European union towards the dismantling

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Information about European union towards the dismantling

Published on June 25, 2016

Author: falcoforado

Source: slideshare.net

1. 1 EUROPEAN UNION TOWARDS THE DISMANTLING? Fernando Alcoforado * The British took the decision to separate of the European Union, the political and economic bloc which now congregates together 28 countries which joined in 1973. The negotiation of the UK break with the European Union should take two years. The option to leave the European Union won per 51.9% to 48.1%, shaking financial markets and triggering a shock wave and global unbelief. There is a risk of domino effect in other countries of the bloc, which can mimic the popular consultation to bargain advantage in negotiations with the European Union, as well as boost separatist movements like the Scottish and Catalan. Since the beginning of the debate in the UK about their stay or departure from the European Union, the issue of immigration has always had great popular appeal. Those who want to leave the block advocate greater control of the entry of Europeans in the UK, according to them, overburden the prison and health systems, as well as negatively impact in the labor market. Another matter subject of the discussions concerning entry of refugees in Europe and in particular in Britain which reach large proportions in recent years, besides the risk of terrorist input between them. It is worth noting that in 1948, when it opened the debate on European integration, had several objectives: 1) prevent Europe again become the scene of a new war; 2) strengthen the economy of Western European countries constituting an economic bloc to counter the economic bloc of socialist countries formed after the 2nd World War and stop the advance of communism in Western Europe in the same way that NATO was opposed to the Warsaw Pact militarily; and 3) strengthen the economy of Western European countries to prevent from becoming economic and technological colony of American and Japanese companies. There is no doubt that the three objectives were achieved. Europe has ceased to be the scene of wars as in the past and there was strengthening of the EU economy. The strengthening of the economy of Western Europe began with the Single European Act of 1987 that established the steps towards the establishment of a true single market in 1992. When deciding the creation of the single currency "Euro" and the European Monetary Institute and as the harmonization of tax policies of EU member countries, the Maastricht Treaty also known as Treaty on European Union signed on 7 February 1992 in the Dutch city of Maastricht by leaders of 12 European nations, established the total unification of the commitment the European economy. The European Union (EU) has become essentially organized as a network of national states that involves more concentration and sovereignty sharing than the transfer of sovereignty to a higher level. Considering these developments, the initial rhetoric of the European Union on "sharing sovereignty" was increasingly seen by the people of the member states as "losing sovereignty". A nationalist reaction has been growing in Europe for more than two decades on behalf of the European integration process that is viewed as harmful to national interests. A growing number of Europeans are not willing to abandon their national identities. In several countries, their populations have found that European integration removes the power of citizens of European nations. In addition, European integration is seen as something that is not made by them but by the ruling classes of Europe and the techno bureaucrats encysted in Brussels, headquarters of the European Union. This explains the British out of the European Union.

2. 2 European unification has generated resistance because the process of economic integration coincides with the fall in living standards, with the expansion of unemployment and greater social inequality from the 1990s to the present time. At the European Union's inability to meet the demands of European citizens by raising their level of income, reduction of unemployment, the reduction of social inequalities and increasing citizen participation in decisions at supranational level, citizens barricade themselves in their countries and increasingly struggle to consolidate their nations. The spread of nationalism grows swiftly in the European Union by the failure of this one to manage and accommodate national demands. In the context of democratic societies, Europe will only be unified with effectiveness if the interests of each nation and its citizens are met. Significant parts of the population of Europe tend to affirm their nations against the European Union as recently occurred with the decision of the UK people to move away from the economic bloc. In this context, grows also racism and xenophobia. The ability to influence of citizens in decisions on economic policy in the European Union does not exist because there is virtually no effective channel for citizen participation in the European institutions. Who decides on economic policy is the European Central Bank. In practice, European integration took place without democratic legitimacy. The existence of direct election to the European Parliament meant a "by-pass" of the political classes and parliaments of member states. The European Parliament has not developed the ability to obtain the consent of the people of the member states of the European Union. To the extent that the European Union demonstrates inability to meet the demands of people of every nation, the departure of the bloc member countries is a real possibility. To avoid dismantling, the European Union needs to promote an aggressive economic expansion in the Euro area, by even the immediate easing of monetary policy of the European Central Bank and the strong support to countries facing debt problems illiquid. In addition to the success of economic measures to overcome the current crisis, it is necessary that the European Union is democratically governed by European citizens to prevent its dissolution. Finally, European Union has to equate and urgently address the problem of the war refugees in Syria, Iraq and Libya, as well as terrorism in the context of the European Union. It is therefore a huge challenge difficult to promote the economic development of all countries of the European Union in the current situation of generalized crisis of the capitalist world-system. The challenge of overcoming the economic problems adds to the humanitarian problems of aid to refugees and political and military problems of combating terrorism within and outside the European Union. Faced with the impossibility of preventing the flow of refugees to Europe due to the impracticality of his return to countries of origin, the European Union and the United States have to welcome all who aspire to move away from areas of conflict where they came from. The United States and the European Union that were responsible for the disorganization and devastation of the countries of the refugees has a moral duty to assist them and house them at this juncture. The UN must also go out of their passivity and go to work with effectiveness to prevent the worsening of this humanitarian crisis. The fight against terrorism has to take place at the military level in the areas dominated by the Islamic State, but should be followed also of initiatives aimed at improving the living conditions of people affected by the conflict in Syria, Iraq and Libya.

3. 3 * Fernando Alcoforado, member of the Bahia Academy of Education, engineer and doctor of Territorial Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, a university professor and consultant in strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and planning of energy systems, is the author of Globalização (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), De Collor a FHC- O Brasil e a Nova (Des)ordem Mundial (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1998), Um Projeto para o Brasil (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2000), Os condicionantes do desenvolvimento do Estado da Bahia (Tese de doutorado. Universidade de Barcelona, http://www.tesisenred.net/handle/10803/1944, 2003), Globalização e Desenvolvimento (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia- Desenvolvimento do Século XVI ao Século XX e Objetivos Estratégicos na Era Contemporânea (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), The Necessary Conditions of the Economic and Social Development-The Case of the State of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Aquecimento Global e Catástrofe Planetária (P&A Gráfica e Editora, Salvador, 2010), Amazônia Sustentável- Para o progresso do Brasil e combate ao aquecimento global (Viena- Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011), Os Fatores Condicionantes do Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012) and Energia no Mundo e no Brasil- Energia e Mudança Climática Catastrófica no Século XXI (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2015).

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