epa 101 2007 dewey

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Education

Published on March 3, 2008

Author: Veronica1

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John Dewey Εμπειρία και Εκπαίδευση :  John Dewey Εμπειρία και Εκπαίδευση Η αντίθεση ανάμεσα στην παραδοσιακή και προοδευτική εκπαίδευση Η ανάγκη μιας θεωρίας της εμπειρίας Κριτήρια εμπειρίας Κοινωνικός έλεγχος Η φύση της ελευθερίας Η έννοια του σκοπού Η προοδευτική οργάνωση της ύλης Εμπειρία, μέσα και σκοποί της εκπαίδευσης Σε ποιες αντιθέσεις/δίπολα εξασκεί κριτική ο John Dewey;:  Σε ποιες αντιθέσεις/δίπολα εξασκεί κριτική ο John Dewey; H εκπαίδευση είναι διαδικασία ενδογενής vs. η εκπαίδευση είναι διαδικασία εξωγενής Παραδοσιακή εκπαίδευση vs. προοδευτική εκπαίδευση Γιατί η αντιπαράθεση ανάμεσα στην παραδοσιακή και την προοδευτική εκπαίδευση είναι προβληματική;:  Γιατί η αντιπαράθεση ανάμεσα στην παραδοσιακή και την προοδευτική εκπαίδευση είναι προβληματική; Πρώτο πρόβλημα. Διότι θεωρεί ότι μόνο η προοδευτική εκπαίδευση προσφέρει στον μαθητή εμπειρίες Καλά, η παραδοσιακή εκπαίδευση προσφέρει εμπειρίες στο μαθητή;:  Καλά, η παραδοσιακή εκπαίδευση προσφέρει εμπειρίες στο μαθητή; Nαι!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Εθισμοί και κανόνες συμπεριφοράς Οργάνωση Στάσεις Υπάρχει όμως πρόβλημα με τις εμπειρίες αυτές Γιατί οι εμπειρίες που προσφέρει η παραδοσιακή εκπαίδευση είναι προβληματικές;:  Γιατί οι εμπειρίες που προσφέρει η παραδοσιακή εκπαίδευση είναι προβληματικές; Εθισμοί και κανόνες συμπεριφοράς [επιβολή/υποταγή, παθητικότητα] Οργάνωση [έξωθεν και άνωθεν] Στάσεις [δάσκαλος ως αυθεντία, παραβιάζεται η αρχή της μάθησης και της ικανότητας απόκτησης νέων εμπειριών σε ένα μεταβαλλόμενο κόσμο] Δεύτερο πρόβλημα με τη ρητορική της προοδευτικής αγωγής:  Δεύτερο πρόβλημα με τη ρητορική της προοδευτικής αγωγής Απουσιάζει μια θεωρία της εμπειρίας. Δεν δημιουργεί πάντα συνθήκες για προοδευτική εκπαίδευση η άρση εμποδίων, ορίων και επιβολών ‘έξωθεν και άνωθεν’? Ποια τα κριτήρια εμπειρίας (υπάρχουν καλές και κακές εμπειρίες?) Η ανάγκη μιας θεωρίας της εμπειρίας/Προβλήματα με τις μαθησιακές εμπειρίες:  Η ανάγκη μιας θεωρίας της εμπειρίας/Προβλήματα με τις μαθησιακές εμπειρίες Tο πρόβλημα δεν είναι η απουσία εμπειριών αλλά η ελλιπής και λανθασμένη μορφή τους Οι εμπειρίες μπορεί να είναι τόσο διαχωρισμένες η μια από την άλλη, δεν συνδυάζονται με τρόπο σωρευτικό Δεν λαμβάνονται υπόψη οι επιδράσεις των εμπειριών Ανικανότητα να ελεγχθούν μελλοντικές εμπειρίες ΑΝΑΓΚΗ να επιλεγούν και να οργανωθούν τέτοιες εμπειρίες που να έχουν θετική παιδευτική αξία και να επιζούν παραγωγικά μέσα στις επόμενες εμπειρίες Κριτήρια εμπειρίας:  Κριτήρια εμπειρίας Εμπειρικό συνεχές Αλληλοεπίδραση εμπειριών Πρώτο κριτήριο εμπειρίας:  Πρώτο κριτήριο εμπειρίας Μια εμπειρία έχει θετική παιδευτική αξία αν οδηγεί στην απόχτηση μελλοντικών εμπειριών (σελ. 24) Η Αξία της κρίνεται πάνω στο ζήτημα του ποιες δυνάμεις απελευθερώνει προς το μέλλον Πρέπει να προετοιμάζει ένα άτομο να δεχτεί μεταγενέστερες εμπειρίες βαθύτερης και περισσότερο ευρείας ουσίας Δεύτερο κριτήριο εμπειρία: αλληλοεπίδραση Οι παιδαγωγοί θα πρέπει να:  Δεύτερο κριτήριο εμπειρία: αλληλοεπίδραση Οι παιδαγωγοί θα πρέπει να Ρυθμίζουν την εμπειρία και το περιβάλλον Να αναγνωρίζουν το περιβάλλον που είναι δυνατό να προσφέρει την εμπειρία που συνεπάγεται ανάπτυξη Να ξέρουν πώς να χρησιμοποιούν το περιβάλλον τους, φυσικό και κοινωνικό, ώστε να επωφελούνται αντλώντας απ’ αυτό τις πιο χρήσιμες εμπειρίες Άσκηση:  Άσκηση Το θέμα μιας Β΄ τάξης δημοτικού είναι «Η οικογένεια». Πρότεινε 3 δραστηριότητες μέσα από τις οποίες θα ενσωματώσεις στο μάθημα τις εμπειρίες των παιδιών και θα κτίσεις πάνω σε αυτές. Α. ……………………………… Β. ……………………………... Γ. ……………………….