EU Enlargement

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Information about EU Enlargement
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Published on November 26, 2007

Author: BeatRoot

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  EU ENLARGEMENT From Six to Fifteen and Beyond From Six To Fifteen:  From Six To Fifteen 1957 From Six To Fifteen:  From Six To Fifteen 1973 From Six To Fifteen:  From Six To Fifteen 1981 From Six To Fifteen:  From Six To Fifteen 1986 From Six To Fifteen:  From Six To Fifteen 1995 From Six to Fifteen… and Beyond:  From Six to Fifteen… and Beyond 2002 Slide8:  Tomorrow's Europe 13 December 2002 Slide9:  Treaty of the European Union (TEU) Article 49 of the TEU: Any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union. Article 6 of the TEU: The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States. Slide10:  The Europe & Association Agreements Country Europe Europe Official Agreement signed Agreement came application for into force EU Membership Bulgaria March 1993 February 1995 December 1995 Czech Rep. October 1993 February 1995 January 1996 Estonia June 1995 February 1998 November 1995 Hungary December 1991 February 1994 March 1994 Latvia June 1995 February 1998 October 1995 Lithuania June 1995 February 1998 December 1995 Poland December 1991 February 1994 April 1994 Romania February 1993 February 1995 June 1995 Slovakia October 1993 February 1995 June 1995 Slovenia June 1996 February 1999 June 1996 Country Association Association Official Agreement signed Agreement came application for into force EU Membership Turkey September 1963 December 1964 14 April 1987 Malta December 1970 April 1971 16 July 1990 Cyprus December 1972 June 1973 3 July 1990 Slide11:  The Copenhagen Criteria Political criteria The applicant country must have achieved stability of its institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities. Economic criteria It must have a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU. Criteria of the adoption of the acquis It must have the ability to take on the obligations related to of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union. Slide12:  The New Europe: Integration EU EFTA EU Applicants Slide13:  Accession negotiations: Chapters 1. Free movement of goods 2. Freedom of movement for persons 3. Freedom to provide services 4. Free movement of capital 5. Company law 6. Competition policy 7. Agriculture 8. Fisheries 9. Transport policy 10. Taxation 11. Economic and monetary union 12. Statistics 13. Social policy and employment 14. Energy 15. Industrial policy 16. Small and medium-sized enterprises 17. Science and research 18. Education and training 19. Telecommunications and IT 20. Culture and audiovisual policy 21. Regional policy and structural instruments 22. Environment 23. Consumers and health protection 24. Justice and home affairs 25. Customs union 26. External relations 27. Common foreign and security policy 28. Financial control 29. Financial and budgetary provisions 30. Institutions 31. Other Slide14:  Towards an Enlarged Europe Regular Reports: The Commission recommends conclusion of negotiations with ten candidate countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. These countries will be ready for membership at the beginning of 2004. 2007: indicative date for accession chosen by Bulgaria and Romania. Strengthening support for Turkey’s pre-accession preparations. 9 October 2002 Slide15:  Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey Next steps for Bulgaria and Romania: 2007: target date to conclude negotiations. Detailed roadmaps to complete preparations. Judicial and administrative reform. Next steps for Turkey: to fully meet the political criterion. Enhanced support from the EU Increased financial assistance from 2004. Slide16:  The formal steps Enhanced pre-accession assistance for Romania and Bulgaria. 