Environmental Economics

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Information about Environmental Economics
Education

Published on November 10, 2008

Author: aSGuest2936

Source: authorstream.com

ECON 4910 Spring 2007 Environmental Economics Lecture 7, The RAINS modelMemorandum No 37/99 : RAINS 1 ECON 4910 Spring 2007 Environmental Economics Lecture 7, The RAINS modelMemorandum No 37/99 Lecturer: Finn R. Førsund Background : RAINS 2 Background Transboundary pollution First UN 1972 conference on the human environment: States have ...the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other states or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Background, cont. : RAINS 3 Background, cont. OECD: The Polluter Pays Principle, PPP. OECD /UNECE: Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, LRTRAP EMEP : Co-operative programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe. Results of LRTRAP : RAINS 4 Results of LRTRAP The first sulphur protocol; the Helsinki Protocol, 1985, uniform reductions of 30% The RAINS model 1983 - : Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation The second sulphur protocol; the Oslo Protocol, 1994: non-uniform reductions up to 80% The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone, up to 88% reductions in 2010 compared with 1990 The RAINS model : RAINS 5 The RAINS model Cost-efficient reductions of emissions of substances generating acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone for a future year The RAINS model consists of Transport coefficients from source to environmental receptor Target loads for each receptor Purification cost functions for a set of pollutants emitted by a source (country, region) Environmental receptors:EMEP grids of Europe : RAINS 6 Environmental receptors:EMEP grids of Europe Source: Country Assumption: Spatial distribution of emissions constant Receptor: A map grid of 50x50 km Consequence: many different ecosystems within each receptor Transfer coefficient average value for a year over a number of years . i j 50 km 50 km aij Source Receptor . Trajectory Transport coefficient Critical loads : RAINS 7 Critical loads Repeated deposition that will not create significant damage of the ecosystem in the long run Interpretation of significant damage: Ecosystem functions ok, reproduction ok Priority problems within a grid Cannot aggregate ecosystems Critical classification survival-no survival Deriving environmental targets based on critical loads : RAINS 8 Deriving environmental targets based on critical loads Too expensive to apply critical loads as environmental objectives Deposition gap closure for a receptor Closing the gap between a benchmark deposition do and a critical load CL5% corresponding to killing 5% of the ecosystem area Target deposition d* Deposition gap closure illustrated : RAINS 9 CL1 do Deposition gap closure illustrated CL cumulative distribution Deposition/ hectar 100% 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 5% Ecosystem area in % CL5% d* Gap closure Deriving targets based on area gap closure : RAINS 10 Deriving targets based on area gap closure Reducing unprotected area Aij with a certain percentage Unprotected area: share of ecosystem area with depositions above critical loads Protected area: share of ecosystem area with depositions below critical loads Finding max dj* satisfying Area gap closure illustrated : RAINS 11 8 Area gap closure illustrated CL cumulative distribution Deposition/ hectar 100% 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ecosystem area in % d* do Accumulated Average Exceedance (AAE) gap closure : RAINS 12 Accumulated Average Exceedance (AAE) gap closure AAE focuses on the exceedance in each ecosystem of a grid-cell The target for AAE as a x % gap closure AAE principle illustrated : RAINS 13 8 AAE principle illustrated CL cumulative distribution Deposition/ hectar 100% 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ecosystem area in % AAE* do Exceedance

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