Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-Centers

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Information about Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-Centers

Published on September 6, 2016

Author: CAREL_group

Source: slideshare.net

1. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-Centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Enrico Boscaro Carel Industries S.p.A 20/11/2013

2. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" TOPICS 1. EVAPORATIVE COOLING: THE PRINCIPLES 2. EC: DATACENTENTER APPLICATION 3. EC: A WIDER VIEW "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-Centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control"

3. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" TOPICS 1. EVAPORATIVE COOLING: THE PRINCIPLES 2. EC: DATACENTENTER APPLICATION 3. EC: A WIDER VIEW "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-Centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control"

4. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" The ASHRAE TC 9.9 A major change in datacenter design approach

5. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Evaporative Cooling 100 kg/h The principle: a potential for Energy Saving

6. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Direct Evaporative Cooling An example from Air Conditioning for Comfort 25°C 50%rH 30°C 30%rH » Direct effect on the main airflow » Whenever it is possible to raise the humidity of supply air

7. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Indirect Evaporative Cooling An example from Air Conditioning for Comfort » Use of a air to air heat exchanger » Exhaust air saturation 30’000 m3/h 25°C 70%rH 25°C 50%rH 28°F 55%rH 18°C 100%rH 100 kg/h η 35°C 40%rH 100kg/h of water 1kW electric power heat recovery ε 58%, Rec= 42kW cooling (12 tons) ≈15kW electric saving (EER 3)

8. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Evaporative Cooling Wet media Atomization with compressed air Different techniques Air washer Atomization with pressurized water

9. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Evaporative Cooling Techniques Keywords for the selection Criteria » Cost (Capex-Opex) » TCO (pressure drops, maintenance, structure to support the weight…) » Control of temperature and humidity (modulation) » Water treatment and Water usage » Redundancy » Cleanliness » Hygiene

10. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" TOPICS 1. EVAPORATIVE COOLING: THE PRINCIPLES 2. EC: DATACENTENTER APPLICATION 3. EC: A WIDER VIEW "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-Centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control"

11. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Evaporative Cooling The use of this technology in Datacenter cooling

12. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Direct Evaporative Cooling for datacenter A typical installation » Use of air handler for direct free-cooling with fresh air supplied to cold aisles » Atomized water humidifier for winter » Evaporative Cooling in summer conditions up to the maximum humidity » Mixing damper for recirculation » Supply temperature and humidity control » Additional coil for extra cooling

13. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Direct Evaporative Cooling for datacenter An example using atomized water » Air distribution integrated in the building » Atomized water humidifier for winter » Evaporative Cooling in summer conditions » Vertical airflow » Use of the same pumping station for two different operation modes

14. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Direct Evaporative Cooling for datacenter Key points » Control of temperature and humidity: setpoints? » Control on the supply requires modulation: what about inertia? » Relative vs Absolute humidity control » Check air distribution » Building design criteria: better in new datacenters » Fire risk assessment impact » Filtration to avoid dust » Air quality: Corrosive contaminants?

15. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Indirect Evaporative Cooling for datacenter A typical installation » Hot Air recirculation (from hot aisles) » Auxiliary air flow for cooling by means of an Air-to Air heat exchanger » Evaporative Cooling in summer conditions up to saturation » Winter humidification if necessary » Supply temperature and humidity control » Additional coil for extra cooling

16. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Indirect Evaporative Cooling Key points » Airflow control (aisle air pressure?) » Auxiliary air control to minimize energy consumption » Heat exchanger bypass to reduce fan energy » Water usage vs Energy usage » Heat exchanger efficiency vs pressure drops » Use of multiple heat exchangers with multiple stage IEC » Wetting HX surface for sensible cooling and contact evaporation

17. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" TOPICS 1. EVAPORATIVE COOLING: THE PRINCIPLES 2. EC: DATACENTENTER APPLICATION 3. EC: A WIDER VIEW "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-Centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control"

18. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Refrigerant side IEC A typical installation » Use of evaporative cooling on air approaching the condenser » Reduction in refrigerant head pressure » Increase the efficiency of the refrigerating cycle » Useful for retrofit application

19. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Water/refrigrant side IEC An example of installation » Use of evaporative cooling in dry cooler for water condensed CRACs to improve the efficiency of refrigerating cycle » Possibility to use the dual coil solution with an extended period of freecooling » Ideal combination with variable speed compressors for partial freecooling

20. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" IEC combined with CRACs. Cascade installation » Additional air handlef for IEC «tempering» the hot aisle return » Possible use in retrofit » Synergy with installed CRACs » Winter indirect freecooling » Humidification with adiabatic system avoiding CRAC humidifiers » Summer load reduction » Possibility to improve room air distribution even without containment 25°C 45%rH 35°C 45%rH 25°C 100%rH HX efficiency 60% 60% reduction of CRAC load Total indirect FC @16°C 35°C 25%rH 29°C 35%rH

21. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" IEC combined with CRACs. Parallel installation » Use of additional air handler but in parallel for example using the suspended ceiling » The air handler is not treating all the air flow (smaller unit) » Redundant system » Possible as a retrofit with a limited investment 25°C 45%rH 35°C 45%rH 25°C 100%rH 50% air flow treated HX efficiency 60% 30% reduction of CRAC load Theorical Total indirect FC @1°C but check dehumidification 35°C 25%rH 32°C 30%rH 50%50%100% 29°C 35%rH

22. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" IEC combined with CRACs. Evaluation for a retrofit » Use of additional air handler but in parallel for example using the suspended ceiling » The air handler is not treating all the air flow (smaller unit) » Redundant system » Possible as a retrofit with a limited investment 25°C 45%rH 35°C 45%rH 25°C 100%rH 50% air flow treated HX efficiency 60% 30% reduction of CRAC load Theorical Total indirect FC @1°C but check dehumidification 35°C 25%rH 32°C 30%rH 50%50%100% 29°C 35%rH

23. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Simulation for a retrofit with traditional layout: target replace electrode humidifiers IEC combined with CRACs. Return air from data hall 25°C 40%r.h Supply air from CRAC 17°C 62 %r.h Supply air from CRAC with humidifier 17,1°C 66%r.h Mix in the access floor 17,05°C 64%r.h Return air corridor CRAC Supply air in the access floor racks » Data hall without containment, downflow CRAC units in the corridor used as a plenum. Density 1,5 kW/m2 » 18 units with 25,000 m3/h airflow: total airflow 450,000 m3/h » Total Cooling Load 1,17 MW: S/T ratio 0,88. Control on the return with set @ 25°C 40%r.h. » 9x15 kg/h humidifiers on half of the units : total load 135 kg/h. Electrical consumption for humidification 101 kW .

24. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" » Use of additional air handler taking from data hall and blowing towards grilles or in the corridor » Hypothesis of 4 units of the same airflow: total 100,000 m3/h (22% of the CRAC airflow) » Units with adiabatic systems for humidification, removing electrode humidifiers » IEC system with cross flow HX (e= 70%) IEC combined with CRACs. Simulation for a retrofit with traditional layout: implementing IEC to increase saving Ambient Process air Supply air in the access floor racks Exhausted air Return air AHU supply air IEC water atomizer Adiabatic humidification 1 Return air from data hall 25°C 38%r.h 2 Ambient air 30°C 40%r.h 3 Process air after IEC atomization 21°C 90%r.h 4 Return air after HR treatment 22,2 °C 45%r.h 5 Supply air of AHU after adiabatic humidification (and DEC) 19,35 °C 62%r.h 6 Mix air in the corridor returning to CRAC units 23,75 °C 43%r.h 4 1 2 3 5 6 100 kW of electricity saved for humidification 90 kW of DEC side effect on cooling load (7% reduction) 90 kW of IEC in worst case (7%) 136 KW @ 25°C 50%r.h (10%) 228 KW @ 17°C 70%r.h no IEC (17%)

25. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Desiccant Cooling. A new frontier? » Use of desiccant wheel to dry fresh air thus increasing the possibility for DEC » Use of IEC to reduce the temeprature of exhaust air to have heat recovery with the dry and hot air 25°C 52%rH 35°C 30%rH 31°C 32%rH 24°C 80%rH 32°C 45%rH 45°C 15%rH 75°C 7%rH

26. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" C B D A F G H E Desiccant Cooling. Pusching DEC and IEC especially when some heat is available

27. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control" Evaporative Cooling Solutions for datacenter Keywords for future developments of design criteria in a broader view » There is no perfect technology but a tecnology that is perfect for a specific installation » Control is important for yearly performance » Always consider TCO mixing technologies (CRAC, DEC, IEC,…) » Evaporative cooling solutions also for legacy datacenters » Water usage: a global approach » Metrics: PUE as a “relative index” rather than an ” absolute one ”? » Hygiene: are we forgetting bacteria? NREL technical report 2003 and recent ASHRAE meeting: Average Water usage at power production plant 2 gallons/kWh Cooling effect for 1 gallon of evaporated water 3 kWh Energy saved (EER 3) 1 kWh Water saved 1 gallon

28. www.datacenterdynamics.com Enrico Boscaro – Carel Industries SpA www.carel.com – "Evaporative Cooling for Energy Saving in Data-centers: different system solutions in temperature and humidity control"

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