Ergonomics

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Information about Ergonomics

Published on January 29, 2008

Author: Beamer

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Making your computer workstation work for you.

ERGONOMICS Making Your Computer Workstation Fit You

Web Based Training was Created for UNI Employees with the Intent to: Expand general awareness of existing environmental, health and safety policies and procedures Provide useful information to assist in evaluating and improving each work environment Assist in determining the need or desire for more advanced training

Expand general awareness of existing environmental, health and safety policies and procedures

Provide useful information to assist in evaluating and improving each work environment

Assist in determining the need or desire for more advanced training

This training is intended to educate employees of the University of Northern Iowa who work at computer workstations the majority of their work day. INTENDED AUDIENCE

This training is intended to educate employees of the University of Northern Iowa who work at computer workstations the majority of their work day.

Table of Contents Click on a link to go directly to that section. What is ergonomics? Why is an ergonomically correct workstation important? What are common injuries and symptoms associated with an ergonomically incorrect computer workstation? How can you prevent injuries? Where can you find items to make your workstation ergonomically correct?

What is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is the study of work and the physical work environment. It involves fitting the workstation to the person who uses it to create an ergonomically correct workstation. Back to Menu

Ergonomics is the study of work and the physical work environment. It involves fitting the workstation to the person who uses it to create an ergonomically correct workstation.

Why is an Ergonomically Correct Workstation Important? An ergonomically correct workstation will help to prevent bodily injuries that occur over time due to poor posture, repetitive motion, poor workstation design, or improper lifting. Back to Menu

COMMON INJURIES AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH ERGONOMICALLY INCORRECT COMPUTER WORKSTATIONS Back to Menu

Common Injuries Occur To: fingers hands wrists elbows upper arm/shoulder back eyes Although some injuries are only short-term, many result in long-term damage, which are known as Cumulative Trauma Disorders.

fingers

hands

wrists

elbows

upper arm/shoulder

back

eyes

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Tendonitis Chronic back pain Eye strain Cumulative Trauma Disorders & Other Common Problems

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Tendonitis

Chronic back pain

Eye strain

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Tendonitis

Back Pain

Eye Strain

Symptoms of Common Problems Localized pain Numbness Tingling sensation Stiffness Swelling Loss of coordination If you experience any of these symptoms over a period of time, please contact your supervisor to fill out a “First Report of Injury” form and see a physician. Although not all aches are Cumulative Trauma Disorders, early intervention is the key for effective treatment. Deep ache in muscles Weakness Focusing problems Headaches Double vision

Localized pain

Numbness

Tingling sensation

Stiffness

Swelling

Loss of coordination

Deep ache in muscles

Weakness

Focusing problems

Headaches

Double vision

PREVENTING ERGONOMIC INJURIES Back to Menu

USE CORRECT POSTURE

Two types of posture cause fatigued muscles and can lead to pain and damage. Awkward posture: an unnatural, uncomfortable position Static posture: sitting in a fixed position for a prolonged time period Your goal is to have a neutral posture that will allow your head, neck and back to be in alignment. You may need to adapt your workstation to allow for proper posture.

Two types of posture cause fatigued muscles and can lead to pain and damage.

Awkward posture: an unnatural, uncomfortable position

Static posture: sitting in a fixed position for a prolonged time period

Your goal is to have a neutral posture that will allow your head, neck and back to be in alignment.

Good posture is easy to identify. Have a co-worker look at your posture while you are seated at your workstation. Correct posture includes: Head positioned comfortably above spine Neck elongated and full Shoulders relaxed and back Chest slightly forward Lower back tucked in Feet rest flat on floor Correct Posture

Good posture is easy to identify. Have a co-worker look at your posture while you are seated at your workstation.

Correct posture includes:

Head positioned comfortably above spine

Neck elongated and full

Shoulders relaxed and back

Chest slightly forward

Lower back tucked in

Feet rest flat on floor

MINIMIZE REPETITIVE MOTION

Tasks that require repetitive motion may not seem risky, but damage can occur over time. Examples: typing, reaching, or twisting Reduce repetitive motion by: Rearranging the workstation so that frequently used items, such as the phone or printer, are close by. Combining tasks to eliminate unnecessary steps, such as extra reaching and twisting. If you cannot change a task to reduce repetition, make sure that you take frequent mini-breaks. Just a quick stretch will allow muscles to relax.

