ERCA2 Stratosphere

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Published on February 21, 2008

Author: Carolina

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The Stratospheric Chemistry and The Ozone Layer:  The Stratospheric Chemistry and The Ozone Layer *Stratospheric circulation *Stratospheric photochemistry *Gas phase reactions *Ozone and Catalytic cycles Dr Tony Cox ERCA 2004 -Lecture 2 Slide3:  Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere Slide4:  Height/km Latitude Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere Stratopause Tropopause Slide5:  Satellite measurements of aerosol as a tracer for stratospheric circulation Black region is troposphere Eruption of Mt Pinatubo, Phillipine Is, 5ON, June 1991 Slide6:  Mesosphere Stratosphere Upper troposphere Slide8:  MEAN (11yr) ATMOSPHERIC WINDS AT 20 km ALTITUDE (NOAA Analysis) Slide9:  MEAN (11yr) ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE AT 20 km ALTITUDE (NOAA Analysis) Slide10:  Potential Vorticity At ~20 km in the S.Polar Vortex Slide11:  1950 30 km Altitude 16 km 1978 The QBO In equatorial regions Slide12:  Variations in mean O3 column(DU) due to QBO (from satellite observations) Slide13:  Climatology of Global O3 column (after Dutsch, 1971) In Dobson units, i.e. mmHgx100 at STP Slide14:  Chemical Kinetics I Slide15:  Chemical Kinetics II Slide16:  Chemical Kinetics III Slide17:  O(3P) O2 O3 O3 Slide18:  Window region where UV radiation penetrates into the lower stratosphere giving: O2 + hn  O + O Slide19:  Chemical lifetime of O3:calculated daily averaged photodissociation rate of molecular oxygen Slide20:  Release of catalysts by Photolysis in the lower Stratosphere Slide21:  O2 + hn(l<243nm)  O + O oxygen photolysis O + O2 + M  O3 + M ozone formation O + O3  O2 + O2 ozone destruction O3 + hn(l<310nm)  O(1D) + O2 O3 + hn(l<1180nm)  O + O2 oxygen photolysis NO2 + hn(l<243nm)  NO + O NO2 photolysis O + O2 + M  O3 + M ozone formation X + O3  XO + O2 XO + O  X + O2 Net O + O3  O2 + O2 ozone destruction [X = H, OH, NO, Cl, Br, etc] Slide27:  Interconversion of Cl & ClO Formation and release from reservoirs of Cl & ClO Slide28:  STRATOSPERE  heterogeneous reactions on sulphate aerosol OZONE DEPLETION CYCLES IN THE LOWER STRATOSPHERE:  OZONE DEPLETION CYCLES IN THE LOWER STRATOSPHERE Concentration of O atoms fall off in lower stratosphere as photolysis of O2 and O3 reduces. Catalytic destruction through cycles involving participation of atomic O is less important. Other cycles not involving O(3P) can occur. Slide34:  Involving ClOx/NOx coupling ClO + NO2 = ClONO2 ClONO2 + hn = Cl + NO3 NO3 + hn = NO + O2 NO + O3 = NO2 + O2 Cl + O3 = ClO + O2 net O3 + O3 = 3O2 Involving NOx/Halogen (X = Br or I) coupling XO + HO2 = HOX + O2 HOX + hn = X + HO OH + O3 = HO2 + O2 X + O3 = XO + O2 net O3 + O3 = 3O2 OZONE DEPLETION CYCLES INVOLVING HALOGENS THE LOWER STRATOSPHERE Slide35:   heterogeneous reactions on sulphate aerosol

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