ESOH Renewable Energy Enterprise Wide USAF

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Information about ESOH Renewable Energy Enterprise Wide USAF

Published on March 5, 2014

Author: JeffreyRiegle



Sustainable communities are those that use resources that are available for future generations. Our children are learning this fact in grade school. But how does a community go from “I think we have renewable resources?” to “Let’s build a Renewable Energy Plant (REP)!”. This presentation will talk about how the United States Air Force (USAF) is answering that very important question, with the help of the national labs and its consulting partners. The USAF recently began a journey with a consulting firm to determine if one or more of six technologies were feasible (environmentally, financially, and operationally) at twenty-two of its bases, from Alaska to Florida, and everywhere in between.

After the Phase 1, desktop study, Phase 2 Feasibility Studies for Renewable Energy are the real test of whether a technology should be considered for a particular location. The presentation will give real world examples of the kinds of decisions made, the information that needs to be collected, as well as some excellent lessons learned to help future evaluators of REPs. From Solar, Wind, and Biomass, to Waste to Energy, a wide variety of technologies were evaluated, and stacked up against the almighty dollar to determine if the Government should/could/would develop REPs on its underutilized lands.

This presentation is a must-see for anyone who is considering developing a Renewable Energy Plant in their community, doubly so for any Federal Installation considering Solar, Wind, Biomass, or Waste to Energy Technologies.

Air Force Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessments Multiple Air Force Bases 2011 ESOH Training Symposium Technical Session, 22 March 2011

Overview  AF RE goals  Strategy to identify best projects  Evaluation factors  Technologies assessed  Resource issues  Stakeholder roles for success Covanta 80 MW WTE Plant, Fairfax VA 2

Air Force RE Goals  Meet renewable energy goals stated in Energy Policy Act of 2005, EOs  13423 and 13514, and 10 USC 2911 Projects identified may be funded through:  ECIP  SRM  Power Purchase Agreements  Energy Savings Performance Contracts  Utility Energy Service Contracts  EULs 3

AF RE: Current Situation  AF has $9B energy bill, 17% dedicated to facility operations/utilities  Facilitating development of renewables is one approach to increasing  supply, decreasing cost <1% came from renewable sources in 2009 4

Approaches to Meeting RE Goals  First priority: Develop on-site RE  Second: Purchase RE from off-site power providers  Third: Purchase Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) Tonopah Test Range Grid Access 5

Strategy  Ongoing three-phase process  Phase 2, Opportunity Assessment – Phase 1, Feasibility Study – completed – Phase 3, Business Case Analysis – future  Successful projects must advance  through the complete process Deliverables include:  Preliminary design and cost estimate  Financial analysis  Project profile 300’ GSHP Test Bore, Creech AFB 6

Evaluation Factors: Mission & Safety Constraints  Existing or proposed training/facilities  Clear Zone (CZ), Accident Potential    Zone (APZ) I and APZ II UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings Quantity-Distance (QD) arcs Any other constraints that local stakeholders believe will negatively impact the operational mission 7

Evaluation Factors: Environmental Constraints  Air quality and emissions  Hazardous Materials and     Wastes/ERP Land use (compatible uses, future projects, etc.) Transportation Water resources (including floodplains and wetlands) Socioeconomic/Environmental Justice  Historical, cultural       and archaeological resources Biological resources Topography, soils, and geology Aesthetics Climate Noise Odor 8

Evaluation Factors: Financial Analysis  Projects deemed economically viable under two definitions:  For AF-owned (ECIP-funded) projects, savings-to-investment ratio > 1.0  For developer- or independent power producer-owned, return on investment > 10%  Typical discriminators between AF- and developer-owned cost models:  Developer cost of financing  Developer access to renewable energy credits and tax incentives 9

Technologies Assessed  Waste to Energy (WTE) fueled by Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)  Landfill Gas (LFG)  Biomass-sourced electricity generation  Biomass-sourced thermal generation  Solar  Wind 16 MW WTE Plant, Tulsa 10

Technical Description: Waste to Energy  MSW fed to a boiler creates      steam for a turbine to produce electricity Requires connection to electrical grid, water, waste water, gas Chemicals control air quality Boilers and MSW are enclosed in a building to minimize noise, odor, and visual concerns Requires approximately 10 acres for a 15 MW facility Stoker boiler technology applied in this project Inside Covanta 80 MW WTE Plant, Fairfax VA 11

WTE: Stoker Boiler Technology 12

WTE Plant Schematic 13

Technical Description: Biomass – Thermal and Electricity  Biomass (woody waste) is fed to a boiler:    To produce steam for a thermal user  To operate a steam turbine to produce electricity As with a WTE plant, requires water supply, sewer connection, gas supply, and access to the grid  Fluidized bed  Stoker boiler Can be combined for cogeneration 14

Biomass-sourced Electrical and Thermal Generation 48 MW Wood fired Power Plant – Craven County, NC 540,000 tpy waste wood; two drum boiler/stoker system, 423,000 pph/1,500 psig/955F superheat APC Boiler Wood yard 15

Technical Description: Landfill Gas to Electricity 16

Landfill Gas To Energy – Example Project Profile  Seven Mile Creek Landfill, Eau Claire, Wisconsin  Landfill Size: 4.8 million tons waste-in-place (2009)  Project Size: 4.2 MW 17

Technical Description: Solar Energy  A photovoltaic system consists of these primary components  Solar collector module  Inverter  Transformer 18

Solar Siting Options  Prime decision driver: Find largest areas of available space  Increase MW output, make investment economically worthwhile  Roofs, free-standing panels in underutilized places  Solar assessment focused on Thin-Film PV at McGuire AFB  AF operational needs must be considered  carefully  Reflectance, sun angle New construction of a large footprint facility is a good siting opportunity  Consider during pre-design planning 19

Technical Description: Wind Power  Engineering    Turbine power vs. wind speed  Match resource to turbine curve Siting  Avoid ground-generated turbulence  Distance from occupied structures  Airfield imaginary surfaces  Radar interference  Consider geo-remote lands Multiple unit installation  Lateral distance  Down wind distance 660 kW turbine, Wind Farm, FE Warren AFB 20

Feedstock Issues  Hauling radius of 50-75 miles depending on road conditions, traffic  Can you contract for the resource?   Who owns it?  What is the market price?  Who is the competition?  What is its projected sustainability?  Can you bring it in from out of state? Base average daily demand (MW) is the design driver 21

Sample Competition Assessment 22

Land Issues  Consider roads, separate access/gate/security, haul routes  Compatible land use  Upwind? Visible steam? 23

Local Stakeholder Engagement  Grass roots project development—Security, Fire, flying and training          communities; Legal; Contracting….. Knowledge of local competition Knowledge of regulators Knowledge of local success stories Myth busting Positive publicity Wing Commander enthusiasm Work-arounds Economic impact You need a local champion! 24

POC  AMEC Project Manager/Facilitator  Mary Matthews Hains (  (727) 289-3321 25

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