Envirothon

67 %
33 %
Information about Envirothon
Education

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Davidino

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Soil Science Basics For Evirothon John Sloan Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Dallas Slide2:  Soils/Land Use Envirothon Key Points 1S Recognize soil as an important and dynamic resource. 2S Recognize and understand the features of a soil profile. 3S Describe basic soil properties and soil formation factors. 4S Understand the origin of soil parent materials. 5S Identify soil constituents (clay, organic matter, sand and silt). 6S Identify and list soil characteristics (e.g., texture, structure, etc.) and their relation properties. 7S Determine basic soil properties and limitations (e.g., mottling and permeability) by observing a soil pit or a soil profile. 8S Understand the nature of plant nutrients, and how they are held by soil. 9S Recognize the characteristics of wetland (hydric) soils. 10S Understand soil drainage classes and know how wetlands are defined. 11S Understand soil water, its movement, storage, and uptake by plants. 12S Understand the effects of land use on soils. 13S In land use planning discussions, discuss how soil is a factor in or is impacted by non-point source pollution. 14S Identify types of soil erosion and discuss methods for reducing erosion. 15S Utilize soil information, including a soil survey. Slide3:  1S Recognize soil as an important and dynamic resource. Slide4:  Chemical Physical Biological Slide5:  Five Crucial Ecological Roles of Soils Medium for plant growth Recycling system for nutrients and organic wastes Habitat for soil organisms Engineering medium System for water supply and purification Slide6:  A healthy soil has abundant biological activity. Biological activity contributes to beneficial chemical and physical soil properties. Living Organisms: Microorganisms:  Living Organisms: Microorganisms Living Organisms: Soil Animals:  Living Organisms: Soil Animals Nematodes Earthworms Springtails Mites Ants and termites Millipedes, centipedes Slide9:  2S Recognize and understand the features of a soil profile. Slide10:  O A B C E Slide11:  Vegetation has an effect on the formation of the soil profile O A E Bt C1 C2 A1 A2 Bt C1 C3 C2k Slide12:  3S Describe basic soil properties and soil formation factors. Soil Forming Factors:  Soil Forming Factors Parent material – (unconsolidated material in which soil development occurs) Climate – (temperature and precipitation) Biota – (living organisms and organic residues) Topography – (slope, aspect, elevation) Time Slide14:  4S Understand the origin of soil parent materials. Slide15:  Parent Materials Formation, Transportation and Deposition Slide16:  5S Identify soil constituents (clay, organic matter, sand and silt). 6S Identify and list soil characteristics (e.g., texture, structure, etc.) and their relation properties. Slide17:  What’s in soil? * Slide18:  Soil Color Soil Color:  Soil Color A good indicator of organic matter content Light color=low OM; dark color=high OM Also influenced by parent material Compare the red soils of East Texas to the Blackland soils of Central Texas Soil Texture:  Soil Texture Sand Silt Clay Slide21:  Medium Sand Course Sand 0 mm 1 mm 2 mm Relative Sizes of Soil Particles Fine Sand Very Fine Sand Silt Clay Slide22:  Number of particles per soil volume Texture:  Texture Texture can be estimated by the ribbon and feel method long ribbon = high clay no ribbon = sandy soil Major influence on water holding capacity Sand = low water holding capacity Clay = high water holding capacity Silt = high “available water” capacity Soil Structure:  Soil Structure Soil structure:  Single grained **Aggregated** Massive (Sand) (Silt loam) (brick) Soil structure Refers to the binding of soil particles into aggregates due to the presence of organic matter, clays, and oxides Good structure allows movement of water and air through the soil and into the rooting zone. Range of soil structures How to improve soil structure:  How to improve soil structure Increase soil organic matter with: Compost Manures Mulches Cover crops (green manures) Slide29:  11S Understand soil water, its movement, storage, and uptake by plants. Soil Water:  Soil Water Mostly affected by soil texture Soil water terms Gravitational water Capillary water Hygroscopic water Slide31:  Saturation -all pores are completely filled with water Field Capacity -most pores are filled with water except for the largest Wilting Point -only small pores contain water Slide32:  0% Water-filled pore volume 100% Oven Air Wilting Field Saturated Dry Dry Point Capacity Slide33:  Field Capacity Available water Unavailable water 0 30 20 10 Percent Soil Water Sand Sandy Loam Loam Silt Loam Clay Loam Clay Wilting Point Slide35:  Three-dimensional plot of infiltration rates for sandy soils Slide36:  Three-dimensional plot of infiltration rates for clay soils Sandy textured soils:  Sandy textured soils Water infiltrates and drains quickly, even when wet. Soil does not have a large reservoir of plant available water. Soils dry out quickly, leaving plants water-stressed. Clay textured soils:  Clay textured soils Water infiltrates and drains slowly, especially when the soil is already wet. The surface can become saturated fairly quickly, making the soil susceptible to erosion. The surface can become crusted and seal off water infiltration. Slide39:  8S Understand the nature of plant nutrients, and how they are held by soil. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC):  Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Negative charged sites in soils that attract and “hold” positive ions (cations) K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Al3+, H+ Two types: Permanent (isomorphous substitution in clay minerals; Al3+ → Si4+ or Mg2+ → Al3+) pH dependent (functional groups on organic matter or broken clay edges; -O-H+, -COO-H+) Slide41:  Sources of Cation Exchange Sites Organic matter (pH dependent) Clay minerals (permanent) Soil pH -A master variable:  Soil pH -A master variable Soil pH:  Soil pH A master variable because it affects a wide range of soil properties, including: Chemical Biological Physical (indirectly) Slide44:  Normal pH range in soils Slide46:  Micronutrients Soil Acidity:  Soil Acidity Soils tend to become more acidic with time and weathering. What causes soil acidity? Slide48:  GENERAL SOIL MAP OF TEXAS Increasing soil pH Decreasing Rainfall Alkaline Soils pH > 7:  Alkaline Soils pH > 7 Calcareous soils High in calcium; freqently contain calcite pH is controlled by calcium carbonate chemistry pH range of 7 to 8.4 Saline and sodic soils High in sodium pH is controlled by sodium carbonate chemistry pH range of 8.4 to 10 Slide50:  Houston Black Official State Soil of Texas Major soil in the Blackland Prairie region of Texas. Nutrient Deficiencies in Alkaline Soils:  Nutrient Deficiencies in Alkaline Soils Phosphorus Forms insoluble calcium and magnesium phosphate minerals at high pH Slide53:  7S Determine basic soil properties and limitations (e.g., mottling and permeability) by observing a soil pit or a soil profile. Slide58:  9S Recognize the characteristics of wetland (hydric) soils. Slide59:  Wetland Soils Organic matter accumulation Slide60:  Wetland Soils Oxydation-Reduction characteristics Slide61:  10S Understand soil drainage classes and know how wetlands are defined. Slide62:  Well Drained Moderately Well Drained Somewhat Poorly Drained Poorly Drained Relationship between landscape position and drainage class Slide63:  12S Understand the effects of land use on soils. 14S Identify types of soil erosion and discuss methods for reducing erosion. Slide66:  13S In land use planning discussions, discuss how soil is a factor in or is impacted by non-point source pollution. Slide67:  15S Utilize soil information, including a soil survey.