……. Πώς θα αξιοποιήσεις τις εμπειρίες των παιδιών και θα προωθήσεις την απόκτηση νέων εμπειριών (ανακάλυψη, αυτενέργεια, εμπλοκή γονιών στο σχολείο) μέσω του πιο κάτω διαγράμματος::  Πώς θα αξιοποιήσεις τις εμπειρίες των παιδιών και θα προωθήσεις την απόκτηση νέων εμπειριών (ανακάλυψη, αυτενέργεια, εμπλοκή γονιών στο σχολείο) μέσω του πιο κάτω διαγράμματος: Α. ……………………………… Β. ……………………………... Γ. ……………………….……. Συμπληρώνοντας τα κενά στο πιο κάτω διάγραμμα σκιαγράφησε τη δική σου οικογένεια :  Συμπληρώνοντας τα κενά στο πιο κάτω διάγραμμα σκιαγράφησε τη δική σου οικογένεια Slide14:  Αξιολογείστε/σχολιάστε τις εμπειρίες που προσφέρει στα παιδιά η εικονιζόμενη δραστηριότητα: Slide15:  Αξιολογείστε/αναλύστε την εμπειρία που προσέφερε στη Heather η προηγούμενη δραστηριότητα. ……………………….. Θα μπορούσε το μάθημα «Η οικογένεια μου» να είχε οργανωθεί διαφορετικά; ………………….. “We Make the Road by Walking” A Lifelong Journey – Building a K-2 Learning Environment By Michelle Taylor :  “We Make the Road by Walking” A Lifelong Journey – Building a K-2 Learning Environment By Michelle Taylor Before you can teach, you have to know yourself – your past, your passions, your learning style and the affect you will have on your students. I grew up in a small northern town with one choice for schooling. It was public, it was harsh, and it was all I knew. When I think about my school experience, my heart catapults – I feel alone, afraid and ashamed. Sitting at my desk in first grade, I felt like I could never do anything right. I did not know the rules. I was confused and waited with terror to raise my hand when my name was called. I didn’t want to be caught daydreaming and be embarrassed in front of the entire class. I don’t think I had “bad” teachers, although I’m not sure I had “good” ones. I was just a product in the school system. When my grandmother died, I found some of my ditto papers from first grade. They had stamps on them that read, “Poor” and had a frowning face. Others had generic “Good” stickers as well. Was this supposed to help me learn? I was SIX! The other memory that stands out in my mind was on the first day of school. We were given our “reading” books for the entire year. This was a large compilation of stories. I was so excited. I LOVED books and still do, amazingly enough. It was such a treat. I once snuck a book home in my bag, to my great-grandmothers house. I sat on her lap and read her the entire book, cover to cover. Reading became my escape from school but I felt like I had to do it on my own and on the sly. Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself.” ~John Dewey Slide17:  Many of the stories in my text book were the “Dick and Jane” stories – it was my first realization of fiction. But as much as I liked reading and having the book, I wish there had been a story I could have related to. My mom was a single mom on welfare with a boyfriend. I had a half sister and mostly lived with my grand parents. There were no stories for me. There were also no stories for the other half of the class who were American Indian – our school was on the reservation and the book only had white faces on the pages. Dick and Jane:  Dick and Jane Dick and Jane were the main characters in popular basal readers written by Zerna Sharp and published by Scott Foresman, that were used to teach children to read from the 1930s through to the 1970s in the United States. The main characters, Dick and Jane, were a little boy and girl. Supporting characters included Baby (or Sally), Mother, Father, Spot the dog, Puff the cat, Jack the clown, Tim the teddy bear. They first appeared in the Elson-Gray Readers used in the 1930s. The books relied on sight reading (or "whole word reading") and repetition, using phrases like, "Oh, see. Oh, see Jane. Funny, funny Jane," and they ignored phonics. For this reason, they came to be used less and less as studies supported phonics as a more effective method of gaining literacy. [citation needed] The simple but distinctive illustrations for the books were done