Published on November 3, 2013
……. Assignment no 1 ARRANGED BY; ; ; ZOHAIB HUSSAIN AND SAAD IQBAL TOPIC ; ; ; ; EPISTATIC INTERACTIONS SUBMITTED TO:::;;;;;DR SARFARZ SHAFIQ COURSE TITLE ; ; ; ; ; ;ESSENTIAL OF GENETICS
•Epistatic Gene Interactions
Epistatic Gene Interactions • Gene interactions occur when two or more different genes influence the outcome of a single trait • Most morphological traits (height, weight, color) are affected by multiple genes • Epistasis describes situation between various alleles of two genes • Quantitative loci is a term to describe those loci controlling quantitatively measurable traits • Pleiotropy describes situations where one gene affects multiple traits
• examine cases involving 2 loci (genes) that each have 2 alleles • Crosses performed can be illustrated in general by – AaBb X AaBb – Where A is dominant to a and B is dominant to b • If these two genes govern two different traits – A 9:3:3:1 ratio is predicted among the offspring – simple Mendelian dihybrid inheritance pattern • If these two genes do affect the same trait the 9:3:3:1 ratio may be altered – 9:3:4, or 9:7, or 9:6:1, or 8:6:2 or 12:3:1, or 13:3, or 15:1 – epistatic ratios
A Cross Producing a 9:7 ratio Figure 4.18 9 C_P_ : 3 C_pp :3 ccP_ : 1 ccpp purple white
Epistatic Gene Interaction • Complementary gene action Enzyme C and enzyme P cooperate to make a product, therefore they complement one another
Epistatic Gene Interaction • Epistasis describes the situation in which a gene masks the phenotypic effects of another gene • Epistasis interactions arise because the two genes encode proteins that participate in sequence in a biochemical pathway • If either loci is homozygous for a null mutation, none of that enzyme will be made and the pathway is blocked
Colorless precursor Enzyme C Colorless intermediate Enzyme P Purple pigment genotype cc Colorless precursor Enzyme C Colorless intermediate Enzyme P Purple pigment
Epistasis of Involving Sex-linked Genes • Inheritance of the Cream-Eye allele in Drosophila – a rare fly with cream-colored eyes identified in a true-breeding culture of flies with eosin eyes – possible explanations • 1. Mutation of the eosin allele into a cream allele • 2. Mutation of a 2nd gene that modifies expression of the eosin allele
– Cream-colored eyes in fruit flies are due to the effect of a second gene that modifies the expression of the eosin allele
Testing the Hypothesis
Data obtained Cross Outcome P cross: Cream-eyed male X wild-type female F1: all red eyes F1 cross: F1 brother X F1 sister F2: 104 females with red eyes 47 males with red eyes 44 males with eosin eyes 14 males with cream eyes F2 generation contains males with eosin eyes This indicates that the cream allele is not in the same gene as the eosin allele
Interpreting the Data Cross Outcome P cross: Cream-eyed male X wild-type female F1: all red eyes F1 cross: F1 brother X F1 sister F2: 104 females with red eyes 47 males with red eyes 44 males with eosin eyes 14 males with cream eyes F2 generation contains – 151 + eye: 44 we eye: 14 ca eye a 12 : 3 : 1 ratio
Modeling the Data Cream phenotype is recessive therefore the cream allele is recessive allele (either sexlinked or autosomal) The mutated allele of the cream gene modifies the we allele, while the wt cream allele does not C = Normal allele Does not modify the eosin phenotype ca = Cream allele Modifies the eosin color to cream, does not effect wt or white allele of white gene.
Male gametes CXw+ CY caXw+ caY Female gametes CXw+ CCXw+Xw+ CCXw+Y cacaXw+Xw+ CcaXw+Y CXw-e CCXw+Xw-e CCXw-eY CcaXw+Xw-e CcaXw-eY caXw+ CcaXw+Xw+ CcaXw+Y cacaXw+Xw+ cacaXw+Y caXw-e CcaXw+Xw-e CcaXw-eY cacaXw+Xw-e cacaXw-eY
A Cross Involving a Two-Gene Interaction Can Still Produce a 9:3:3:1 ratio • Inheritance of comb morphology in chicken – First example of gene interaction – William Bateson and Reginald Punnett in 1906 – Four different comb morphologies
Figure 4.17b The crosses of Bateson and Punnett
• F2 generation consisted of chickens with four types of combs – 9 walnut : 3 rose : 3 pea : 1 single • Bateson and Punnett reasoned that comb morphology is determined by two different genes – R (rose comb) is dominant to r – P (pea comb) is dominant to p – R and P are codominant (walnut comb) – rrpp produces single comb
Gene Interaction • Duplicate gene action – Enzyme 1 and enzyme 2 are redundant – They both make product C, therefore they duplicate each other
x Duplicate Gene Action Epistasis TTVV Triangular ttvv Ovate F1 generation TtVv All triangular F1 (TtVv) x F1 (TtVv) 15:1 ratio results TV TV Tv tV tv Tv tV tv TTVV TTVv TtVV TtVv TTVv TTvv TtVv Ttvv TtVV TtVv ttVV ttVv TtVv Ttvv ttVv ttvv (b) The crosses of Shull
Squash Fruit Color • Genotypes and Phenotypes: • W-/G- white • W-/gg white • ww/G- green • ww/gg yellow
Dominant Epistasis • LETS HAVE A LOOK AT DOMINANT EPISTASIS… • Squash fruit color is controlled by two genes. • Gene 1 is represented by a W • Gene 2 is represented by a G
Squash Fruit Color • Which allele is epistatic in squash color? The dominant W allele is epistasis • How do you know? Because every time a dominant W allele shows up in a squash genotype, the squash fruit color is white.
Wwgg x wwGg • FOIL: Wg or wg • FOIL: wG or wg • F1 generation genotypes: • Phenotypes:
....THANK.. …… YOU…..
REFRENCE BOOKS •CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS •EPISTASIS AND EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS BY JASON WOLF •COMBINATORIAL APPROACH TO EPISTATIS BY R LOWEN •CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS BY S.CHAND
These relations can sometimes be exploited to empirically test for “epistatic interactions” in ... gene interactions in ... Biotechnology Information ...
Biotechnology Programme is on Facebook. To connect with Biotechnology Programme, sign up for Facebook today. Sign Up Log In. Biotechnology Programme ...
The study of genetic interaction has become ... Gene pairs tested for genetic interaction. ... et al. Analysis of epistatic interactions and fitness ...
... Plant Biotechnology, Gene expression and regulation, ... Metagenomics and Plant Microbes Interaction ... © 2015 CIIT Abbottabad |
Epistasis — the essential role of gene interactions in ... I then turn to how the analysis of epistatic interactions between genes can ... Biotechnology;
Modular epistasis in yeast metabolism. ... Epistatic interactions, ... Epistatic interactions between genes classified by functional annotation groups ...
... such that latent gene interaction ... Imputation of quantitative genetic interactions in epistatic ... due to the limits of biotechnology, ...
... (epistatic) interactions between genes is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms of complex diseases. ... Nature Biotechnology 23: ...