ethics final project

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Information about ethics final project

Published on December 24, 2013

Author: victoriyapoplavskaya



ethics, CIS, project, final, fraud

Victoriya Poplavskaya PHI 3270 Professor: Sophia Bishop December 23,2013 December 23,2013 December 23,2013 December 23,2013 December 23,2013

Introduction Living in digital world can cause positive and negative affects on our life. On one hand it is much more convenient to keep in touch with relatives all around the world, and share files with people without meeting them in person. And what about the online shopping? Good things are always good, however there is something called Cyber Crime. So what is Cyber Crimes and what types of cyber crimes do we face everyday.

Cyber Crime “Cyber crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cyber crime also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet.”[1]

Types of Cyber crimes • Hacking • Theft • Cyber Stalking • Identity Theft • Malicious Software • Child soliciting and Abuse

In this presentation I will discuss and try to distinguish two very similar and commonly used terms: • Hacking • Cracking

Hacking “In the computer security context, a hacker is someone who seeks and exploits weaknesses in a computer system or computer network. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, or challenge.The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground and is now a known community.”[2]

Cracking on the other hand is hacking with criminal intent. A cracker is the common term used to describe a malicious hacker.[3] There are two main types of cracking •Password •Software cracking cracking

Password cracking In cryptanalysis and computer security password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach is to repeatedly try guesses for the password.[4]

Software cracking “Software cracking is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, usually related to protection methods: ( copy protection, protection against the manipulation of software), trial/demo version, serial number, hardware key, date checks, CD check or software annoyances like and screens and adware.” [5]

How can Hackers be distinguished from Crackers?

“The word "hacker" gets used in a pejorative sense by journalists an awful lot. Some people think this is perfectly reasonable; others find it offensive, and recommend an alternative term for that meaning.” (Techrepublic) [6] The use of the word in press and in public creates a confusion for people who are less involved in the computer world. Hacking is usually done by a person who knows the computer systems and is incredibly curious to learn more about the product. Hackers do it for satisfaction and inspiration. Usually hacking can be good , or bad. Where on the other hand Crackers can harm not only the machine that is affected but also the personal information that is stored on the machine. As a result of that many people can be affected because of the stolen data bases and damaged computers.

Hacking: Positive side • Hacking can be used to prevent a loss of information by companies and individuals before the actually attacked. So called cyber security ( group of hackers) will try to attack you system to find the weakness. • Hackers do not actually damage or ruin the system or machine it self.

Is hacking ethical? • If we will look at hacking from a Utilitarian [7] point of view, hacking does maximizes our happiness by protecting the systems from Cracking. • Moreover, It stimulates the computer Geeks to create new products and systems that are different from each other, which is an overall happiness again, because progress is always good. • Hacking can be also compared to burglary. It is trespassing to the personal space of other person. However, there is no way to clarify the amounts of personal space online.

In 2002 on Twenty First Century Conference, a senior security analyst for Microsoft, Steven Lipner admitted that hackers help to develop and improve new product. “We work very cooperatively with a lot of them (hackers) and we will work with anybody who reports information to us that we need to know to protect our customers. We do ask them (hackers) when they report to keep those vulnerabilities private until we can fix the problem, assuming there is one”.[8]

What is-an ethical hacker?

Negative side of Hacking : Cracking • This is where the issue of distinguishing the hacking and cracking really occurs. As long as the actions are done for good, and the intent of this action was curiosity and improvement it is hacking. But as soon as it becomes to getting profits, gathering the information, or modifying the system, it becomes Cracking. • The law has no clear separation between those two types of cyber crimes. Which in some perspective makes thing very complicated.

Conclusion • It is very hard to legally or ethically distinguish hacking from cracking. The only way to do so is to find an intent and interest of the hacker. As well as to analyze the results of the action. The law should be separated for hacking and cracking.

Works Cited: [1] “Cyber Crime." Webopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. < > [2] "Hacker (computer Security)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Dec. 2013. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. < >. [3] "What Is the Difference between Hacking and Cracking?" WikiAnswers. Answers, n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. < >. [4] "Password Cracking." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Dec. 2013. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. <>.

[5] "Software Cracking." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Dec. 2013. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. < >. [6] "Hacker vs. Cracker." TechRepublic. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. < >. [7] "Utilitarianism." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Dec. 2013. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. < >. [8] PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. <>

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