Tasks that require repetitive motion may not seem risky, but damage can occur over time.

Examples: typing, reaching, or twisting

Reduce repetitive motion by:

Rearranging the workstation so that frequently used items, such as the phone or printer, are close by.

Combining tasks to eliminate unnecessary steps, such as extra reaching and twisting.

If you cannot change a task to reduce repetition, make sure that you take frequent mini-breaks. Just a quick stretch will allow muscles to relax.

DESIGN AN APPROPRIATE WORKSTATION

Sitting in a chair is two times harder on your back than standing. Adjust your chair so that you can sit in a neutral posture. Proper chair adjustment will decrease the risk of back pain and muscle fatigue. Chair

Sitting in a chair is two times harder on your back

than standing.

Adjust your chair so that you can sit in a neutral

posture.

Proper chair adjustment will decrease the risk of

back pain and muscle fatigue.

WORKSTATION DESIGN: Adjust Your Chair Now 1. Adjust the chair height to be comfortable relative to the work surface height. Also, try to minimize bending and reaching by setting the chair at an appropriate height. 2. Adjust the backrest so that the chair will support your lower back, which is called the lumbar spine. You may need to use a lumber support pad if your chair does not provide adequate back support. Lumbar Support Pad

3. Adjust the seat pan so that it is tilted slightly backward to make sure you that you sit all the way back in the chair. Do not allow the chair’s edge to place excess pressure behind the knee. 4. Your feet should rest comfortably flat on the floor with your knees bent at a 90 - 110° angle. If your feet cannot reach to rest on the floor, you should use a foot rest. Seat Pan

Proper adjustment of your monitor can help to minimize your chance for neck muscle aches and eye strain. If you wear bifocals or trifocal lenses, check with your doctor to make sure they are appropriate for computer work. Monitor

Proper adjustment of your monitor can help to

minimize your chance for neck muscle aches and

eye strain.

If you wear bifocals or trifocal lenses, check with

your doctor to make sure they are appropriate for

computer work.

1. Position the monitor directly in front of you. 2. Position the top of the monitor either at or just below eye level. 3. Adjust the monitor so that the distance from your eyes to the screen is between 18 - 30 inches. WORKSTATION DESIGN: Adjust Your Monitor Now 18 - 30 "

1. Position the monitor directly in front of you.

2. Position the top of the monitor either at or just below eye level.

3. Adjust the monitor so that the distance from your eyes to the screen is between

18 - 30 inches.

Proper lighting at your workstation is essential. Glare on the monitor is a major cause of eye strain. A glare will look like bright blotches of light on your screen. Sources of glare: Windows Lamps Overhead lights, Extreme screen contrast Light

Proper lighting at your workstation is essential.

Glare on the monitor is a major cause of eye strain. A glare will look like bright blotches of light on your screen.

Sources of glare:

Windows

Lamps

Overhead lights,

Extreme screen contrast

You might need to rearrange your workspace to eliminate glare on your monitor. Consider getting an anti-glare screen cover if the glare irritates your eyes and you cannot eliminate it. Too little light is just as bad as too much light. You may need to add a lamp if the light in your work area is too dim. Light

You might need to rearrange your workspace to eliminate glare on your monitor.

Consider getting an anti-glare screen cover if the glare irritates your eyes and you cannot eliminate it.

Too little light is just as bad as too much light. You may need to add a lamp if the light in your work area is too dim.

Keyboard Injuries can occur from extended periods of typing. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome can affect computer operators. Proper keyboard placement, along with hand and wrist alignment, will help to minimize the chance for an injury to occur. In addition, touching the keys lightly when typing and using two hands for double key operations will help to minimize strain on the hands and wrists.

Injuries can occur from extended periods of typing.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome can affect computer operators.

Proper keyboard placement, along with hand and wrist

alignment, will help to minimize the chance for an injury

to occur.

In addition, touching the keys lightly when typing and

using two hands for double key operations will help to

minimize strain on the hands and wrists.

