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Published on January 18, 2008

Author: Paolina



ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA:  ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA BACKROUND:  BACKROUND PRE- COLONIAL ERA COLONIAL ERA RECENT TRENDS - Industrial Growth - Population Explosion - Expansion in oil exploration, exploitation and use - Urbanization - Changes in lifestyles and consumption pattern TYPES OF POLLUTION:  TYPES OF POLLUTION POLLUTION IS THE INTRODUCTION OF SUBSTANCES INTO THE ENVIRONMENT THAT ALTER ITS PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN SUCH A WAY THAT IS HARMFUL TO LIVING ORGANISMS. IN THIS CIRCUMSTANCE, THE SUBSTANCES ARE TERMED AS POLLUTANTS SOURCES OF POLLUTION:  SOURCES OF POLLUTION SOURCES OF POLLUTION - POINT SOURCE POLLUTION RESULTS FROM DEFINITE SOURCES THAT ARE IDENTIFIABLE - NON-POINT POLLUTION SOURCES: THESE ARE DIFFUSE SOURCES THAT ARE NOT IDENTIFIABLE SUCH AS RUN-OFFS POLLUTION CAN EITHER BE AIR, WATER OR LAND POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION:  AIR POLLUTION MAIN CAUSES INCLUDE: - GASEOUS DISCHARGES FROM INDUSTRIES - INDISCRIMINATE AND OPEN BURNING OF WASTES - BUSH BURNING - GAS FLARING - INDOOR COOKING - EMMISSIONS FROM GENERATORS E.T.C - MINING ACTIVITIES Air Pollution cont’d:  Air Pollution cont’d MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS - COx, NOx, Sox, Particulates, H2S, CFCs,HCFCs, Dioxins and Furans e.t.c. WATER POLLUTION:  WATER POLLUTION COULD BE UNDERGROUND OR SURFACE WATER POLLUTION MAIN CAUSES INCLUDE; - RAW OR PARTIALLY TEATED INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGES - MUNICIPAL SEWAGE - AGRICULTURAL RUN-OFF (Pesticide Residues, Fertilizer etc) - INDISCRIMINATE DUMPING OF WASTE - ACID DEPOSITION - LEACHATES FROM WASTE DUMPSITES, LANDFILLS AND COMTAMINATED LANDS - SALINE INTRUSION - INVASIVE WEEDS WATER POLLUTION CONT’D:  WATER POLLUTION CONT’D MAIN WATER POLLUTANTS INCLUDE; - HEAVY METALS - NITROGEN - PHOSPHORUS MAJOR CONCERNS - OIL & GREASE - BOD, COD - SUSPENDED SOLIDS - PH - HIGH TEMPERATURE LAND POLLUTION:  LAND POLLUTION MAIN CAUSES - INDISCRIMINATE DUMPING OF INDUSTRIAL, MUNICIPAL AND HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE - INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT AND DOMESTIC SEWAGE DISCHARGES - TAILINGS FROM MINING AND MINERAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY THE NIGERIA INDUSTRY:  THE NIGERIA INDUSTRY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES WHICH HAVE GROWN OVER THE YEARS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AS THE MAIN CONTRIBUTOR TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN NIGERIA KEY CONCERNS MORE THAN 8O% OF INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA DISCHARGE LIQUID, SOLIDS AND GASEOUS WASTES DIRECTLY INTO THE ENVIRONMENT WITHOUT ADEQUATE TREATMENT THAT MEETS THE BASIC STANDARDS WASTE TREATMENT FACILITIES ARE EITHER NON-EXISTENT OR ARE OLD AND OBSOLETE INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE ARE DISPOSED OF IN ENVIRONMENTALLY INSECURE DUMPSITES MOST TIMES IN MIXED FORMS KEY CONCERNS CONT’D:  KEY CONCERNS CONT’D SOME OF THE INDUSTRIES LACK THE WHEREWITHAL TO ENGAGE IN SOUND ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES COLLOSAL FINANCIAL LOSS RESULTING FROM POOR POLLUTION MANAGEMENT BY INDUSTRIES THE HIGH POLLUTING NATURE OF THE NIGERIAN INDUSTRY MAKES THEM UNATTRACTIVE TO FOREIGN INVESTORS Making Environmental Pollution Management A Wealth-Generating Venture NIGERIAN INDUSTRIAL SECTORS AND THEIR IMPACTS:  NIGERIAN INDUSTRIAL SECTORS AND THEIR IMPACTS IRON AND STEEL Water - Suspended Solids, Ammonia, Cyanides, Phenols, Heavy metals and organic pollutants, oil and grease, phosphates, chlorides etc Air - Particulate matter, SOX, Fume and Alkaline oxide emissions, Iron oxide, Acidic, salt flux and solvent fumes Main solid wastes – steel scrap, scarfing residues, refractory materials etc Industrial Sectors Cont’d:  Industrial Sectors Cont’d TEXTILES Wastewater – Dyes, Surfactants, oxidizing and bleaching agents, reducing agents, silicates, inorganic salts, oils, greases, waxes, chromium, zinc, lead, copper etc Solid waste – Fabric and fiber solid waste Air – Fibers, dust and volatile synthetic fibers Industrial Sectors Cont’d:  Industrial Sectors Cont’d FOOD AND BEVERAGES Organic wastes leading to suspended solids, ph and BOD problems TANNERIES - Chromium, Suspended solids, Acids, Nitrogen compounds, sulphides, vegetable tannings, oil and grease Industrial Sectors Cont’d:  Industrial Sectors Cont’d PETROLEUM & PETROCHEMICALS Air Pollutants – Carbon