Published on February 19, 2014
Teaching with Maps
American Presidents Activity
Group 1: 1789-1861 Home states of Presidents 1789-1861
Group 2: 1861-1929 Home states of Presidents 1861-1929
1789-1929 Home states of Presidents 1789-1861 Home states of Presidents 1861-1929
Group 3: 1929-2009 Home states of Presidents 1861-1929
1789-2009 Home states of Presidents 1789-1861 Home states of Presidents 1861-1929 Home states of Presidents 1929-2009
American Presidents Activity • This is an example of linking history and geography ! • It also has students engaged in thinking about spatial patterns – working on vocabulary related to describing pattern • The activity also uses dual coding [both text and graphics]
Pattern • The arrangement of objects • Are they random or regularly spaced? • Are there clusters, strings, rings, waves, other non-random arrangements of features? • Pattern enables the brain to recognize that some kind of external force or process may be influencing the locations of things.
Teaching with Maps & Graphs ! Kansas Geographic Alliance ! ! John Harrington Jr. [Geography] firstname.lastname@example.org Lisa Tabor [Curriculum & Instruction] email@example.com
Kansas Geographic Alliance • Our mission is to promote and support geographic literacy and education throughout Kansas • http://www.k-state.edu/kga/index.html • Coordinator = John Harrington, Jr., Kansas State University • Co-Coordinator = Paul Phillips, Fort Hays State University • Graduate Assistant = Lisa Tabor
Kansas Geographic Alliance (KGA) • Established in coordination with the National Geographic Society’s Education Foundation in 1991 • The State of Kansas has provided one-time funding (in the late 1990s) to help endow the activities of the KGA • We have a 50% endowment: $250,000 from the state, which was matched by NGS – there is “financial” room to improve
Images help students ‘see’ the connections Jan 13, 2013
Ways to improve intellectually A picture is worth 1,000 words • • • • Literacy Articulacy Numeracy Graphicacy – Maps & charts
Olden days Horse and buggy ! Model T Now Fuel efficient hybrid
This is your brain This is your brain in Kansas
Dual (or Multi) Coding • A general theory of cognition • Verbal + non-‐verbal – non-‐verbal can be any of the five senses, not specifically visual • Results of dual coding indicate that learning and retention of knowledge improves for both subjects
Teaching with Maps a way to incorporate dual-‐coding • Use of words and pictures instead of just words alone • Present pictures and corresponding narration close together in space and time • Minimize extra details at the beginning (Paivio 2006) • Lots of history and geography examples http://faculty.nwacc.edu/abrown/WesternCiv/ Articles.html http://storiesofusa.com/american-expansion-marbury-madison-thomasjefferson-louisiana-purAchase-lewis-clark-journey-war-1812-missouricompromise-monroe-doctrine-indian-removal-act-battle-alamo-mexicanamerican-war-1803-1853/ http://geology.com/world/the-united-statesof-america-physical-map.shtml
Teaching Subjects Together • Majority of social studies time spent on history ! • Coupling geography with history (lots of references) ! • The students learn their history better + geographers are happy, the student’s spatial awareness increases as well ! • Dual-encoding enables the teaching of integrated subjects
Teaching with Maps • Good way to use dual-encoding and teach two (or more) subjects together • Map (or graphics or figures) provide greater context for student comprehension while teaching them a skill ! • Use either GIS or good ol’ paper maps!
Story Maps www.esri.com/storymaps
Teaching Social Studies Using Story Maps – Civics/government – election year primary calendar (http:// storymaps.esri.com/primarycalendar/) – Economics – top 10 most damaging US hurricanes of all time (http://storymaps.esri.com/stories/2012/top-ten-hurricanes/) – History – presidential assassinations (http://www.arcgis.com/apps/ MapTour/index.html? appid=ab0a96fab64f42f2bdce5d4856f1cb86&webmap=70af364dd9 2749d8ba3e090d6f982609#) – Current events - the venues at Sochi (http://story.maps.arcgis.com/ apps/MapTour/?appid=e88045ee56ae42d090470d3ca8287543)
National Geographic MapMaker http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/mapping/?ar_a=1
Aura • The "zone of influence around an object" (Gersmehl and Gersmehl 2007, 184) or “sphere of influence” • How does a place affect its neighbors? • What effect(s) does a feature have on nearby areas? • This is why it is important to consider neighbors in deciding where to put things
Aura Activity Geographic AURA of a new missile based in North Korea (Gersmehl and Gersmehl 2005) • North Korea is already one of the world’s major producers of guided missiles. According to intelligence that is occasionally reported in the newspaper, the country is about to develop a nuclear warhead that can travel up to 500 miles on a missile. If they put an atomic bomb on their missile, what places might be vulnerable to attack?