by artists Eleanor Campbell and Keith Ward. Black characters and characters from other races and cultures were not introduced until 1965, when Dick and Jane books were already declining in popularity. In 1955 Rudolf Flesch criticized the Dick and Jane series in his book, Why Johnny Can't Read, and the push for multiculturalism, and stronger presentation of other races and cultures was partially a reaction to the cultural homogeneity of the series. Slide21:  Fun with Dick and Jane 1977 ρομαντική κωμωδία με τους George Segal και Jane Fonda ως ζευγάρι μεσαίας-ψηλής κοινωνικής τάξης που στρέφετα στο έγκλημα. Οι χαρακτήρες είναι από τη σειρά εκπαιδευτικών βιβλίων για παιδιά Dick and Jane. Ο τίτλος ήταν σαφώς ειρωνικός και αντιπαράθετε το έγκλημα με την αθωότητα των χαρακτήρων στο βιβλίο. Remake της ταινίας κυκλοφόρησε το 2005, με τους Jim Carrey και Téa Leoni. Με ποιο τρόπο η συγκεκριμένη δασκάλα αναστοχάζεται κριτικά για τις δικές της εμπειρίες και μαθαίνει πώς να οργανώνει το περιβάλλον της τάξης «αλλιώς»::  Με ποιο τρόπο η συγκεκριμένη δασκάλα αναστοχάζεται κριτικά για τις δικές της εμπειρίες και μαθαίνει πώς να οργανώνει το περιβάλλον της τάξης «αλλιώς»: So here we are, looking to September. My class is the first K-2 class at the community school. Here I have been handed my little family of ten kids, a new classroom to grow into, the public school standards (as a guideline) and a room full of used furniture and supplies. It is my job to create our next few years together. It is tricky. It is overwhelming. It is my dream. First of all, I know my kids. I know what they like. I know how they learn. This I believe is the most important part of being a teacher. I know that Jessie has been able to read for a year but that he can barely make a J with a pen and paper. But I do know that if given a huge piece of paper upright on an easel with paint and a brush, that he can make an artistic J that he runs to show his friends. I know that Britta is sensitive about talking in a group or having her feelings known, but that in the middle of story time will pipe up with an idea or just need to tell me that she loves me. I know that she cannot be quieted during this time because this is when she feels comfortable sharing. I know that Jack does everything he’s asked before he’s asked, and so I encourage him to rebel and take chances. Γνωρίζω τα παιδιά μου, τις εμπειρίες και τα όριά τους. Ξέρω πώς να οργανώνω το περιβάλλον και τις εμπειρίες τους έτσι που να μην περιορίζεται η μαθησιακή τους ικανότητα από τα όριά τους Με ποιο τρόπο η γνώση για τις εμπειρίες των παιδιών βοηθά τη δασκάλα οργανώνει το περιβάλλον της τάξης ως «ζωντανό δωμάτιο»::  Με ποιο τρόπο η γνώση για τις εμπειρίες των παιδιών βοηθά τη δασκάλα οργανώνει το περιβάλλον της τάξης ως «ζωντανό δωμάτιο»: Knowing my kids, knowing their passions and needs, I enter my new classroom with only them on my mind. I invite them in to help, to share in the experience, to tell me what they would like, what they want to see in the class. I have them sit at the tables and try the chairs to see if they are comfortable – if they can reach the manipulatives and supplies. I invite them to sit, to stand, to walk around. They think I’m funny and wonder at the mystery of my requests. I tell them like I always do. I let them in on my thoughts. I want to hear from them. This is our room. I’ve learned that as a teacher, you have to let the ego go first. It’s not about me. Well, it’s a little bit about me as I am a part of the community, but it’s mostly about them and their needs. We’ve chosen to create a “living room” in our classroom. It has two loveseats, a huge comfy chair, end tables, plants, a bookcase, lamps, tapestries and rugs. It is our center, our meeting place, our place to share stories. I want them to be at ease, to communicate, to relax into learning, to not be afraid or uncomfortable