monoxide, particulates, Nitrogen oxides, organic acids, sulphur oxides, hydrocarbons, ammonia, aldehydes Water – oil and grease, heavy metals (Chromium, nickel, cadmium, copper) Industrial Sectors Cont’d:  Industrial Sectors Cont’d MINING FOR SOLID MINERALS - PARTICULATES, MINE TAILINGS, SURFACE AND GROUND WATER POLLUTIO FROM HEAVY METALS Industrial Sectors Cont’d:  Industrial Sectors Cont’d CEMENT Air- Cement kiln dust, particulates COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION :  COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION CONT’D:  COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION CONT’D COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION CONT’D:  COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION CONT’D OUR FRAMEWORK FOR POLLUTION MGT.:  OUR FRAMEWORK FOR POLLUTION MGT. Legal Framework Nigerian Constitution National Laws, Guidelines, Regulations, Edicts and Byelaws such as; - The National Policy on Environment - Act 42 of 1988 which makes it a criminal offence to import or trade in toxic wastes; - Regulations S. I. 8 and S. I. 9, which are the National Environmental Effluent Regulations and Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generating Waste Regulations. Legal Framework Cont’d:  Legal Framework Cont’d - National Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria - Regulation S. I. 15, 1991, is for the Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes - Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Decree 86, 1992 with its sectoral guidelines for Agricultural and Rural Development; Oil and Gas; Manufacturing; Mining, Beneficiation and Metallurgical Processes; and Infrastructures Slide23:  Institutional Framework Federal Ministry of Environment and its parastatal (i.e National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency) DPR State Ministries Responsible for Environment and Parastatals State Environmental Protection Agencies and similar institutions Slide24:  Funding Framework National, State and Local Government Budgetary Provisions Ecological Fund Multilateral and Bilateral Funding Assistance, World Bank Grants and Loans SOME KEY CONSTRAINTS :  SOME KEY CONSTRAINTS INSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS ENFORCEMENT AND MONITORING REGULATORY CAPACITY (FINANCIAL, PERSONNEL & TECHNICAL) INFORMATION INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC POLICY (eg taxes and subsidies, interest & exchange rates and commodity and waste pricing policies) FUTURE TRENDS:  FUTURE TRENDS Stronger Linkages between the following; Environment and Trade; Environment and Energy; Environment and Agriculture; Urbanization and Environment; Environment, Poverty Alleviation and Gender FUTURE TRENDS CONT’D:  FUTURE TRENDS CONT’D Other areas in which environment will be given considerable attention in future include: Tradable Commodities: Environment is likely to emerge as a tradable commodity e.g. Emission trading. Stock Exchange: Waste Stock Exchange where the waste of one process serves as the raw material for another may be created. Concession: Environmental investments may become concession issues. Waste to Wealth CHALLENGES:  CHALLENGES MAIN CHALLENGE IS TO PROVIDE APPROPRIATE ADMINISTRATIVE AND EFFECTIVE INSTITUTIONAL, LEGAL AND FUNDING ARRANGEMENTS THAT WILL MATCH THE EMERGING TRENDS GUIDING PRINCIPLE SHOULD BE GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES:  CHALLENGES Under-pinning economic development in accordance with the principles of sustainable development; Halting and reducing environmental degradation CHALLENGES:  CHALLENGES Creating mechanism for Evaluating Environmental Performance including Strategic Environmental Assessment: - State of National Environment Report - Developing Verifiable Performance indicators - Creating compliance/Monitoring Evaluation Mechanism THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION:  THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Slide32:  Delineation of environmental responsibilities and liabilities between and among nations. Development of an appropriate and effective Environmental Management Institutions which will be able to implement and mainstream environment into socio-economic development agenda in a better cross-linked manner than at present. Slide33:  Creating Mechanism to Sustain and Compensate Environment for goods and services it provides; Creating Mechanism to enable emergence of environment as a tradable commodity; Creating the enabling environment to encourage investment in environment protection and improvement activities.

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