1. While sitting in your chair, bend your arms at a 90 - 110° angle keeping your elbows tucked in to your sides. 2. Position the keyboard so that it is approximately at the height of your elbows and directly in front of you. WORKSTATION DESIGN: Adjust Your Keyboard Now 90 - 110° Angle & Tucked In

1. While sitting in your chair, bend your arms at a 90 - 110° angle keeping your elbows tucked in to your sides.

2. Position the keyboard so that it is approximately at the height of your elbows and directly in front of you.

3. Place your hands on the home keys. Your hands, wrists, and forearms should be in alignment and parallel to the floor. 4. Adjust your chair height if necessary. If your feet are not flat on the floor after adjusting your chair, obtain a foot rest. Using a padded wrist rest in front of your keyboard will help to keep your hands, wrists, and forearms in alignment while you type. Wrist Rest

As with any repetitive motion, extended use of a mouse can cause injury in your hands and wrists. Position your mouse at the same height as your keyboard and within normal reach. Be sure to keep the trackball clean for efficient use and less strain on your hand and wrist. Take mini-breaks. Stretch your hand and wrist during periods of extended use to relieve tension. Mouse

As with any repetitive motion, extended use of a mouse

can cause injury in your hands and wrists.

Position your mouse at the same height as your

keyboard and within normal reach.

Be sure to keep the trackball clean for efficient use and

less strain on your hand and wrist.

Take mini-breaks. Stretch your hand and wrist during

periods of extended use to relieve tension.

Use a document holder when doing data entry to keep your neck and shoulder muscles from getting fatigued. Documents should be positioned at the same height and adjacent to the screen. Document Holder

Use a document holder when doing data entry to

keep your neck and shoulder muscles from getting

fatigued.

Documents should be positioned at the same height

and adjacent to the screen.

UTILIZE PROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES

Using improper technique to lift heavy objects can cause back pain. Even if you do not lift often, use proper technique when you do lift objects in order to prevent injuries.

Using improper technique to lift heavy objects can cause back pain.

Even if you do not lift often, use proper technique when you do lift objects in order to prevent injuries.

1. Stand close to the object. 2. Stagger your feet and bend at the knees to lower yourself to the level of the object. 3. Grip the object and use your leg muscles to lift. 4. If you need to turn, pivot with your feet. Do not twist. 5. When walking, take small strides. 6. When at your destination, stagger your feet, bend at the knees and slowly lower the object to the desired space. Proper Lifting Technique

1. Stand close to the object.

2. Stagger your feet and bend at the knees to lower yourself to the level of the object.

3. Grip the object and use your leg muscles to lift.

4. If you need to turn, pivot with your feet. Do not twist.

5. When walking, take small strides.

6. When at your destination, stagger your feet, bend at the knees and slowly lower the object to the desired space.

EXERCISE REGULARLY

Exercising regularly to keep your body in shape can help prevent many types of injuries. Regularly stretching and flexibility exercises will help to decrease the risk for the injuries described in this training.

Exercising regularly to keep your body in shape

can help prevent many types of injuries.

Regularly stretching and flexibility exercises will

help to decrease the risk for the injuries

described in this training.

REVIEW: How Can You Prevent Injuries? Use correct posture Minimize repetitive motion Design an appropriate workstation Utilize proper lifting techniques Exercise regularly

Use correct posture

Minimize repetitive motion

Design an appropriate workstation

Utilize proper lifting techniques

Exercise regularly

Where Can You Find Items to Correct Your Workstation? Campus Supply or local office supply stores carry workstation accessories. Items you may want to consider include: Lumbar supporter Foot rest Document holder Remember that all requests must be run through the appropriate department approval process. Anti-glare screen overlay Keyboard wrist rest Back to Menu

Campus Supply or local office supply stores carry workstation accessories.

Items you may want to consider include:

Lumbar supporter

Foot rest

Document holder

Remember that all requests must be run through the appropriate department approval process.

Anti-glare screen overlay

Keyboard wrist rest

For assistance in having a more in-depth ergonomic analysis of your workstation… Have your Supervisor/Department Head contact Ed Sullivan at 944-6396

Have your Supervisor/Department Head contact Ed Sullivan at 944-6396

Remember… Your workstation should be designed to fit you!

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