leads overgrazing new regional pastoral practices (zopkios) leads more pressure on forest the large-scale conversion from forest to shrub/grassland and cropland Present condition of Everest:  Present condition of Everest soil loss is minimal natural forest regeneration and tree growth former stands of dominant species have been colonised Influences of National park:  Influences of National park Mendaphu Hill in 1984 Mendaphu Hill in 1995 Shingii nawa institution :  Shingii nawa institution Kunde village ca. 1961 Kunde village in 1995 The number of houses have increased, but forests and other vegetation appear to be relatively unchanged Influences of Climate change:  Influences of Climate change "clean type" glaciers larger ones glaciers debris covered glaciers Imja glacier Influences of climate change contd..:  Influences of climate change contd.. over the last 30 years, snow cover and ice cover have decreased on average by about 30% found large tracts of ice "rotten“ The glacier that once came close to Hillary and Norgay's first camp has retreated three miles rapid increase in the rate of glaciers melting - from 42 meters a year in the 40 years to 2001 to 74 meters a year in 2006 Slide24:  Galicer retreat (above), Imja Lake (below) Climate change: unusual and unexpected:  Climate change: unusual and unexpected snowfall in spring(2006), Namze bazar Slide26:  1981- 2005 glaciers have been melting at an average rate of 131.4 square kilometres per year over the past 30 years Slide27:  1968-2007 photo of the Middle Rongbuk Glacier Slide28:  Alpine slopes above Pangboche village 1961 Torrent above Pangboche village in 1990 Landscape change due to the flooding and melting of ice The region is prone to glacier lake outbursts Reduction of grazing land:  Reduction of grazing land due to accelerating rate of melting of the glacier path GLOF:  GLOF Due to GLOF, a small glacier lake bursted out and washed away all the infrastructure below Slide31:  Khongma-La glacier, Khumbu Region, Nepal leaving highest and most unstable lakes Recommendation:  Recommendation need more on-the-ground field studies identify, understand, and adapt to the changes related to warming fact-based understandings to raise awareness about climate change Institutionalizing the climate change issue introduction of renewable energy technologies Develop local community "alpine conservation and restoration committees" to…. Conclusions:  Conclusions excessive disturbance and degradation over the past 40 years causes of landscape change in Everest region: attributing it to the poverty…. alpine regions are severely impacted by burning, forest change, GLOF and alpine degradation natural forest regeneration References:  References An Assessment of Landscape Change in the Khumbu Region of Nepal Using Repeat Photography (Alton Byers,Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Feb., 1987), pp.77-81) Tourism and deforestation in the Mt Everest region of Nepal, the geographical journal (Stevens, Stan) Contemporary Ecosystem Changes in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Khumbu, Nepal (Alton C. Byers), Research and Education The Mountain Institute, Elkins Tourism, Change, and Continuity in the Mount Everest Region, Nepal (Stanley F. Stevens) Report from Nepal, “Global Warming and Glacier Physiognomy” Matsumoto International Mountain Environment Conference, 2007 Byers, A. and Banskota, K. (1992). “Environmental impacts of backcountry tourism on three sides of Everest.” In: World Heritage Twenty Years Later. Gland: IUCN, pp. 105-22 Chettri, Nakul, Eklabya Sharma and Kamal Banskota (2005). “Tourism in Nepal.” In: Id21 Insights (57), September 2005. Slide35:  Thank-you

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