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Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Candelora


Ergogenic Aids Used By Athletes Presentation By :  Ergogenic Aids Used By Athletes Presentation By CHRISTIANA PHILIPPOU CHARIDEMOU MS., RD. Registered Clinical Dietitian & Sports Nutritionist Copyright Tel +357 22 669773 E-mail: Ergogenic Aids?:  Ergogenic Aids? Is there a magic ingredient? Are ergogenics an essential component for sports success? It is a fact that athletes at all levels explore Ergogenic aids. Research Study :  Research Study A study done in Cyprus (1995) by Philippou, Schizas and Christodoulakis at the Cyprus Sports Research Centre, showed that nutritional supplements were over used and misused and at many times at toxic levels. Thousands of pounds are spent on supplements that are not necessary at most times. Slide4:  There is a huge variety of products on the market including pills, powders, drinks and bars. Such supplements are classified as ergogenic aids, meaning substances which “increase work”. :  Such supplements are classified as ergogenic aids, meaning substances which “increase work”. Antioxidants :  Antioxidants What are they? Substances that quench free radicals. They include enzymes, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Claims :  Claims Help reduce the symptoms and risks associated with high levels of free radicals generated during exercise, (reduce post-exercise soreness) Protects against age-related diseases Slows down the effect of ageing Reported Facts :  Reported Facts Studies using antioxidant supplements with athletes have produced mixed results. In summary, it seems that antioxidant mixtures (a multivitamin), rather than single nutrients, work best and that greater benefits are to be had during high- intensity training. …reported facts continued:  …reported facts continued On the other hand, all the studies on athletes are short term and use fairly small subject numbers. There is a lack of information about the long-term benefits. Although antioxidant supplements won’t give you dramatic gains in strength, speed or mass, the evidence shows that it’s worth taking a multivitamin supplement. How Much for Athletes? :  How Much for Athletes? Not certain, but levels around 15 – 25mg beta-carotene, up to 150 mg vit. C, 50 - 80mg vit. E and 50 – 100 μg selenium advised by leading scientist Professor Diplock and even higher quantities by Professor Williams. Any Side Effects? :  Any Side Effects? No toxic effects from the doses mentioned above of antioxidant vitamins, only doses of selenium over 900 μg can be toxic (nausea, vomiting). Levels above 10x the RDA for fat soluble vitamins can be toxic. Are Antioxidants legal?   :  Are Antioxidants legal?   Yes Protein Supplements :  Protein Supplements What are they? Powders that mix with milk or water to make or ‘”shake,”’ or protein bars. Most popular brands based on whey protein ( a milk protein). Other protein supplements include another type of milk protein called casein or soy protein.   Claims :  Claims Higher biological value (BV) than other food sources, whey protein may stimulate the immune system, high glutamine content spares muscle and prevents immune suppression during heavy training. How much? :  How much? Very easy to obtain proteins from the diet… if not possible for any reason… One or more servings daily (30-60 mg) – just enough to make up any short falls in the diet.   Any Side Effects? :  Any Side Effects? Excessive intake of protein from supplements (at these quantities - 2 to 3 servings) are neither harmful nor beneficial. Higher quantities are dangerous – can cause kidney and other health problems. Expensive. Are Protein Supplements Legal? Yes:  Are Protein Supplements Legal? Yes Creatine Monohydrate :  Creatine Monohydrate Claims Increases energy Increases muscular strength Promotes greater and faster muscle gains beyond natural capabilities Helps burn fat Improves endurance and delays fatigue   What is it? :  What is it? Creatine is a nitrogenous substance synthesized by the liver, pancreas, and kidneys at a rate of approximately 1 g / day from the amino acids glycine, methionine, and arginine.   Food Sources:  Food Sources Reported Facts :  Reported Facts 20 to 25 g / day creatine increases muscle content of creatine by 20% to 30%. Approximately 20% is in the phosphocreatine form. A maximum muscle storage of creatine is reached by ingesting 5 g creatine monohydrate 4 times a day for 5 to 6 days, followed by a maintenance phase of 2 g / day. …Reported Facts Continue:  …Reported Facts Continue Excess creatine that cannot be stored is excreted by the kidneys by diffusion ( a non-energy-dependent process ). Athletes with lower stores of creatine (vegetarians) demonstrate a greater uptake of creatine after supplementation than athletes with higher stores. …Reported Facts Continue:  …Reported Facts Continue Several studies of creatine supplementation have shown significant improvement in short bouts of activities that require high levels of strength and power (knee extensions, bench press, running, and cycling sprints). Creatine supplementation has not been found to enhance endurance activities. …Reported Facts Continue:  …Reported Facts Continue Several creatine supplementation studies found an increase in body mass averaging 0.9 to 1.8 kg. It is controversial whether the weight gain is due to water retention or muscle mass. Its ingestion is a means of providing immediate, significant performance improvements to athletes involved in explosive sports.   