European Exploration And Colonization

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Information about European Exploration And Colonization

Published on January 9, 2008

Author: wayn

Source: slideshare.net

By: slideshare.net The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests

Earlier Explorations Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca A New Player  Europe Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources. Better seaworthy ships. Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”

Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca

A New Player  Europe

Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271

Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.

Better seaworthy ships.

Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”

Admiral Zheng He 1371-1435 Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!

Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!

A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492

Motives for European Exploration Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples. Reformation  refugees & missionaries. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. Technological advances. Fame and fortune.

Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.

Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.

Reformation  refugees & missionaries.

Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.

Technological advances.

Fame and fortune.

New Maritime Technologies Hartman Astrolabe (1532)‏ Better Maps [Portulan] Sextant Mariner’s Compass

Hartman Astrolabe (1532)‏

Better Maps [Portulan]

Sextant

Mariner’s Compass

New Weapons Technology

Prince Henry, the Navigator School for Navigation, 1419

School for Navigation, 1419

Museum of Navigation in Lisbon

Portuguese Maritime Empire Exploring the west coast of Africa. Bartolomeo Dias, 1487. Vasco da Gama, 1498. Calicut. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).

Exploring the west coast of Africa.

Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.

Vasco da Gama, 1498.

Calicut.

Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).

Zheng He’s Voyages In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!

In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!

Christofo Colon [1451-1506]

Columbus’ Four Voyages

Other Voyages of Exploration

Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c

Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”

Fernando Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs.

The Death of Montezuma II

Mexico Surrenders to Cortez

Francisco Pizarro The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs.

Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

Why would the 'Columbian Exchange' be considered the tsunami of unintentional "bio-terrorism"??

The “Columbian Exchange” Syphilis MAIZE Vanilla TOMATO Peanut POTATO Cassava Pineapple Cocoa Quinine Tobacco Pumpkin Turkey Sweet Potatoes Peppers Avocado Squash Whooping Cough Diptheria Malaria Measles Typhus Flu Smallpox Pigs Sheep Cattle HORSE Wheat Pear Citrus Fruits Oats SUGAR CANE Peach Grape Barley Honeybee Turnip Onion Rice Banana COFFEE BEAN Olive GUNS Liquor Trinkets

Syphilis

MAIZE

Vanilla

TOMATO

Peanut

POTATO

Cassava

Pineapple

Cocoa

Quinine

Tobacco

Pumpkin

Turkey

Sweet Potatoes

Peppers

Avocado

Squash

Whooping Cough

Diptheria

Malaria

Measles

Typhus

Flu

Smallpox

Pigs

Sheep

Cattle

HORSE

Wheat

Pear

Citrus Fruits

Oats

SUGAR CANE

Peach

Grape

Barley

Honeybee

Turnip

Onion

Rice

Banana

COFFEE BEAN

Olive

GUNS

Liquor

Trinkets

Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores Missionaries Permanent Settlers Official European Colony!

Treasures from the Americas!

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

The Slave Trade Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. Sugar cane & sugar plantations. First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. 275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries. Between 16 c & 19 c , about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.

Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.

Sugar cane & sugar plantations.

First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.

275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries.

Between 16 c & 19 c , about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

Slave Ship “ Middle Passage”

“ Coffin” Position Below Deck

African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!

European Empires in the Americas

The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves

Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World Encomienda or forced labor. Council of the Indies. Viceroy. New Spain and Peru. Papal agreement.

Encomienda or forced labor.

Council of the Indies.

Viceroy.

New Spain and Peru.

Papal agreement.

The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission

The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

Father Bartolome de Las Casas New Laws  1542

New Laws  1542

New Colonial Rivals Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines. First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. Surat in NW India in 1608. Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.

Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.

First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.

Surat in NW India in 1608.

Dutch arrive in India in 1595.

New Colonial Rivals

Impact of European Expansion Native populations ravaged by disease. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [ “Price Revolution” ] New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. Deepened colonial rivalries.

Native populations ravaged by disease.

Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [ “Price Revolution” ]

New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

Deepened colonial rivalries.

5. New Patterns of World Trade

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