9th April - European Parliament assent 16th April - Signature of the Treaty in Athens with Laeken 10 Ratification - Parliamentary / referenda EU has 25 members End of 2004 - Commission report and recommendation on Turkey's progress 2003 1st May 2004 Slide17:  Candidate countries GDP in 1999 & 2000 Source: Eurostat PPP: Purchase Power Parity CYPRUS:  CYPRUS Cyprus is a Republic with a presidential system of government. Under the 1960 Constitution, executive power is vested in the President of the Republic, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term of office. The President exercises executive power through a Council of Ministers and the Government Spokesman appointed by him. Each Minister is the head of his Ministry and exercises executive power of all subjects within that Ministry's domain. The political system of Cyprus is unicameral. Its legislative chamber is made up of 80 members (56 Greek Cypriot and 24 Turkish Cypriot) Judicial power is held by the Supreme Court and district tribunals Area: 9,251 km² Population: 759,100 inhabitants Capital: Nicosia Others towns: Limassol, Larnaca Language: Greek, Turkish, English Currency: Cypriot pound CYPRUS:  CYPRUS Area: 9,251 km² Population: 759,100 inhabitants Capital: Nicosia Others towns: Limassol, Larnaca Language: Greek, Turkish, English Currency: Cypriot pound Foreign Policy Cyprus is located in a strategically important position with respect, among other things, to the neighboring Middle East. Cyprus has been a member of the United Nations since 1960, part of the non-aligned nations movement since 1960, a Council of Europe member since 1961 and of OSCE and WTO since 1975 and 1995 respectively The economy of Cyprus is weakened by its internal division and by its dependence upon tourism The services sector accounts for 75% of the GDP, industry for 19.9%, and farming for 4.6%. According to European Commission forecasts, Cyprus' GDP should rise by 2% in 2003 CZECH REPUBLIC:  CZECH REPUBLIC The Czech Republic was instituted on 1 January 1993 after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. It is a Parliamentary Republic divided into 14 regions, including the city-region of Prague. The bicameral Parliament is endowed with legislative powers and is made up of a Lower House of 200 elected members (universal suffrage). Elections (majority voting system) take place every 4 years. The Senate is made up of 81 members whose term of office is 6 years (every two years, there is an election involving one third of the Senate). After the June 2002 election, the Czech Republic's government was made up of a center-left coalition of social democrats (CSSD), the People's Party (KDU-CSL) and the Freedom Union-Democratic Union  (US?DEU). This coalition controls 101 of the 200 Lower House seats. Area: 78,860 km2 Population: 10,269,726 inhabitants Capital: Prague Language: Czech Currency: Czech crown CZECH REPUBLIC:  CZECH REPUBLIC Foreign Policy The Czech Republic has been a NATO member since 12 March 1999. Among the priorities announced by the present Government in its Programme of 5 August 2002 was full integration with the European Union, which it is to join on 1 May 2004. Other goals are to play an active role in NATO, the struggle against terrorism, developing its relations with neighboring countries, and strengthening regional collaboration.  Economy The economy of the Czech Republic is stable and multifaceted. Trade with EU countries (above all, Germany) and tourism have both increased over the last few years. Half the national income is generated by the services sector. The metallurgy, automobile, machinery and arms industries generate 41% of the GDP (farming, 4%). Privatization of many sectors is under way (telecommunications, banks and energy), and this has encouraged foreign investment. According to European Commission forecasts, the Czech Republic's GDP should rise by 2.8% in 2003. Area: 78,860 km2 Population: 10,269,726 inhabitants Capital: Prague Language: Czech Currency: Czech crown HUNGARY:  HUNGARY Hungary is a Parliamentary Republic. Its 1989 Constitution gives legislative power to a unicameral parliament (National Assembly - Országgyulés), made up of 386 members elected for a four-year term of office (uninominal voting, in part proportional, two-round election system, ballot). Following the April 2002 general election, Hungary has been governed by a centre-left coalition made up of the Socialist Party (MSzP, with 178 seats - the relative majority) and the Alliance of Free Democrats (SzDSz, a liberal party). The coalition has 198 seats. The opposition is headed by FIDESz, the conservative party of former Prime Minister Victor Orban who governed Hungary during the previous legislature. The parliamentary spectrum also contains the Hungarian Democratic Forum, a FIDESz ally. The 5% threshold requirement bars the extreme right wing party, MIEP, from participating in parliamentary activities. Area: 93,029 km² Population: 10,174,853 inhabitants Capital: Budapest Language: Hungaria Currency: Forint HUNGARY:  HUNGARY Foreign Policy Hungary has been a NATO member since 1999, and in 2002 concluded negotiations for joining the European Union, signing the Accession treaty in Athens on 16 April 2003 and will join the EU on 1 May 2004. Considerable attention has been paid to relations with the Hungarian minorities in neighbouring countries (1.6 million in Romania, 600,000 in Slovakia, 300,000 in Serbia-Voivodina, and 200,000 in the Ukraine).Hungary has been a UNO member since 1955, and has been a Council of Europe and OECD member since 1992 and 1996, respectively.  