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

NCF-Envirothon

Latest News from the NCF-Envirothon Program! by: Lorelle Steach, Chair NCF-Envirothon Operating Committee. NCF-Envirothon launched its new website in mid ...
Read more

Envirothon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

NCF-Envirothon is an annual environmentally themed academic competition for high school aged students organized by the NCF-Envirothon a program of the ...
Read more

Pennsylvania Envirothon - Educating high school students ...

Pennsylvania Team takes 2nd at 2015 North American Envirothon. A five-member team of high school students from Penncrest High School from Media, PA took ...
Read more

Ontario Envirothon -

Growing the Green Leaders of Tomorrow. Une jeunesse motivée pour un avenir "vert."
Read more

The Maryland Envirothon - Welcome

The Maryland Envirothon is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, and we need your help! Any donations made to the Envirothon are tax deductible, and go to ...
Read more

North Carolina Envirothon - Google Sites

Welcome to the North Carolina Envirothon! Here you will find educational resources for middle school and high school Envirothon teams, the latest ...
Read more

New York State Envirothon - Home

The New York State Envirothon is a natural ressoure hands-on enviromental education competition for high school students. The New York State Envirothon ...
Read more

Florida Envirothon, Inc.

Florida Envirothon, Inc. Board of Directors. 2013 Event Scores. 2013 Event Info. 2012 Regional Contacts. Regional Intent to Compete. Envirothon Rules
Read more

Massachusetts Envirothon | Environmental leadership for life

The Envirothon is Massachusetts' leading natural resource education program for high school students, emphasizing hands-on, team-oriented problem solving ...
Read more

Envirothon | Manitoba Forestry Association - Manitoba ...

The Manitoba Envirothon For 20 years the Manitoba Forestry Association has offered the Manitoba Envirothon which has provided Manitoba's high school ...
Read more