Published on January 5, 2014
Evaluating HRD Programs By Si-Hosseini
Effectiveness الفعالية The degree to which a training (or other HRD program) achieves its intended purpose Measures are relative to some starting point Measures how well the desired goal is achieved 2
HRD Evaluation Textbook definition: “The systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and modification of various instructional activities.” 4
In Other Words… Are we training: the right people the right “stuff” the right way with the right materials at the right time? 5
Evaluation Needs Descriptive and judgmental information needed المعلومات الوصفية والحكمية المطلوبة Objective and subjective data Information gathered according to a plan and in a desired format Gathered to provide decision making information 6
Purposes of Evaluation Determine whether the program is meeting the intended objectives Identify strengths and weaknesses Determine cost-benefit ratio Identify who benefited most or least Determine future participants Provide information for improving HRD programs 7
Purposes of Evaluation – 2 Reinforce major points to be made Gather marketing information Determine if training program is appropriate Establish management database 8
Evaluation Bottom Line Is HRD a revenue contributor or a revenue user? Is HRD credible to line and upper-level managers? Are benefits of HRD readily evident to all? 9
How Often are HRD Evaluations Conducted? Not often enough!!! Frequently, only end-of-course participant reactions are collected Transfer to the workplace is evaluated less frequently 10
Why HRD Evaluations are Rare Reluctance to having HRD programs evaluated Evaluation needs expertise and resources Factors other than HRD cause performance improvements – e.g., Economy (it costs time & money) Equipment (HR staff are not expert doing it alone so have to outsource tools) Policies, etc. (criteria) 11
Need for HRD Evaluation Shows the value of HRD Provides metrics for HRD efficiency Demonstrates value-added approach for HRD Demonstrates accountability for HRD activities Everyone else has it… why not HRD? 12
Make or Buy Evaluation “I bought it, therefore it is good.” “Since it’s good, I don’t need to post-test.” Who says it’s: Appropriate? Effective? Timely? Transferable to the workplace? 13
Evolution of Evaluation Efforts 1. 2. 3. 4. Anecdotal (story) approach – talk to other users Try before buy – borrow and use samples Analytical approach – match research data to training needs Holistic approach – look at overall HRD process, as well as individual training 14
Models and Frameworks of Evaluation Table 7-1 lists six frameworks for evaluation The most popular is that of D. Kirkpatrick: Reaction Learning Job Behavior Results 15
Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels (1994) Reaction Learning Did they learn what they were supposed to? Job Behavior Focus on trainee’s reactions (immediately after the program e.g., Did you like the program?) Was it used on job? Results Did it improve the organization’s effectiveness? 16
Issues Concerning Kirkpatrick’s Framework Most organizations don’t evaluate at all four levels Focuses only on post-training Doesn’t treat inter-stage improvements WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS? 17
Other Frameworks/Models CIPP: Context, Input, Process, Product (Galvin, 1983) Brinkerhoff (1987): Goal setting Program design Program implementation Immediate outcomes Usage outcomes Impacts and worth 18
Other Frameworks/Models – 2 Kraiger, Ford, & Salas (1993): Cognitive outcomes Skill-based outcomes Affective outcomes Holton (1996): Five Categories: Secondary Influences Motivation Elements Environmental Elements Outcomes Ability/Enabling Elements 19
Other Frameworks/Models – 3 Phillips (1996): Reaction and Planned Action Learning Applied Learning on the Job Business Results ROI 20
A Suggested Framework – 1 Reaction Did trainees like the training? Did the training seem useful? Learning How much did they learn? Behavior What behavior change occurred? 21
Suggested Framework – 2 Results What were the tangible outcomes? What was the return on investment (ROI)? What was the contribution to the organization? 22
Data Collection for HRD Evaluation Possible methods: Interviews Questionnaires Direct observation Written tests Simulation/Performance tests Archival performance information 23
Interviews Advantages: Flexible Opportunity for clarification Depth possible Personal contact Limitations: High reactive effects High cost Face-to-face threat potential Labor intensive Trained observers needed 24
Questionnaires Advantages: Low cost to administer Honesty increased Anonymity possible Respondent sets the pace Variety of options Limitations: Possible inaccurate data Response conditions not controlled Respondents set varying paces Uncontrolled return rate 25
Direct Observation Advantages: Nonthreatening Excellent way to measure behavior change Limitations: Possibly disruptive Reactive effects are possible May be unreliable Need trained observers 26
Written Tests Advantages: Low purchase cost Readily scored Quickly processed Easily administered Wide sampling possible Limitations: May be threatening Possibly no relation to job performance Measures only cognitive learning Relies on norms Concern for racial/ ethnic bias 27
Simulation/Performance Tests Advantages: Reliable Objective Close relation to job performance Includes cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains Limitations: Time consuming Simulations often difficult to create High costs to development and use 28
Archival Performance Data Advantages: Reliable Objective Job-based Easy to review Minimal reactive effects Limitations: Criteria for keeping/ discarding records Information system discrepancies Indirect Not always usable Records prepared for other purposes 29
Choosing Data Collection Methods Reliability Validity Consistency of results, and freedom from collection method bias and error Does the device measure what we want to measure? Practicality Does it make sense in terms of the resources used to get the data? 30