Economy The Hungarian economy is healthy, and its 2002 performance was found to be satisfactory both in terms of GDP growth and from the employment point of view. The Hungarian government is now concentrating on the economic policies necessary for progress toward the euro zone which, it is hoped, Hungary will be joining in 2007. The national income is generated for the main part by the services sector (62% of the total figure); industrial concerns in the fields of metallurgy, building, chemicals (above all, pharmaceutical), food, and automobile motors account for 34% of the GDP (farming stands at 4%). According to European Commission forecasts, Hungary's GDP should rise by 3.7% in 2003.   Area: 93,029 km² Population: 10,174,853 inhabitants Capital: Budapest Language: Hungaria Currency: Forint ESTONIA:  ESTONIA The Constitution of Estonia dates from 1992 Estonia is a Parliamentary Republic the President of which is elected every five years by a unicameral Parliament (Riigikogu). Parliament is made up of 101 members elected every four years (proportional system), and a 5% splinter party threshold applies for those wishing to take part in parliamentary activities The Centre Party won 25.4% of the votes, the new group, Res Publika won 24.6% and the Reform Party of the retiring Premier, Siim Kallas, won 17.7%. During the last elections, the Estonian United People's Party representing the Russian population, gained only 2.24% of the votes and therefore was not able to enter Parliament. The Slavic-speaking minorities (Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians) make up 32.07% of the population (438,308 inhabitants). Like the other two Baltic countries, Estonia gained independence only during the two interwar decades, and then, again, in 1991, just months before the fall of the Soviet Union A new Constitution was(1992), Area: 45,227 km² Population: 1,366,959 inhabitants Capital: Tallin Language: Estonian Currency: Estonian crown ESTONIA:  ESTONIA Foreign Policy In 1995, Estonia officially applied to become a member of the European Union, concluding negotiations in December 2002. Membership is planned for 1 May 2004. In November 2002, the North Atlantic Council Summit in Prague extended an invitation to Estonia and six other countries to join NATO. Estonia is to officially join the alliance in May of 2004.   Economy Among transition economies Estonia's is one of the most advanced, having developed rapidly and acquired a liberal tax system. Indeed, Estonia may be considered one of the most rapidly growing European continental markets. It has taken the lead (also as a result of its geographic position) in the competition in central and eastern Europe for foreign investments. The services sector plays a leading role, and accounts for 66% of the country's GDP. The rubber, wood, metallurgy, textiles, transport and telecommunications equipment industries generate 29% of the national income, and farming accounts for 6%. According to European Commission forecasts, Estonia's GDP should increase by 4.9% in 2003.    Area: 45,227 km² Population: 1,366,959 inhabitants Capital: Tallin Language: Estonian Currency: Estonian crown LATVIA :  LATVIA Latvia regained its independence in August 1991 following the collapse of the Soviet Union. It is a Parliamentary Republic whose President is elected by parliament for a four-year term of office. The country's unicameral Parliament (Saeima) is made up of 100 members elected every four years (proportional system; universal suffrage; 5% parliamentary threshold). After the general election of October 2002, Einars Repse formed a centre-right government with the First Party of Latvia (7.6%), the Farmers and Greens Alliance (9.5%) and the Fatherland and Freedom Party (5.4%). The party of outgoing Prime Minister Andris Berzins ("Latvia's Way") and the Social Democratic Party fell below the 5% threshold Area: 64,589 km² Population: 2,345,768 inhabitants Capital: Riga Language: Lettish Currency: Lat LATVIA :  LATVIA Foreign Policy The Association Treaty