Published on March 5, 2014
Air Force Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessments Multiple Air Force Bases 2011 ESOH Training Symposium Technical Session, 22 March 2011
Overview AF RE goals Strategy to identify best projects Evaluation factors Technologies assessed Resource issues Stakeholder roles for success Covanta 80 MW WTE Plant, Fairfax VA 2
Air Force RE Goals Meet renewable energy goals stated in Energy Policy Act of 2005, EOs 13423 and 13514, and 10 USC 2911 Projects identified may be funded through: ECIP SRM Power Purchase Agreements Energy Savings Performance Contracts Utility Energy Service Contracts EULs 3
AF RE: Current Situation AF has $9B energy bill, 17% dedicated to facility operations/utilities Facilitating development of renewables is one approach to increasing supply, decreasing cost <1% came from renewable sources in 2009 4
Approaches to Meeting RE Goals First priority: Develop on-site RE Second: Purchase RE from off-site power providers Third: Purchase Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) Tonopah Test Range Grid Access 5
Strategy Ongoing three-phase process Phase 2, Opportunity Assessment – Phase 1, Feasibility Study – completed – Phase 3, Business Case Analysis – future Successful projects must advance through the complete process Deliverables include: Preliminary design and cost estimate Financial analysis Project profile 300’ GSHP Test Bore, Creech AFB 6
Evaluation Factors: Mission & Safety Constraints Existing or proposed training/facilities Clear Zone (CZ), Accident Potential Zone (APZ) I and APZ II UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings Quantity-Distance (QD) arcs Any other constraints that local stakeholders believe will negatively impact the operational mission 7
Evaluation Factors: Environmental Constraints Air quality and emissions Hazardous Materials and Wastes/ERP Land use (compatible uses, future projects, etc.) Transportation Water resources (including floodplains and wetlands) Socioeconomic/Environmental Justice Historical, cultural and archaeological resources Biological resources Topography, soils, and geology Aesthetics Climate Noise Odor 8
Evaluation Factors: Financial Analysis Projects deemed economically viable under two definitions: For AF-owned (ECIP-funded) projects, savings-to-investment ratio > 1.0 For developer- or independent power producer-owned, return on investment > 10% Typical discriminators between AF- and developer-owned cost models: Developer cost of financing Developer access to renewable energy credits and tax incentives 9
Technologies Assessed Waste to Energy (WTE) fueled by Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Gas (LFG) Biomass-sourced electricity generation Biomass-sourced thermal generation Solar Wind 16 MW WTE Plant, Tulsa 10
Technical Description: Waste to Energy MSW fed to a boiler creates steam for a turbine to produce electricity Requires connection to electrical grid, water, waste water, gas Chemicals control air quality Boilers and MSW are enclosed in a building to minimize noise, odor, and visual concerns Requires approximately 10 acres for a 15 MW facility Stoker boiler technology applied in this project Inside Covanta 80 MW WTE Plant, Fairfax VA 11
WTE: Stoker Boiler Technology 12
WTE Plant Schematic 13
Technical Description: Biomass – Thermal and Electricity Biomass (woody waste) is fed to a boiler: To produce steam for a thermal user To operate a steam turbine to produce electricity As with a WTE plant, requires water supply, sewer connection, gas supply, and access to the grid Fluidized bed Stoker boiler Can be combined for cogeneration 14
Biomass-sourced Electrical and Thermal Generation 48 MW Wood fired Power Plant – Craven County, NC 540,000 tpy waste wood; two drum boiler/stoker system, 423,000 pph/1,500 psig/955F superheat APC Boiler Wood yard 15
Technical Description: Landfill Gas to Electricity 16
Landfill Gas To Energy – Example Project Profile Seven Mile Creek Landfill, Eau Claire, Wisconsin Landfill Size: 4.8 million tons waste-in-place (2009) Project Size: 4.2 MW 17
Technical Description: Solar Energy A photovoltaic system consists of these primary components Solar collector module Inverter Transformer 18
Solar Siting Options Prime decision driver: Find largest areas of available space Increase MW output, make investment economically worthwhile Roofs, free-standing panels in underutilized places Solar assessment focused on Thin-Film PV at McGuire AFB AF operational needs must be considered carefully Reflectance, sun angle New construction of a large footprint facility is a good siting opportunity Consider during pre-design planning 19
Technical Description: Wind Power Engineering Turbine power vs. wind speed Match resource to turbine curve Siting Avoid ground-generated turbulence Distance from occupied structures Airfield imaginary surfaces Radar interference Consider geo-remote lands Multiple unit installation Lateral distance Down wind distance 660 kW turbine, Wind Farm, FE Warren AFB 20
Feedstock Issues Hauling radius of 50-75 miles depending on road conditions, traffic Can you contract for the resource? Who owns it? What is the market price? Who is the competition? What is its projected sustainability? Can you bring it in from out of state? Base average daily demand (MW) is the design driver 21
Sample Competition Assessment 22
Land Issues Consider roads, separate access/gate/security, haul routes Compatible land use Upwind? Visible steam? 23
Local Stakeholder Engagement Grass roots project development—Security, Fire, flying and training communities; Legal; Contracting….. Knowledge of local competition Knowledge of regulators Knowledge of local success stories Myth busting Positive publicity Wing Commander enthusiasm Work-arounds Economic impact You need a local champion! 24
POC AMEC Project Manager/Facilitator Mary Matthews Hains (firstname.lastname@example.org) (727) 289-3321 25
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