Type of Data Used/Needed Individual performance Systemwide performance Economic 31
Individual Performance Data Individual knowledge Individual behaviors Examples: Test scores Performance quantity, quality, and timeliness Attendance records Attitudes 32
Systemwide Performance Data Productivity Scrap/rework rates (waste) Customer satisfaction levels On-time performance levels Quality rates and improvement rates 33
Economic Data Profits Product liability claims Avoidance of penalties Market share Competitive position Return on investment (ROI) Financial utility calculations 34
Use of Self-Report Data Most common method Pre-training and post-training data Problems: Mono-method bias Desire to be consistent between tests Socially desirable responses Response Shift Bias: Trainees adjust expectations to training 35
Research Design Specifies in advance: the expected results of the study the methods of data collection to be used how the data will be analyzed 36
Research Design Issues Pretest and Posttest Shows trainee what training has accomplished Helps eliminate pretest knowledge bias Control Group Compares performance of group with training against the performance of a similar group without training 37
Recommended Research Design Pretest and posttest with control group Whenever possible: Randomly assign individuals to the test group and the control group to minimize bias Use “time-series” approach to data collection to verify performance improvement is due to training 38
Ethical Issues Concerning Evaluation Research Confidentiality Informed consent Withholding training from control groups Use of deception Pressure to produce positive results 39
Assessing the Impact of HRD Money is the language of business. You MUST talk dollars, not HRD jargon. No one (except maybe you) cares about “the effectiveness of training interventions as measured by and analysis of formal pretest, posttest control group data.” 40
HRD Program Assessment HRD programs and training are investments Line managers often see HR and HRD as costs – i.e., revenue users, not revenue producers You must prove your worth to the organization – Or you’ll have to find another organization… 41
Two Basic Methods for Assessing Financial Impact Evaluation of training costs Utility analysis 42
Evaluation of Training Costs Cost-benefit analysis Compares cost of training to benefits gained such as attitudes, reduction in accidents, reduction in employee sick-days, etc. Cost-effectiveness analysis Focuses on increases in quality, reduction in scrap/rework, productivity, etc. 43
Return on Investment Return on investment = Results/Costs 44
Calculating Training Return On Investment Results Results Operational How Before After Results Area Measured Training Quality of panels % rejected Housekeeping Visual inspection using 20-item checklist Differences Expressed 2% rejected Training 1.5% rejected (+ or –) .5% in $ $720 per day 1,440 panels per day 1,080 panels per day 360 panels $172,800 per year 2 defects (average) 8 defects 10 defects (average) Not measur able in $ Preventable accidents Number of accidents 24 per year 16 per year 8 per year Direct cost of each accident $144,000 per year $96,000 per year $48,000 $48,000 per year Total savings: $220,800.00 Return ROI = Investment = = Operational Results Training Costs $220,800 $32,564 = 6.8 45 SOURCE: From D. G. Robinson & J. Robinson (1989). Training for impact. Training and Development Journal, 43(8), 41. Printed by permission.
Types of Training Costs Direct costs Indirect costs Development costs Overhead costs Compensation for participants 46
Direct Costs Instructor Base pay Fringe benefits Travel and per diem Materials Classroom and audiovisual equipment Travel Food and refreshments 47
Indirect Costs Training management Clerical/Administrative Postal/shipping, telephone, computers, etc. Pre- and post-learning materials Other overhead costs 48
Development Costs Fee to purchase program Costs to tailor program to organization Instructor training costs 49
Overhead Costs General organization support Top management participation Utilities, facilities General and administrative costs, such as HRM 50
Compensation for Participants Participants’ salary and benefits for time away from job Travel, lodging, and per-diem costs 51
Measuring Benefits Change in quality per unit measured in dollars Reduction in scrap/rework measured in dollar cost of labor and materials Reduction in preventable accidents measured in dollars ROI = Benefits/Training costs 52
Utility Analysis (Brogden-CronbachGleser model: Personnel Psychology) Uses a statistical approach to support claims of training effectiveness: N = Number of trainees T = Length of time benefits are expected to last dt = True performance difference resulting from training SDy = Dollar value of untrained job performance (in standard deviation units) C = Cost of training ∆U = (N)(T)(dt)(Sdy) – C 53
Critical Information for Utility Analysis dt = difference in units between trained/untrained, divided by standard deviation in units produced by trained SDy = standard deviation in dollars, or overall productivity of organization 54
Ways to Improve HRD Assessment Walk the walk, talk the talk: MONEY Involve HRD in strategic planning Involve management in HRD planning and estimation efforts Gain mutual ownership Use credible and conservative estimates Share credit for successes and blame for failures 55
HRD Evaluation Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Analyze needs. Determine explicit evaluation strategy. Insist on specific and measurable training objectives. Obtain participant reactions. Develop criterion measures/instruments to measure results. Plan and execute evaluation strategy. 56
Summary Training results must be measured against costs Training must contribute to the “bottom line” HRD must justify itself repeatedly as a revenue enhancer, not a revenue waster 57
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