with the EU was signed in 1995 and accession negotiations were concluded in 2002. Latvia is to become a member of the EU on 1 May 2004. Following the signing of the Washington Charter(1998), between the United States and the Baltic States, the NATO Summit in Prague of December 2002 invited Latvia and six other countries to join the alliance, and Latvia will officially become a member in May 2004. Latvia's political and commercial relations with the other Baltic states are good, and there has been an improvement in relations with the Russian Federation. There has been friction over the fact that Latvia has been most selective in its policies regarding citizenship and voting rights for the large Slavic-speaking community. Area: 64,589 km² Population: 2,345,768 inhabitants Capital: Riga Language: Lettish Currency: Lat LATVIA :  LATVIA Economy Due to the fact that it had gradually increased exchanges with European Union countries, Latvia managed to avoid the worst of the consequences of the Russian economic crisis of 1998. Most companies and banks have been privatized. Latvia joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in February 1999. The country is struggling with its national budget deficit, and this is one of its most serious problems. The predominant services sector accounts for 70% of the GDP; 26% of the national income is generated by industrial firms that produce buses, cars, radios and washing machines, as well as textiles, electronic and pharmaceutical products (farming accounts for 5%). According to European Commission forecasts, Latvia's GDP should rise by 5.5% in 2003 Area: 64,589 km² Population: 2,345,768 inhabitants Capital: Riga Language: Lettish Currency: Lat LITHUANIA:  LITHUANIA Area:65,300 km2 Population: 3,475,586 inhabitants Capital: Vilnius Language: Lithuanian, Polish, Russian Currency: litas Lithuania is the largest of the three Baltic Republics, having declared independence from the USSR on 11 January 1990. According to the terms of the Constitution (approved by referendum in 1992), Lithuania is a Parliamentary Republic. The president is elected every five years (universal suffrage). The unicameral Parliament (Seimas) is elected every 4 years. The electoral system is mixed. Half of the 141 members are elected by single-member constituencies and the other half by proportional system. Since July 2001, Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas has headed a centre-left coalition supported by the Social Democratic Party (the winners of the election) and the New Union Party (social liberals). LITHUANIA:  LITHUANIA Area:65,300 km2 Population: 3,475,586 inhabitants Capital: Vilnius Language: Lithuanian, Polish, Russian Currency: litas Foreign Policy EU membership negotiations were concluded in December 2002 in Copenhagen, and Lithuania is to become a member of the EU on 1 May 2004. The NATO Summit in Prague of November 2002 invited Latvia and six other countries to join the alliance. Lithuania is to officially become a member of NATO in May 2004. Other priorities for the government are developing cooperation with other Baltic countries and - on a bilateral basis - entering into a strategic partnership with Poland. It also wishes to improve relations with the Russian Federation. Economy Despite the drawbacks of its binding commercial ties with Russia and the economic crisis of 1998, Lithuania's GDP growth rate in 2002 increased more rapidly (5.9%) than in the other Baltic countries. However, the unemployment rate remains high (13% in 2002). The services sector accounts for 61% of the GDP; 31% of the national income is produced by industrial production of television equipment, optical products, refrigerators and furniture, as well as the shipbuilding, oil refining and food industries; farming accounts for 7%. According to European Commission forecasts, Lithuania's GDP should rise by 4.5% in 2003. MALTA:  MALTA Area:316 km2 Population: 394,641 inhabitants Capital: Valletta Language: Maltese, English Currency: Maltese lira Malta - whose territory includes the island of Malta, the islands of Gozo and Comino, and other minor islands - is a Parliamentary Republic, with a unicameral Parliament. It was a British colony from 1800 until its independence on 21 September 1964. The Republic was proclaimed on 13 December 1974. The Chamber of Representatives is made up of 65 members elected every five years. This single member constituency system permits a plurality premium. The last general election was called by