Aura Activity • Find North Korea on the map – Zoom in if needed ! • Using the drawing tool, locate and mark the following cities: – Beijing, Hiroshima, Hong Kong, Osaka, Seoul, Shanghai, Shenyang, Taipei, Tokyo, Hanoi & Vladivostok
Aura Activity • Using the measure tool, measure 500 miles in each cardinal direction from Pyongyang ! • Using the drawing tool, draw a circle around the measurement points ! • If they put an atomic bomb on their missile, what places might be vulnerable to attack?
Reactions to Aura Activity • How else could you use the National Geographic Map Maker?
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) any information system capable of: ! integrating, storing, editing, sharing, analyzing, and displaying ! geographically referenced information John Snow's 1855 map of the Soho cholera outbreak showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854
Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a Support System in the K-12 Curriculum • GIS is an established technology with growing relevance and applicability in the contemporary K-12 classroom ! • National Research Council (2006)
GIS in the World Around Us • • • • • • Mapping Planning and zoning Disaster relief Route planning Crime analysis Health
Learning how to use a GIS online • Introduction and demonstration of ArcGIS Online • Start using a GIS to make your own web maps ! • http://geospatialrevolution.psu.edu/trailer.php
Esri ArcGIS Statewide K-12 Site License for Kansas • To support education efforts around this revolution, ESRI, the world’s Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software leader, and the Kansas Department of Education have partnered to provide every public, private and charter K-12 school throughout the state free access to ESRI’s state-of-the-art GIS software, ArcGIS, and training
ArcGIS Online What Is It? • Online mapping program • • • • How can it benefit education? • Supports GIS as a way to prepare the next generation Create interactive web maps of spatial thinkers using provided data or your ! own data • Web-based GIS now offers Share maps on the internet spatial analysis and interactive mapping Access content shared by ! other users • Benefits to online mapping for There are hundreds of maps education: publication, ready for you to use sharing, storage, privacy, analysis tools, collaboration, and ease of access
The ArcGIS Online Home Page www.arcgis.com/home
Gallery of publicly available web maps How to navigate to a blank web map Sign in to create an account and save your maps Search box for web maps Currently featured maps
If you typed in the search box, looking for a map…
…this is what the search box results page looks like… Click on the title to open the map of your choice
…this is the map information page… General map information How to open the map A list of the data the map contains
…more specifically how to open a map… There are three different programs that can be used to open this map, select “Open in ArcGIS.com map viewer” to use ArcGIS Online
…now that you map is open, here is how to navigate the web map…
The details side window can displays your map information Click basemap to open the basemap menu to select and change the basemap type Displays any bookmarks that are set up within the map Measure between features on the map
…using the details side window… About this map button displays map details Contents button displays the map layers Legend button displays the active map layers legend
Introduction to ArcGIS Online • Esri Education Community 5 x 5 activity ! • Pick three of the activities to complete ! • Complete individually or in pairs
Reactions to 5x5 Activity
Work time – find something useful to you • Working individually or in pairs ! • Identify 1-2 maps, story maps, or ways to use the map maker that you could use in your classroom now ! • Prepare to share with the group: – What map you have made and/or found – How you plan to use it
Share your ideas! • Share with the group: – What map you have found – What resource you used – How you plan to use it (be specific)
Teaching with Maps & Graphs • Gee, my lecture will be better for student learning - if I just add a visual
Geography Is! “The world and everything in it” Alexander Graham Bell
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