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SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Workshop “Quantifier Modification” at ESSLLI 2007 August 13th-17th 2007, Dublin MODIFIER QUANTIFICATION Determiner Quantifiers (Barwise and Cooper 1981): ex.: a, the, all, both, each, no, most, three, …. type: <<e,t>,<<e,t>,t>> Modifier Quantifiers: ex.: FQs, numerals, binominal each, adverbs of quantification, conditionals, indeterminates type: <<e,t>,<e,t>> ; <<s,t>,<s,t>> Mana Kobuchi-Philip Utrecht University mana.kobuchi@let.uu.nl SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Indeterminate Quantifier Construction with Mo ► dono gakusei - no okaasan - mo odotta. which student GEN mother MO danced ‘Every mother of a student danced.’ 2 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Previous Analyses e.g. Nishigauchi 1986,1990, Ohno 1989, Watanabe 1992, von Stechow 1996, Hagstrom 1998 ► [ dono gakusei - no okaasan ] - mo odotta. which student GEN mother MO danced ‘Every mother of a student danced.’ Embedded Restrictor View of Mo: x [ student(x)  dance ( y [ mother(x)(y) ] ) ] 3 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE New Analysis Shimoyama 2001 (UMass diss), 2006 (NLS) ► [[ dono gakusei - no okaasan ]NP - mo] odotta. which student GEN mother MO danced ‘Every mother of a student danced.’ Hamblin (1973) Direct Restrictor View of Mo: x [ x  { y[ mother(z)(y) ]: student(z) }  dance (x) ] 4 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Cross-Categoriality ► shootaijoo - ga [[ doko - kara ]PP - mo] kita. invitation card NOM where from MO arrived ‘An invitation card arrived from everywhere.’ ► Taro-wa [[ dare - ga denwashi-te ]IP - mo] deru. Taro TOP who NOM call TE MO answer ‘No matter who calls, Taro answers.’ 5 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Semantics of Mo and Mo-Phrase Mo: <<τ,t>,<τ,t>,t>> PQx[P(x)Q(x)], where xDτ , and P, Q  D<τ,t> . ex. <<e,t>,<<e,t>,t>> (determiner) Mo-Phrase: <<τ,t>,t> Qx[P(x)Q(x)] ex. <<e,t>,t> (Generalized Quantifier) 6 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE So.... ► [[ dono gakusei - no okaasan ]NP - mo]GQ [odotta]VP. which student GEN mother MO danced <e,t> + <<e,t>,<<e,t>,t>>  <<e,t>,t> + <e,t>  t  7 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Problem 1 ► [[ dono hito ]NP - mo] odotta. which person MO danced ________________ _____ <<e,t>,t> + <e,t>  t ‘Every person danced.’ 8 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE ► [gakusei – no okaasan] - ga [[ dono hito ]NP - mo] odotta. student GEN mother NOM which person MO danced ___________________ ________________ _____ <<e,t>,t> <<e,t>,t> + <e,t>  t ‘The mothers of students all danced.’ 9 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Problem 2 ► [ dare - mo ] - ga odotta. who MO NOM danced _________ _____ <<e,t>,t> <e,t> ‘Everyone danced.’ 10 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE ► [ [ gakusei – no okaasan ] [ dare - mo ] ] - ga odotta. student GEN mother who MO NOM danced ___________________ _________ _____ <e,t> + <<e,t>,t> <e,t>  t ‘Everybody who is the mother of a student danced.’ 11 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Problem 3 ► [ [ dono gakusei – no okaasan ] - mo ] odotta. which student GEN mother MO danced ► [ [ dono gakusei – no okaasan ] - mo ] - ga odotta. which student GEN mother MO NOM danced ______________________________ _____ <<e,t>,t> <e,t> ‘Every mother of a student danced.’ 12 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE ► [ [ XP ] – mo ] V. ► [ [ XP ] – mo ] - ga V. ________________ ____ <<e,t>,t> <e,t> 13 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE ► [ [ doitsu ] – mo ] hashire ! which-guy MO run ‘All run!’ ► ?? [ [ doitsu ] – mo ] - ga hashire ! which-guy MO NOM run ‘All run!’ imperative sentence…no subject 14 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE ► [ [ [ dare ] - mo ] odora-nai ] - to komaru. who MO dance NEG then troubled ‘If there is no one who dances, I’m in trouble.’ No dancing mother  trouble Neg > MoP 15 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE ► [ [ [ dare ] - mo ] - ga odora-nai ] -to komaru. who MO NOM dance NEG then troubled ‘If every one is such that he does not dance, I’m in trouble.’ One non-dancing mother  trouble MoP-ga > Neg  MoP-ga > Neg > MoP 16 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE An Alternative Analysis: Semantics of Mo and Mo-Phrase Mo: <<e,t>,<<e,t>,<e,t>>> RPx [ x  (RP) ], where xDe , and P, Q  D<e,t> . Mo-Phrase: <<e,t>,<e,t>> = Modifier Px [ x  (RP) ] 17 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Comparison to Adverbs ► [gakusei – no okaasan] - ga [[ dono hito ]NP - mo] odotta. student GEN mother NOM which person MO danced ► [gakusei – no okaasan] - ga [tashikani] odotta. student GEN mother NOM certainly danced Adverb 18 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE VP-Cleft Data ►  [gakusei – no okaasan] - ga shita-no-wa student GEN mother NOM did that TOP [[ dono hito ]NP - mo] odorukoto-datta. which person MO dancing COPULAPAST ’What the mothers of students did was to all dance.’ ►  [gakusei – no okaasan] - ga shita-no-wa student GEN mother NOM did that TOP [ tashikani ] odorukoto-datta. certainly dancing COPULAPAST ‘What the mothers of students did was to certainly dance.’ 19 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Composition ► [gakusei – no okaasan] - ga [[ dono hito ]NP - mo] odotta. student GEN mother NOM which person MO danced ___________________ ________________ _____ <<e,t>,t> <<e,t>,<e,t>> + <e,t>  <e,t> 20 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Null Determiner Hypothesis (Kobuchi-Philip 2003,2006) ► [ gakusei ]NP - ga odotta. student NOM danced Indefinite reading A student danced. / Some students danced. Definite reading The student danced. / The students danced. [ (Det) NP ] VP (Det = a or the) <<e,t>,<<e,t>,t> + <e,t>  <<e,t>,t> 21 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Composition ► [  [ [ gakusei – no okaasan ] [ dare - mo ] ] ] - ga odotta. the student GEN mother who MO NOM danced __________________ _________ <e,t> + <<e,t>,<e,t>>  <<e,t>,<<e,t>,t>> + <e,t>  <<e,t>,t> 22 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Architecture ?? MoP-ga V ! vs. MoP V ! ( MoP-ga ) MoP V ! 23 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE  MoP-ga > Neg > MoP MoP-ga Neg MoP VP 24 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Data 1. [ gakusei – no okaasan ] - ga [ [ dono hito ]NP – mo ] odotta. student GEN mother NOM which person MO danced ‘The mother of a students all danced.’ DP-ga Mo-P VP 2. dono gakusei - no okaasan - mo odotta. which student GEN mother MO danced ‘Every mother of a student danced.’  Mo-P VP 25 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE 3. [ [ gakusei – no okaasan ] [ dare - mo ] ] - ga odotta. student GEN mother who MO NOM danced ‘Everyone who is the mother of a student danced.’ [ NP MoP ] –ga VP 4. [ [ dono gakusei – no okaasan ] - mo ] - ga odotta. which student GEN mother MO NOM danced ‘Every mother of a student danced.’ [  MoP ] –ga VP 26 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Summary DP-ga [ Mo-P VP ]  [ Mo-P VP ] [ NP MoP ] –ga VP [  MoP ] –ga VP 27 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Formal Analysis 1. [ gakusei – no okaasan ] - ga [ [ dono hito ]NP – mo ] odotta. student GEN mother NOM which person MO danced [ gakusei-no okaasan ] [ dono hito - mo odotta] [ Det ] [ gakusei-no okaasan ] [ dono hito-mo ] [ odotta ] [ dono hito ] [ mo ] 28 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Kratzer 1989, Chierchia 1998, Landman 2005, Kobuchi-Philip 2006 dono hito ‘which person’: x [ PERSONAT (x) ] mo: RPx [ x  (RP)|x|≥2 ] odotta ‘danced’: x [ DANCED (x) ] gakusei-no okaasan : x [ MOTHER (x) ] ‘student’s mother’ the: XY [ Y(X) ]   MOTHER   ( PERSONAT  DANCED ) |  MOTHER |≥2 29 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE 2. dono gakusei - no okaasan - mo odotta. which student GEN mother MO danced [ DP ] [ dono gakusei-no okaasan-mo odotta ] [  Det ] [ NP ] [ dono gakusei-no okaasan –mo] [odotta] [ dono gakusei-no okaasan ] [ mo ] 30 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE ► dono gakusei - no peepaa-mo A datta. which student GEN paper MO A was  gakusei-no peepaa-ga dore -mo A datta. student GEN paper NOM which MO A was ‘All the papers by a student got an A. 31 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE dono gakusei-no okaasan ‘which student’s mother’: x [ MOTHERAT (x) ] mo: RPx [ x  (RP) |x|≥2 ] odotta ‘danced’: x [ DANCED (x) ] gakusei-no okaasan x [ MOTHER (x) ] ‘student’s mother’: the: XY [ Y(X) ]   MOTHER   ( MOTHERAT  DANCED ) |  MOTHER |≥2 32 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE 3. [ [ gakusei – no okaasan ] [ dare - mo ] ] - ga odotta. student GEN mother who MO NOM danced gakusei-no okaasan dare-mo odotta Det [ gakusei-no okaasan dare-mo ] [ gakusei-no okaasan ] [ dare-mo ] [ dare ] [ mo ] 33 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE gakusei-no okaasan ‘student’s mother’: x [ MOTHER (x) ] dare ‘who’: x [ PERSONAT (x) ] mo: RPx [ x  (RP) |x|≥2 ] odotta ‘danced’: x [ DANCED (x) ] the: XY [ Y(X) ] DANCED (  x [ x   ( PERSONAT  MOTHER ) | x |≥2 ] 34 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE 4. [ [ dono gakusei – no okaasan ] - mo ] - ga odotta. which student GEN mother MO NOM danced [ dono gakusei-no okaasan-mo ] [ odotta ] [ Det ] [ dono gakusei-no okaasan-mo ] [ NP ] [dono gakusei-no okaasan - mo] [ dono gakusei-no okaasan ] [ mo ] 35 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE dono gakusei-no okaasan ‘which student’s mother’: x [ MOTHERAT (x) ] mo: RPx [ x  (RP)|x|≥2 ] odotta ‘danced’: x [ DANCED (x) ] gakusei-no okaasan ‘student’s mother’: x [ MOTHER (x) ] the: XY [ Y(X) ] DANCED (  x [ x   ( MOTHERAT  MOTHER ) | x |≥2 ] 36 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Remaining Puzzles PP ► shootaijoo - ga [[ doko - kara ]PP - mo] kita. invitation card NOM where from MO arrived ‘An invitation card arrived from everywhere.’ “from everywhere” : PP = <<e,t>,<e,t>> 37 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE IP ► Taro-wa [[ dare - ga denwashi-te ]IP - mo] deru. Taro TOP who NOM call TE MO answer ‘No matter who calls, Taro answers.’ = “In every situation someone calls, Taro answers.” <<s,t>,<s,t>>  modifier w.r.t. proposition 38 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Indeterminate Quantifier Phrase with Ka ► [ dare - ka ] kita. who KA arrived ‘Someone arrived.’ ► [ gakusei ] - ga dare - ka kita. student NOM who KA arrived ‘Some student arrived.’ ► [ dare - ka ] - ga kita. who KA NOM arrived ‘Someone arrived.’ ► [ [ dare - ka ] [ yuumeina hito ] ] - ga kita. who KA famous person NOM arrived ‘Someone famous arrived.’ 39 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Other modifier quantifiers: FQs, numerals, binominal each, adverbs of quantification, conditionals, indeterminates The students all / both / each left. gakusei-ga zen-in kaetta. gakusei-ga san-nin kaetta. Three students left. The boys bought two books each. If John appears, (always) Mary quietly leaves. John always / sometimes feed the chickens. 40 SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE :  SuB11, Sep 21st-23rd 2006, Barcelona SEMANTICS OF THE CARDINAL PARTITIVE Quantifier modification Very many people attended the rally. More or less fifty books have been donated today. John knew just a few people at the party. Not/almost/nearly all the students had read the article. 41

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