the government after the referendum result favouring EU membership, and took place on 12 April 2003. The Nationalist Party held on to the government with 51.8% of the votes, while the Labour Party took 47.5%. MALTA:  MALTA Area:316 km2 Population: 394,641 inhabitants Capital: Valletta Language: Maltese, English Currency: Maltese lira Foreign Policy Malta is a member of various international organizations and institutions including the United Nations, OSCE, the Commonwealth and the Council of Europe. It is now making preparations to join the European Union on 1 May 2004. Negotiations for EU membership, which had begun in 1990, were interrupted by the Labour government, which insisted on strict neutrality for this island country. The nationalists took up negotiations once more in 1998 and campaigned for membership up to the referendum approval of EU membership.  Economy Malta's main resources are its favorable geographic position and an efficient labour force. The Republic of Malta produces only 20% of its food needs, has little water and no energy sources of its own. Its economy therefore depends on international trade, tourism and manufacturing;72% of the GDP is generated by the services sector. The industry sector (electronics, food, textiles and tobacco) accounts for 26% of the national income, and farming for 3%. According to European Commission forecasts, Malta's GDP should rise by 3.1% in 2003.  POLAND:  POLAND Area: 312,685 km2 Population: 38,632,453 inhabitants Capital:Warsaw Language: Polish Currency: zloty Poland - the largest and most populous of the states on the way towards EU membership - is a Parliamentary Republic based on the Constitution of 1997. Poland's President is elected every 5 years (universal suffrage; ballot system). The bicameral Parliament is elected every 4 years. The Lower House (Sejm) is made up of 460 members elected by proportional system (5% threshold for parties; 8% for blocks). The Senate (Senat) is made up of 100 elected members (majority voting system). The political ticket made up of the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and Union of Labour (UP) won the general election of 23 September 2001 with 41.04% of the votes. The government is formed with the Peasants Party (PSL) (8.98%). The coalition fell apart in March 2003, as a result of PSL criticism of the conditions for joining the European Union, and Miller then became leader of a minority government. The opposition is made up of groups known as Civic Platform (12.68% of the votes obtained during the last election), Self-Defence (10.02%), Law and Justice (9.5%) and the League of Polish Families (7.87%). Blocked by the 5% threshold was Solidarnosc Electoral Action, the party of former Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek. POLAND:  POLAND Area: 312,685 km2 Population: 38,632,453 inhabitants Capital:Warsaw Language: Polish Currency: zloty Foreign Policy Negotiations with EU began in 1998 and were concluded in December 2002 during the Copenhagen Summit, and on 1 May 2004, Poland will become a member of the Union. Poland has been a member of NATO since March 1999. Regional cooperation is intense with the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary (Visegrad Group) and with the Baltic countries (Council of Baltic Sea States). Warsaw is also keenly interested in improving relations with Russia and the other neighboring countries.  Economy In recent years Poland has been pursuing an intense policy of economic liberalization, which led to considerable GDP growth between 1993 and 2000; this was followed, however, by a downturn in 2001 and 2002. The tertiary sector generates 61% of the national income; the manufacturing sector generates 35% of the GDP (the main divisions are chemical, foods, iron metallurgy and glass processing); but the farming sector (4% GDP) has encountered problems on the road to development due to low investments. According to European Commission forecasts, Poland's GDP should rise by 2.5% in 2003.   SLOVAKIA:  SLOVAKIA Area:49,035 Km² Population: 5,379,455 inhabitants Capital:Bratislava Language:Slovak Currency: Slovak crown Slovakia is a democratic Parliamentary republic, founded on 1 January 1993, following the peaceable dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The unicameral Parliament, known as the National Council, is made up of 150 members elected every four years by universal suffrage. The proportional voting system is accompanied by a threshold ruling requiring parties to obtain more than 5% electoral support in order to be seated. The President of the Slovak Republic is elected every five years by universal suffrage. The country is divided into eight regions and 79 provinces. Since the September 2000 elections, Slovakia has been governed by a centre-right coalition, headed by the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union of Prime Minister, Dzurinda (SDKU, 28 seats) and supported by three other parties.   