Precautions / Safety :  Precautions / Safety There are no reports of dangerous side effects of short-term, high-dose creatine supplementation. However, the safety of long-term use has not been studied. …Precautions /Safety:  …Precautions /Safety Because of the weight gain associated with creatine supplementation, endurance athletes might experience impairment in performance. Weight gain might also interfere with the performance of strength athletes who compete in continuous- type exercise interspersed with high- intensity exercise (e.g., football, basketball, ice hockey, and tennis).   Is Creatine Monohydrate Legal? Yes :  Is Creatine Monohydrate Legal? Yes Ginseng :  Ginseng Claims Enhances energy Improves concentration Increases libido Aids in weight loss Improves heart disease Improves overall health Conflicting study results:  Conflicting study results Every ginseng plant contains several different saponins that exert opposite effects. Differing results may relate to dosage, administration, and type of ginseng used. Slide30:  100grams of ginseng root contain 338 Calories, 12.2 g protein, 70+ g carbohydrate, and several vitamins and minerals Reported Facts :  Reported Facts Animal studies show that ginseng can increase locomotor's activity, improve digestive disorders, augment or alleviate stress, and act as an immunomodulator. However, many animal studies have been criticized for their design. Slide32:  Scientists are reluctant to study ginseng in humans because of a lack of standardized preparations and limited information regarding safe dosages. Siberian ginseng showed no effect on sub maximal and maximal aerobic exercise performance in 20 elite distance runners. Slide33:  Significant improvements in alertness and general well being were observed in subjects who took a vitamin / mineral pill that contained ginseng. Ginseng supplementation also resulted in significantly lower oxygen consumption, plasma lactate levels, ventilation, CO2 production, and heart rates during exercise versus the placebo. A Review Article in Sports Medicine :  A Review Article in Sports Medicine summarized research: “While studies with animals show that ginseng, may prolong survival to physical or chemical stress, this research has not been uniformly sound from a methodological perspective. Furthermore, there is an absence of compelling research evidence demonstrating the ability of ginseng to consistently enhance physical performance in humans.” Precautions / Safety :  Precautions / Safety Ginseng is considered relatively safe, although it is not on FDA’s GRAS (Generally Regarded as Safe) list. ..Continue Precautions and Safety:  ..Continue Precautions and Safety One woman developed cerebral arthritis after ingesting a large quantity of ethanol-extracted ginseng (made from 60 slices of ginseng root stewed with 400 ml rice wine). ..Continue Precautions and Safety:  ..Continue Precautions and Safety Symptoms of Ginseng Abuse Syndrome (GAS) have been identified as hypertension, nervousness, sleeplessness, acne, oedema, and diarrhoea resulting from long-term use of > 3 g ginseng root per day. This controversial syndrome is discredited by some researchers despite frequent citations in the literature. …Continue Precautions and Safety:  …Continue Precautions and Safety Labels often encourage high doses of ginseng despite possible harmful effects. The recommended daily dose from dry ginseng root is 0.5 to 2 g. The toxic dose in humans is unknown. Some ginseng preparations contain other herbal products, such as ephedrine, that are not always reported on the list of ingredients. …Continue :  …Continue A study of 44 commercial ginseng products sold in 11 countries found great variations in the concentrations of saponins, demonstrating the need for quality control of ginseng preparations.  Is Ginseng Legal? Yes :  Is Ginseng Legal? Yes HMB (Beta-hydroxy beta-methyl butyrate)   :  HMB (Beta-hydroxy beta-methyl butyrate)   Claims:  Claims Decreases muscle breakdown after exercise Speeds muscle repair Increase lean muscle mass Decreases body fat What Is It? :  What Is It? HMB is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. It is produced in the body from proteins containing leucine and is found in grapefruit, catfish, and other foods. HMB has been used in animals’ feed after animal studies showed that HMB supplementation increases lean tissue and enhances the immune system. What Are the Benefits? :  What Are the Benefits? Reduces muscle damage Repairs and builds muscle after exercise Increases muscle strength Reduces body fat. Who Could Benefit? :  Who Could Benefit? Strength and power athletes. Athletes wishing to gain lean mass. Possibly serious endurance athletes. Reported Facts :  Reported Facts HMB supplementation