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environmental opportunities for animal agriculture

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Information about environmental opportunities for animal agriculture
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Published on December 29, 2007

Author: Kestrel

Source: authorstream.com

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Working Lunch!:  Working Lunch! NACAA: July 17, 2007 Grand Rapids, MI Dave Beede Dept. Animal Science Michigan State University Environmental Opportunities for Animal Agriculture: Extension’s Critical Role:  Environmental Opportunities for Animal Agriculture: Extension’s Critical Role Dave Beede Two Questions ?:  Two Questions ? What are current and future environmental opportunities for animal agriculture? What should be and/or are Extension’s roles? http://www.mdr.msu.edu Overview:  Overview Working Lunch Two Questions (handout) ‘Systems Thinking’ in farms? Criteria for Evaluation of Agriculture Systems Potential Climate Revenue Centers, Market Opportunities Applied Research? Extension’s Current and Future Role Animal Farm:  Animal Farm ? Animal Farm:  Animal Farm ? Animal Farm……..:  Animal Farm…….. Dairy Farm (System):  Dairy Farm (System) Dairy Production System:  MSU Extension Dairy Team, 2006 Dairy Production System http://www.mdr.msu.edu Production Systems:  Production Systems Industry: Straight line production process Raw materials  product  replacement over time Highly efficient operations Little waste material resulting from process Agriculture: Circular flow of nutrients (cycle) Products and wastes leave cycle May re-enter cycle Human/societal waste, food residues, etc. Raindrops collect gases and particulates from air Sustainable (systemic), but not perpetual Industry vs. Agriculture Hoshiba, S. 2002. In: Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture Production Systems:  Production Systems ‘Industrial Agriculture’ Straight line production Import of some raw materials (feed, fertilizer, bedding) Raw materials  product  exported Quite inefficient (25 to 35% for animal products) Large amounts of waste; e.g., dairy……. ►(240 lb intake – 90 lb milk) = 150 lb out as manure Accumulation of nutrients (risk)? Not sustainable - Paradigm of industry is not directly transferable to agriculture Industry vs. Agriculture Hoshiba, S. 2002. In: Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture Dairy Production System:  MSU Extension Dairy Team, 2006 Dairy Production System http://www.mdr.msu.edu methane, ammonia methane, ammonia NRC (2003) Committee: Scientific Evaluation:  NRC (2003) Committee: Scientific Evaluation Commissioned by USDA and US EPA Percent of Total US Air Emissions NRC (2003) & Van Aardenne et al (2001):  Percent of Total US Air Emissions NRC (2003) & Van Aardenne et al (2001) The (single) farm as a system :  The (single) farm as a system Animals Manure FARM Farm boundary Environment Environment In- and outflow of nutrients:  In- and outflow of nutrients Crops Animals Manure Feeds The farm as a system Environment Environment Inorganic P Meat & Milk Emissions, runoff Emissions, dust Imports Exports The farm (F-x) as a sub-system:  The farm (F-x) as a sub-system F-4 F-1 F-6 F-8 F-7 F-3 F-5 F-9…. F-2 Environment Environment U.S. farms Outflows Inflows Systems are::  Systems are: Artificial – imposed by humans Hierarchical structure Systems of lower levels are sub-systems of higher levels Higher systems create new entities e.g., trade organizations, cooperatives, markets Systems are embedded in an environment Material and energy flows amongst each other Interact with each other The farm as a sub-system If the System is all livestock and crop farms, where does the Phosphorus in corn distiller’s grains come from?!:  If the System is all livestock and crop farms, where does the Phosphorus in corn distiller’s grains come from?! F-4 F-1 F-6 F-8 F-7 F-3 F-5 F-9… F-2 Specific example of systems-approach Answer::  Answer: Specific example of systems-approach Origin of P accumulating in U.S.-Agricultural System Net phosphorus flow:  Net phosphorus flow Not added to the system by corn distiller’s grains Just not re-distributed evenly Inflow of P to the system Mined inorganic P (feed, fertilizer) May not (does not!) counterbalance P outflow U.S.-agricultural system P in Distiller’s Grains:  P in Distiller’s Grains Dairy industry takes on an industrial waste product (DGs) and transforms (part of) it into a valuable product (milk). Who is the polluter? Who is the (re)mediator? Question: Environmental cost?! Who is and should be responsible? Criteria of evaluation?:  Criteria of evaluation? Kawakami et al., 2000. Agricultural production systems Criteria of evaluation?:  Criteria of evaluation? Profitability, economic efficiency Bottom line for farms (sub-systems) Input of fossil fuel (energy) Net addition of CO2 Environmental load (P, C, N; chem. species?) Animal welfare Human welfare (social benefit) Agricultural production systems Kawakami et al., 2000. How to assess these? They may not affect bottom line directly. Cost of environmental load:  Cost of environmental load Time lag Partially ‘exported’ into ‘environment’ (the community) Who is responsible for cost of environmental ‘clean up’? e.g., from EtOH production? Up-front cost (prevention) cheaper? How is farmer paid for compliance? Cheap food policy vs. environmental protection?? Climate/ environmental market potential for farmers? Agricultural