SLOVAKIA:  SLOVAKIA Area:49,035 Km² Population: 5,379,455 inhabitants Capital:Bratislava Language:Slovak Currency: Slovak crown Foreign Policy The protocols for accession to NATO were signed on 26 March 2003 and the treaty for membership in the European Union was signed in Athens on 16 April 2003. Economy Over the last few years, Slovakia has managed to overcome many of the problems encountered in its efforts to modernize the economy. Most of the privatization schemes have been completed. Banks have attracted the participation of important foreign investors, and foreign investment in general is increasing. Economic growth in Slovakia in 2001-2002 exceeded even the most optimistic forecasts, despite the general slowdown. The economy's weak point, however, is the high unemployment rate (18.5% in 2002). The services sector accounts for 61% of the GDP. 34% of national revenue is derived from the metallurgic, food, chemical, paper, textiles and optics industries, and 5% from agriculture. According to European Commission forecasts, Slovakia's GDP should grow by 3.7% in 2003. SLOVENIA:  SLOVENIA Area: 20,273 Km2 Population: 1,994,026 inhabitants (2001) Capital: Ljubljiana Language: Slovenian (90%) (Italian and Hungarian in some areas) Currency:Thaler Slovenia broke away from Yugoslavia in 1991. It is a Parliamentary Republic, with a Parliament is composed of: the Chamber of Deputies, a legislative body composed of 90 members elected every four years, and the State Council, a consultative body renewed every five years and composed of 40 members representing local councils in addition to professional and socio-economic interests. The President of the Republic is elected every five years. Janez Drnovsek became President as a result of the last presidential elections in December 2002. He had already been leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) and Prime Minister for extended periods from 1992 onwards. Since December 2002 the Government has been led by the former Finance Minister, Anton Rop. The wide coalition supporting his government is the same that backed the previous legislation and remains centred on Drnovsek and Rop's Liberal-Democratic Party (LDS), whose main ally is the Union of Social Democrats (ZLSD); these parties are joined by the Slovenian People's Party (SLS), the Pensioners' Party (DeSUS) and other movements such as the Young People's Party (SMS). SLOVENIA:  SLOVENIA Area: 20,273 Km2 Population: 1,994,026 inhabitants (2001) Capital: Ljubljiana Language: Slovenian (90%) (Italian and Hungarian in some areas) Currency:Thaler Foreign Policy Slovenia has succeeded in becoming a respected member of the Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). In 1998 and 1999 Slovenia was a member of the UN Security Council. In the first half of 2004 Slovenia will become a full member of the EU (1 May) and of NATO. Economy During its process of transition towards a fully-fledged market economy, in recent years Slovenia has seen stable growth in the main macro-economic indicators (even inflation, despite its relatively high levels, is gradually falling). This has allowed the country to become more competitive and thus to prepare itself for accession to the European Union. Some structural reforms still remain to be completed, such as those regarding the process of privatization and the drafting of strategies to attract further foreign investments. Despite a cyclical economic slow-down in 2001-2002, Slovenia has managed to maintain an average annual growth of 3%. The services sector remains the main GDP contributor, accounting for 61% of the total. The metallurgic, electronics, textiles, chemical and wood industries account for 36% of the nation's income, and agriculture for 3%. According to European Commission forecasts the GDP should increase by 3% in 2003 Slide39:  UNEMPLOYMENT Slide40:  GDP (billion euro) Slide41:  Per Capita GDP euros (2001) Slide42:  Growth Rate Slide43:  Inflation Slide44:  Debt/GDP (2001) Slide45:  DEFICIT/GDP

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