in pigs and chickens is associated with increased muscle growth and decreased mortality. …Continue Reported Facts:  …Continue Reported Facts Study results vary regarding HMB’S effect on the immune system. One study found HMB did not increase immune function in baby pigs. …Continue Reported Facts:  …Continue Reported Facts Feeding 3 g HMB to 41 weight-training male athletes increased lean mass and strength and reduced muscle damage. The effects of HMB supplementation on lean muscle in women have not been studied. HMB is relatively new, scientists are not yet to confirm it as a breakthrough in protein supplementation. Slide49:  Is HMB legal? Yes Precautions / Safety :  Precautions / Safety Pregnant and lactating women are advised not to use this product since no studies exist on these populations. Little research has been published on HMB’s safety and efficacy in humans.     Glutamine :  Glutamine What is it? Dispensable amino acid found in the muscle cells. The major fuel of the immune system. Claims:  Claims Helps prevent muscle breakdown. Suppresses exercise-induced immune depression. Who Could It Benefit? :  Who Could It Benefit? Any athlete during periods of intense training or immediately after prolonged intense exercise (e.g.. major competition). Not many studies reported on athletes. Any side effects? :  Any side effects? None proven today.  Is Glutamine Legal? :  Is Glutamine Legal? YES L – Carnitine :  L – Carnitine Claims Increase aerobic power and energy Decreases body fat What Is It? :  What Is It? L-carnitine is a short-chain carboxylic acid containing nitrogen that is synthesized in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Reported Facts :  Reported Facts No Ergogenic benefit was seen with L-carnitine supplementation (4g for 7 days) during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic exercise, despite elevated serum carnitine levels. Slide59:  One study found an increase in lipid oxidation with L-carnitine supplemented intravenously, suggesting that hypercarnitemia slightly favours lipid oxidation over carbohydrate oxidation during recovery from intense exercise, and is associated with a faster recovery of heart rate. However, no effect of L-carnitine on VO2 max or total energy expenditure was observed. …Reported Facts Continue:  …Reported Facts Continue A review article discusses 13 studies on L-carnitine supplementation. Nine studies showed no effect of L-carnitine supplementation on elevating fatty acid levels, increasing VO2 max, or enhancing performance, while four studies did find some Ergogenic benefit. Precautions / Safety :  Precautions / Safety Most studies have reported no adverse effects with doses ranging from 500 to 6 g per day for 1day to 4 weeks. Large doses may cause diarrhoea.   Is L-Carnitine legal? :    Is L-Carnitine legal? YES Ma Huang (or Ephedra or Ephedrine) :  Ma Huang (or Ephedra or Ephedrine) Claims Increases energy Stimulates weight loss Stimulates libido Aids breathing in colds and asthma Improves mental concentration   Ma-huang (chinese plant) What is it?:  Ma-huang (chinese plant) What is it? Ephedrine (derivative) - Powerful CNS stimulant May cause - rapid and irregular Heart Beat - increase BP - arteriole constriction - death Ephedrine/Ma huang found in products with other stimulant ingredients. e.g. caffeine, kola nut.   Reported Facts Ephedrine/Ma Huang:  Reported Facts Ephedrine/Ma Huang Banned by the Olympic Committee FDA has complied a list of over 400 adverse effects. - heart attack - stroke - insomnia - reported deaths - ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke - with caffeine enhance wt loss in obese subjects – complain - agitation and nervousness Precautions / Safety :  Precautions / Safety Individuals with diabetes, hypertension, thyroid diseases, and cardiovascular disease should avoid this substance. FDA has reported several deaths in people who took two to five times the amount suggested. …continued:  …continued To avoid toxic levels of this substance, do not take with cold / allergy medications containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, caffeine sources (coffee, green tea, aspirin), products containing kola nut (a CNS stimulant), or prescription medications that contain ephedrine. Is Ma Huang legal? :  Is Ma Huang legal? NO Chromium (Chromium Picolinate) :  Chromium (Chromium Picolinate) Claims Increases muscle mass Decreases Body fat Serves as an alternative to steroids Increases insulin sensitivity What is it?:  What is it? Chromium - essential trace mineral - Estimates Safe and Adequate daily Dietary Intake (ESDDDI) is 50 mcg to 200 mcg. Deficiency - can lead to glucose intolerance since chromium is a potentiator for insulin action. Dietary sources of chromium :  Dietary sources of chromium (about 50 mcg per serving) Asparagus Mushrooms Prunes Brewer’s yeast Beer.   