Environmental Hazards

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Information about Environmental Hazards

Published on November 19, 2008

Author: maliadamit

Source: slideshare.net

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

Formation of tropical storm & area where they produce greatest hazard.

Tropical cyclone affect on coastal area & prediction.

Mass movement can be hazardous. The processes involved in a landslide viz. unconsolidated rocks (clay, sands) often resting on a mantle of more solid rock accompanied by the build up of ground water overloading the slope. Pore water pressure May force the particles apart in a sliding mass, promoting flowage. Rotational slide can occur after heavy rain whilst the lower part of the slope becomes highly mobile and forms mudflows. They are hazardous when close to settlements and the slopes are subjected to catastrophic slope failure (e.g.debris and ice avalanches consequent upon earth tremors). Human activities (dumping of waste, seepage from reservoir walls) can also trigger massive slope failure (e.g. Aberfan, Italy).

The processes involved in a landslide viz. unconsolidated rocks (clay,

sands) often resting on a mantle of more solid rock accompanied by the

build up of ground water overloading the slope. Pore water pressure

May force the particles apart in a sliding mass, promoting flowage.

Rotational slide can occur after heavy rain whilst the lower part of the

slope becomes highly mobile and forms mudflows. They are hazardous

when close to settlements and the slopes are subjected to catastrophic

slope failure (e.g.debris and ice avalanches consequent upon earth

tremors). Human activities (dumping of waste, seepage from reservoir

walls) can also trigger massive slope failure (e.g. Aberfan, Italy).

Processes that could bring about a landslide & become hazardous.

Types and causes of hazard resulting from tectonic movements.

Hazard caused by volcanic eruption Volcanic eruptions are of various types, which should be described. Each provides different types of hazard extending from molten lava and pyroclastic bombs to the far more lethal pyroclastic flows. Explosive volcanoes (e.g. Santorini) are extremely hazardous when molten lava mixes with sea water. Hazards are not limited to the immediate product of the volcano, but include other attendant features such as tsunami, landslides and mud flows. Good use of examples. (12-15)

Volcanic eruptions are of various types, which should be

described. Each provides different types of hazard

extending from molten lava and pyroclastic bombs to the

far more lethal pyroclastic flows. Explosive volcanoes (e.g.

Santorini) are extremely hazardous when molten lava

mixes with sea water. Hazards are not limited to the

immediate product of the volcano, but include other

attendant features such as tsunami, landslides and mud

flows. Good use of examples. (12-15)

Distribution of earthquake & volcanic hazards.

Nature and causes of earthquakes

Responses of natural hazards in different areas. How risks are perceived by different people in terms of differing hazards can be explored. The balance between perceived risk, e.g. a one in one hundred year earthquake event as against a one in ten year flood. Even where risks are perceived (i.e. understood by the population) it still may not deter human occupation of hazardous areas, e.g. California, flanks of Vesuvius or Bangladesh flood plain. This is because of other physical properties of these areas that make them attractive to human occupation. Long range fatalism or short term gain can be responses. Actions will be affected by the relative wealth of the population, e.g. California as against Bangladesh Central America. (15-12)

How risks are perceived by different people in terms of differing hazards

can be explored. The balance between perceived risk, e.g. a one in one

hundred year earthquake event as against a one in ten year flood. Even

where risks are perceived (i.e. understood by the population) it still may not

deter human occupation of hazardous areas, e.g. California, flanks of

Vesuvius or Bangladesh flood plain. This is because of other physical

properties of these areas that make them attractive to human occupation.

Long range fatalism or short term gain can be responses. Actions will be

affected by the relative wealth of the population, e.g. California as against

Bangladesh Central America. (15-12)

Managing the occupation of a hazardous environment.

Prediction natural hazards. Earthquakes - monitoring seismic waves through seismographs and estimating slippage along faults. Production of hazard maps etc. but still with limited accuracy. Timing is more difficult to predict than location. Volcanoes - observatories (e.g. Vesuvius) observe volcanic activity, use seismographs, tilt meters etc. Hurricanes, tornadoes - analysis of upper air data, radar tracking and general forecasting techniques. Mass movement - tilt meters, analysis of slope composition. Avalanches - weather prediction and monitoring of snow depth and structures.

Earthquakes - monitoring seismic waves through seismographs and

estimating slippage along faults. Production of hazard maps etc. but

still with limited accuracy. Timing is more difficult to predict than

location.

Volcanoes - observatories (e.g. Vesuvius) observe volcanic activity, use seismographs, tilt meters etc.

Hurricanes, tornadoes - analysis of upper air data, radar tracking and general forecasting techniques.

Mass movement - tilt meters, analysis of slope composition.

Avalanches - weather prediction and monitoring of snow depth and

structures.

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