production systems Dynamic over time:  Dynamic over time The farm as a subsystem Environment Environment Exploring the Environment: N-S-P-E-C-T:  Exploring the Environment: N-S-P-E-C-T System Technological Energy Military Information and Media Mech., Transport & Manufact. Cultural Lifestyle, Leisure & Entertmt Religion & Spirituality Literature and Art Fashion Ethics Economic Taxation Global Trade Income Distribution Inflation & Interest Rates Political Prevailing Ideologies Forms of Government Political Leadership Constitution Social Social Organizations Laws, Order & Regulations Health, Safety & Security Pop. Dynmcs & Employ Natural Biodiversity Resources Climate Adapted from R. Bawden, MSU System evolves over time:  System evolves over time System embedded in environment Forces from environment System affects environment N-S-P-E-C-T perspectives Actions within the system Strategy: Actively affect environment (vs. passively being affected) Predicting the Future:  Predicting the Future Anticipate changes and developments in the system and its environment Goal: Prepare farm (sub-system) for future success CHALLENGE: “Try to avoid getting the future wrong vs. the impossible task of getting it absolutely right.” R. Bawden: Scenario Planning as an Experiential Exercise in Social, Reflexive and Transformational Learning “Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future” – Niels Bohr:  “Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future” – Niels Bohr “Heavier-than-air machines are impossible.” – Lord Kelvin, 1895, British mathematician, physicist, and President of the Royal Society “I think that there is a world market for about 5 computers.” – Thomas Watson, 1943, Chairman of IBM “We don’t like their sound. Groups with guitars are on their way out.” – Decca Recording executive, 1962, on turning down the Beatles for a recording contract Cerf and Navasky, 1984. The Experts Speak. Pantheon Books. Predicting the future?? Factors of future scenarios:  Factors of future scenarios Predicting the future using N-S-P-E-C-T Impact Uncertainty Low Low High High Critical cohort of influences R. Bawden: Scenario Planning as an Experiential Exercise in Social, Reflexive and Transformational Learning Examples for dairy farming:  Examples for dairy farming Predicting the future using N-S-P-E-C-T Role of THE Extension Educator?:  Role of THE Extension Educator? Recognizes changes  progressive ‘Imagine into existence’ future scenarios Anticipates (N-S-P-E-C-T): social benefits, potential climate/environmental profit centers, exchanges, etc., etc.? ~ Initiates proactive change Anticipates regulations ~ Initiates pro-active change ~ Mediator between farmers & scientific community Slide34:  Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) Richard Sandor 2003 New source of revenue?:  New source of revenue? CCX: monitoring, reporting, verification:  CCX: monitoring, reporting, verification ENVIRONMENTAL CREDIT CORP. SUPPLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CREDITS TO GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS:  ENVIRONMENTAL CREDIT CORP. SUPPLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CREDITS TO GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS Cows Produce Credits for Coala:  Cows Produce Credits for Coala American Electric Power Co., (AEP) Columbus, OH Coal Burning: produces 145 million tons CO2 / year Dairy and Swine Farms Dairy cow Produces 365 m3 CH4/year; (potency: CH4 = 21x CO2 ) 5 tons of CO2 equivalent; or 5 CO2 credits/year Via Anaerobic Digestion farms capture and destroy 5 CO2 credits/year per cow; burn methane for power - - - - - - a Wall Street Journal, June 14, 2007 Cows Produce Credits for Coala:  Cows Produce Credits for Coala American Electric Power Co., (AEP) Columbus, OH Coal Burning: produces 145 million tons CO2 / year AEP to buy 600,000 CO2 credits/year from ~ 200 dairy and hog farms 0.4% of AEPs annual global-warming emissions Real reductions (1 to 5%/year) mandated Dairy and Swine Farms Dairy cow Produces 365 m3 CH4/year; (potency: CH4 = 21x CO2 ) 5 tons of CO2 equivalent; or 5 CO2 credits/year Via Anaerobic Digestion farms capture and destroy 5 CO2 credits/year per cow; burn methane for power - - - - - - a Wall Street Journal, June 14, 2007 Michigan Conservation & Climate Initiative:  Michigan Conservation & Climate Initiative MCCI provides access to US market for C offset credits for producers & landowners (CCX) Joint Project: MI Assoc. Conservation Districts, MDA, Delta Insitute Conservation tillage, permanent grass plantings, tree planting, anaerobic manure digesters Supported by: MI Corn Marketing & Growers Assoc., MDEQ, MFB, MNLA, PF, USDA Farmer Service Agency, USDA NRCS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Percent of Total US Air Emissions a NRC (2003) & Van Aardenne et al (2001):  Percent of Total US Air Emissions a NRC (2003) & Van Aardenne et al (2001) Emissions measurements:  Emissions measurements Newly established MSU Animal Air Quality Research Facilities Strategies to reduce CH4 and NH3 pre- and post-excretion  Climate Credits Experimental Approach Discussion! ---------------------------------- :  Discussion! ---------------------------------- Two Questions ?:  Two Questions ? What are current and future environmental opportunities for animal agriculture? What should be and/or are Extension’s roles? http://www.mdr.msu.edu beede@msu.edu Thanks!:  Thanks!

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