Published on January 30, 2014
1 Tutun Juhana Telecommunication Engineering School of Electrical Engineering & Informatics Institut Teknologi Bandung Introduction Computer Networks
Reference • TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Fourth Edition, Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill
The Menu • Theories • Hands-on
A Brief History • A network is a group of connected, communicating devices such as computers and printers • An internet is two or more networks that can communicate with each other • The most notable internet is called the Internet
PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS
Protocol • A protocol is a set of rules that governs communication http://www.teracomtraining.com/online-coursescertification/samples/lesson1104-protocols-andstandards.htm
• For communication to occur among entities, they must agree on a protocol We agree to talk in English…
• In computer networks, communication occurs between entities in different systems
• The key elements of a protocol – Syntax – Semantics – Timing A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated
Syntax • Syntax refers to the structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which they are presented
Semantics • Semantics refers to the meaning of each section of bits
Timing • Timing refers to two characteristics – When data should be sent – How fast it can be sent
Standards • Standards are essential in – creating and maintaining an open and competitive market for equipment manufacturers – guaranteeing national and international interoperability of data and telecommunications technology and processes • Standards provide guidelines to manufacturers, vendors, government agencies, and other service providers to ensure the kind of interconnectivity necessary in today’s marketplace and in international communications
• De facto standard ( “by fact” or “by convention”) – Standards that have not been approved by an organized body but have been adopted as standards through widespread use are de facto standards – Examples of de facto standards are MS Office and various DVD standards
• De jure standards ( “by law” or “by regulation”) – Standards that have been legislated by an officially recognized body
STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS Standards Creation Committees
Forum To accommodate the need for working models and agreements and to facilitate the standardization process, many special-interest groups have developed forums made up of representatives from interested corporations
INTERNET STANDARDS • An Internet standard is a thoroughly tested specification that is useful to and adhered to by those who work with the Internet • It is a formalized regulation that must be followed • There is a strict procedure by which a specification attains Internet standard status
• A specification begins as an Internet draft • Upon recommendation from the Internet authorities, a draft may be published as a Request for Comment (RFC) • Each RFC is edited, assigned a number, and made available to all interested parties • RFCs can be found at http://www.rfc-editor.org
Maturity Levels of RFC
RFC Requirement Levels
INTERNET ADMINISTRATION ietf.org
• Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) – IANA, supported by the U.S. government, was responsible for the management of Internet domain names and addresses until October 1998 – ICANN, a private nonprofit corporation managed by an international board, assumed IANA operations • Network Information Center (NIC) – Responsible for collecting and distributing information about TCP/IP protocols
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