Published on February 22, 2014
occurs when students know the correct language but incorrectly retrieve it from memory. occurs when students have incorrectly learned or don’t yet know the correct language. English words ‘borrowed’ by other languages are the most common source of mis-learned English.
WAYS OF CORRECTING • Self-correction • Peer correction • Teacher correction
MOST COMMON MISTAKES ? 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
WAYS OF CORRECTING REFORMULATION CLARIFICATION REQUEST ORAL ELICITATION EXPLICIT CORRECTION METALINGUISTIC FEEDBACK ECHOING / REPITITION ELICITATION THROUGH GESTURE / SIGNPOSTING DELAYED
WAYS OF CORRECTING REFORMULATION: Repeat correctly what the S has said, with no specific focus on correction CLARIFICATION REQUEST: Ask S to repeat what they have said ORAL ELICITATION: Repeat the correct part of the utterance and prompt S to reformulate EXPLICIT CORRECTION: Tell S that the utterance was incorrect and provide the correct form METALINGUISTIC FEEDBACK: Give a hint as to why the utterance was incorrect ECHOING / REPITITION: Repeat the error, with questioning intonation, to highlight it ELICITATION THROUGH GESTURE / SIGNPOSTING: Use a simple facial expression or hand movement to show the S is wrong
SIGNPOSTING http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znswuO4g oYg
DELAYED ERROR CORRECTION Put a mistake in context so that it’s more difficult to spot it at once: e.g. I very like my new dress that I bought yesterday. Erase an error to make students think of a suitable option: e.g. Now he is married ____ Jane.
Encourage saying the same things in another way: e.g. l like sports. I am _____ on sports. I am _____ sports. I am _____ of sports. Write a mistake in a phonetic transcript;
Use a voice recorder with every pair or small group of students and at the end ask to exchange the recordings with other groups, let them listen and write out all the mistakes; you might also like to provide learners with a chart or other form of categorization:
Mix up students’ wrong speech patterns with some immaculate sentences and play casino game where students put a particular sum of money on bet and get it doubled when their bid ‘wins’ and lose everything in case it’s wrong; e.g. http://www.mesenglish.com/games/grammarcasino.php
Prepare a set of error-filled and correct sentences and stick them around the classroom the next lesson, assign students to collect only the faultless ones;
Collect mistakes to make kinesthetic correction activity when students have to jump to the right side when the sentence you say is correct and to the left if it’s wrong;
Remember to praise good language
CORRECTION OF WRITTEN WORK
TO SUM UP… Mistake or Error? Accuracy or Fluency?
Teaching Tip 11: Error Correction How: Let the students make mistakes. They need to. We all learn best through making mistakes.
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