Published on February 25, 2014
EPERYTHROZOO www.RCVets.com N
Eperythrozoon(Blood Parasite) A genus of the family Bartonellaceae; its members are of limited pathogenicity It is gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of various vertebrate species including rodents, ruminants, and pigs and sheep. Some species have been shown to be transmitted by arthropod vectors.
Eperythrozoon A group of bacteria that parasitize erythrocytes and now are recognized to be within the genus Mycoplasma Discovered in1898.
The organism is usually from 0.8 to 1.0 um in diameter but may be larger during the acute stage of infection. It is predominantly coccoid-shaped but may appear rod or ring-shaped when viewed on an erythrocyte’s cell membrane. 02/25/14
Geographical distribution USA KANSAS China OUDA YANKASSA NIGERIA
Eperythrozoon of Veterinary Importance Species Mycoplasma haemocanis (formerly Dogs Haemobartonella canis) Cats Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly Haemobartonella felis) Pigs Eperythrozoon parvum Cattle Mycoplasma (Eperythrozoon) wenyonii Sheep and Mycoplasma (Eperythrozoon) ovis goats
PATHOGENESIS It effect RBC and cause disease eperythrozoonosis Incubation period 5-7 days Mortality rate is low Outbreaks occur more often in the summer.
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROGRAPH Scanning electron micrograph showing infected sheep erythrocytes with several bacteria on the erythrocyte surface. Fine fibrils are visible between some of the bacteria and the erythrocyte surface. 0·5 μm
Diagnose Eperythrozoon infection can be diagnosed clinically and hematologically only during acute attacks. In the febrile phase it is possible to detect the eperythrozoon organisms in the blood smear. The best method for staining is that by acridine-orange and examination by fluorescence microscopy. Serological identification (IHA, KBR, ELISA) is suitable. The best method to diagnose a latent infection is to splenectomize a suspected animal.
TRANSMISSION Eperythrozoon may be transmitted by transfer of infected blood (blood transfusion or use of contaminated needles, surgical instruments, herd or flock management equipment) or via arthropod vectors such as lice, flies, ticks, and mosquitoes. Vertical transmission from mother to offspring has been reported in cats, swine. Direct transmission associated with fighting is suspected in cats and supported by studies reporting presence of eperythrozoon DNA in saliva and on claw beds of infected cats.
CONTROL AND PREVENTION There are no known methods for preventing this disease Take precautions when vaccinating large numbers of sows. Change needles every 2 to 3 sows and gilts. Wipe the needle between each animal with cotton wool and surgical spirit. Reduce fighting episodes. Keep stress and immuno-suppression to a minimum. Control mange and lice if they are present. Control biting insects.
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS Signs of eperythrozoonosis include: illthrift anaemia (pale gums) jaundice (yellow gums) dark red urine Rapid breathing Fever, pneumonia, coughing, confusion, agglutination
TREATMENT Arsanilic acid Tetracycline Oxytetracycline Doxycycline Gentamicin
Thank you very much www.RCVets.com 02/25/14
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