behind a desk. Our circle time usually consists of the students telling each other about their lives. Where they’ve been, who they’ve seen, or what might happen. This is their learning experience, it should be about them. Slide24:  Much like my first grade class, our community of students doesn’t look like the “Dick & Jane” stories either, nor do most classrooms. In our classroom we honor this. We have families with two moms and a son, a family of one mom and a son, a family with a mom, a dad, a son, a daughter and a grandmother with MS who is taken care of by the family. We have a student who is adopted from China and her dad is from India. We have a family from Canada. We have a family going through a divorce. The class is ethnically, spiritually, socio-economically and in all ways diverse. We stand up for diversity. We stand up to hatred and name calling. We confront stereotypes that we witness in the world and the stereotypes that come up within our group. We often have conversations about what boys can wear and what girls can wear, what professions girls can be and what professions boys can be and about how we can all wear and be anything we want to be. The community we are building is emerging and growing and cannot be contained. I cannot say what will happen – I don’t know myself and this makes learning exciting for all of us. The student’s passions are my passions and my passions often become the student’s passions because we have brought our interests to each other genuinely and honestly without the pretext of a set curriculum, with rules provided by someone who doesn’t share our same experiences. Η μαμά της Heather παντρεύτηκε!:  Η μαμά της Heather παντρεύτηκε! Teaching About Same-Sex Couples In my classroom, issues of family diversity often arise spontaneously. Once a group of my first-grade readers decided to act out The Carrot Seed, a simple story about a boy who plants a carrot seed and cares for it diligently, despite the discouragement of his brother, mother, and father. After the skit, all the other students wanted a chance to act it out too. I said we could do it once more before lunch. I began pulling sticks with student names at random from a cup, to assign the four roles. Tραβήξαμε «ξυλαράκια με ονόματα» για κατανομή των τεσσάρων ρόλων. Το πρώτο ξυλαράκι ήταν το όνομα ενός αγοριού. «Θα είμαι το αγόρι», είπε. Το δεύτερο ξυλαράκι ήταν πάλι το όνομα ενός αγοριού. «Θα ‘μαι ο αδελφός», είπε. Το τρίτο ξυλαράκι ήτανε το όνομα ενός κοριτσιού. «Θα ‘μαι η μαμά», είπε. Το τελευταίο ξυλαράκι ήταν το όνομα της Νάταλη. «Πρέπει να τραβήξεις άλλο ξυλαράκι», είπε ένα αγόρι. «Όχι, δεν υπάρχει πρόβλημα», είπε η Νάταλη. «Θα είμαι εγώ ο μπαμπάς!» Slide26:  Last May, same-sex marriage became legal in Massachusetts. Heidi and Gina Nortonsmith, parents of one of my students, had been plaintiffs in the Goodridge v. Mass. Department of Public Health landmark lawsuit that resulted in the legalization of same-sex marriage in our state. They were given the first place in line at Northampton's crowded City Hall on the morning of May 17 to get their marriage license. After the court's decision, my students got "marriage fever." During "sharing time" Maggy reported on how she was the flower girl and her sister was the "ring barrier" at their friends' wedding. Avery Nortonsmith proudly showed the silver ID bracelet that he, his brother, and his moms all got on their wedding day, inscribed with the historic date. Sarah talked excitedly about preparations for her moms' wedding, how she and her sister and six of their girlfriends would be flower girls. I went to the wedding with my daughter and saw about half the families from my class. It was one of the most joyous and supportive celebrations I have ever witnessed. Xochitl Calero (flower girl) with her moms, Effie and Jessie Molina, on their wedding day :  Xochitl Calero (flower girl) with her moms, Effie and Jessie Molina, on their wedding day Even snack time conversations raise the issue of gay marriage. Beth Bellavance-Grace, who now works as an aide at our school, told me about a kindergarten conversation she heard. A girl announced to her table, "I know who I'm gonna marry when I grow up. I'm gonna marry Ella." "You can't marry a girl," a boy at her table replied. "That was just in the olden days," she replied. "But now I can.» Μιλώντας στην τάξη για την ποικιλία (Discussing Diversity):  Μιλώντας στην τάξη για την ποικιλία (Discussing Diversity) When we discuss family diversity, I define family as "the circle of people who love you." After I showed That's a Family one year, Marisol responded, "Yuck, that is so weird to have two dads!" James turned to her and spoke with an air of sophistication. "What's the big deal about two dads?" he asked. "I got two dads. I got one in my house and one in the jail. Lots of kids gots two dads." Marisol considered this a moment, then said, "Oh, I didn't think of that. I have two moms. I have my mom at home and a step-mom at my dad's house." "See?" James said with a shrug of his shoulders. "I told you it's not so weird." I had one student who was co-parented by three women. One morning we were having a math exhibition and the students had invited their parents. Thomas' three moms came in one at a time, each from their different jobs. James knew that his parents wouldn't be attending, but he kept looking to the door whenever another parent entered. He finally went over to Thomas and asked, "It be OK if I could borrow one of your moms?" Abe Herzog-Arbeitman 2nd Grade Jackson Street School:  Abe Herzog-Arbeitman 2nd Grade Jackson Street School ΠΟΥ;:  ΠΟΥ; I should pause here to say that I don't teach in Anytown, U.S.A. I teach in Northampton, a small city of 29,000 in western Massachusetts, which has been known as a haven for women and for lesbians. Northampton's status as a refuge from homophobia has been profiled in dozens of newspapers and media outlets around the country and around the world. While the numbers vary from year to year, I have always had at least one child in my class with lesbian parents. This year, one third of my students have lesbian parents. While I probably have more lesbian-parented families than most teachers, the reality is that teachers may not know by looking if they have a child with gay or lesbian parents, aunts, uncles, grandparents, or family friends. I teach at Jackson St. School (JSS), a public elementary school with about 400 students. Our school is a celebration of economic, racial, linguistic, and family diversity. Families speak a variety of home languages including Albanian, Spanish, Khmer, Vietnamese, Chinese, French, and Hindu. About 39 percent of the students are children of color, with the largest share of those being Puerto Rican. Forty percent of the students receive free or reduced lunch. The school welcomes family involvement, with a weekly family newsletter and regular potluck dinners. It has a Family Center, which hosts a weekly Parents' Hour with coffee and conversation, as well as a family portrait project, in which a professional photographer takes free family portraits at Open House. These photos are displayed in the front hallway, heralding for all visitors the breadth of the school's diversity. Over the years, many parents have told me that even before speaking to anyone in the school, just looking at those family photos in the front lobby made them feel welcome, like they could fit in. Jo and Lise Glading-Di Lorenzo celebrate their wedding, September 2004.:  Jo and Lise Glading-Di Lorenzo celebrate their wedding, September 2004. Gina and Heidi Nortonsmith with sons Quinn and Avery.:  Gina and Heidi Nortonsmith with sons Quinn and Avery.

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