Food sources of Chromium:  Food sources of Chromium Reported Facts :  Reported Facts Chromium failed to produce beneficial effects on body composition change in men participating in weight-lifting training. Chromium supplementation used in conjunction with an aerobic program had no effect on reduction of body fat. Urinary excretion of chromium increased in subjects participating in exercise programs. Chromium picolinate was shown to increase body weight in beginning female weight lifters and had no effect on male weight lifters. Precautions / Safety :  Precautions / Safety Some studies have reported the picolinic acid in chromium picolinate may cause poor iron status and may alter the parotid gland and negatively affect normal cell shape and function. Is Chromium legal? Yes:  Is Chromium legal? Yes Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone) :  Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone) Claims Slows the ageing process Increases energy Strengthens the heart Improves immune function Promotes weight loss Provides beneficial effects to cancer patients   What is it?   :  What is it?   Coenzyme Q10 (coQ10) is part of the respiratory chain. It acts as an essential electron and proton carrier that supports adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in the mitochondria. CoQ10 also plays a role as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Reported Facts :  Reported Facts An animal study found lifelong supplementation of CoQ10 did not increase lifespan compared with the control group. CoQ10 has antioxidant properties. No study reported on athletes. Caution / Safety :  Caution / Safety Of 2.500 subjects supplemented with 100 mg of CoQ10, 8 reported adverse reactions. Epigastric distress was the only adverse effect noted in the report.  …continue :  …continue In one study, alpha-tocopherol supplemented with CoQ10 prevented the pro oxidant activity of vitamin E and enhanced the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation. Is CoQ10 legal? YES:  Is CoQ10 legal? YES Taurine   :  Taurine   What is Taurine? It is a lesser known amino acid, is not part of our muscle protein yet is important in metabolism, especially in the brain.   …continue:  …continue It is possible that if not enough taurine is made in the body, especially if cysteine or B6 is deficient, it might be further required in the diet. In foods, it is high in meats and fish proteins. Taurine Content of Selected Foods (mg/kg, wet weight):  Taurine Content of Selected Foods (mg/kg, wet weight) Taurine Is Found in the Central Nervous System, Skeletal Muscle, and Heart; It Is Very Concentrated in the Brain and High in the Heart Tissues.:  Taurine Is Found in the Central Nervous System, Skeletal Muscle, and Heart; It Is Very Concentrated in the Brain and High in the Heart Tissues. Functions of Taurine:  Functions of Taurine At the brain and heart to help stabilize cell membranes. Antioxidant and detoxifying activity Gallbladder, eyes, and blood vessels Aids the movement of K, Na, Ca, Mg in and out of the cells and thus helps generate nerve impulses. Treatment :  Treatment Arrhythmias, especially arrhythmias secondary to ischemia. Hypertension. Possibly related to effects in the renin-angiotensin system of the kidneys, and in patients with high cholesterol levels. Slide88:  No research reported on athletes Is Taurine legal? Yes:  Is Taurine legal? Yes Caffeine :  Caffeine What is it? A stimulant.   Claims :  Claims Increases alertness, concentration and endurance Who Could It Benefit? :  Who Could It Benefit? Athletes involved in both high-intensity short-term activities and endurance activities may benefit.   Side Effects :    Side Effects Varies but may induce or increase anxiety and sleeplessness. Diuretic action may cause dehydration without extra fluids consumed Is Caffeine Legal?:  Is Caffeine Legal? IOC classes caffeine as a stimulant. Permitted in doses that produce a level less than 12 mcg/ml in the urine. The amount needed to reach this legal limit varies from one person to another. On average it is equivalent to 8 cups of coffee or 16 cans of cola. The Most Effective Way :  The Most Effective Way To develop athletes natural sports ability and achieve their fitness goals is through efficient training combined with optimal nutrition. Eating for Peak Performance :  Eating for Peak Performance Popping a pill seems easier than planning a menu. In reality, there is no pill, potion, or powder that can enhance your performance like the right foods and fluids. The Energy Diet :  The Energy Diet Getting adequate calories is one of the keys to an Ergogenic, or performance-enhancing, diet. The Ergogenic Diet :  The Ergogenic Diet Ergogenic diet:  Ergogenic diet Carbohydrates 60-70% - Glycemic Index Fats – about 20-25 % Proteins – 1-2g/kg of body wt. Vitamins and Minerals Hydro Power – 1ml H20/1 Kcal/day The Ergogenic Future:  The Ergogenic Future Capsaicin, the active ingredient in hot red chilli peppers. One study showed that runners who ate a breakfast laced with 10 grams (about 1/3 of an ounce) of dried hot red pepper powder burned carbohydrates faster, both at rest and during exercise. . …Continue Ergogenic Future:  Raise the question whether designer Ergogenic foods may be in our future. Until then you will find the staples of your Ergogenic diet in the food aisles of your local supermarket.   …Continue Ergogenic Future

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